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"The Purloined Letter" By Edgar Allan Poe - Essay - 2540 Words

The purloined letter essay

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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. To be an effective teacher is to invest yourself into letter making a difference in the lives of the students you teach. An effective teacher inspires his/her students with the importance of advantages learning and the freedom of creativity. They provide opportunities for learning by managing information in a way that allows students to attain knowledge and to essay, intellectually, socially, physically, emotionally and spiritually develop to their full potential (Barry and King, 1998:6). Teachers however are not superhuman, though some may think they should be. Teaching is a vocation that requires constant updating of knowledge content and introduction teaching skills (pedagogy); constantly re-evaluating and the purloined letter essay striving for better methods to accommodate student learning. Teaching does not predetermine learning: teacher effectiveness is therefore dependent upon the symbiotic relationship which exists between content knowledge and pedagogical ability; one can not exist in do you essay isolation of the other. We can write a custom essay on Learning for you!

A teacher can have all the letter knowledge in a long speech the world but if they can not teach it they will be ineffective teachers, conversely, a teacher may have great teaching skills, but limited content knowledge and therefore will also be an the purloined letter essay ineffective teacher. Consequently “[…] effective teaching requires at its baseline individuals who are academically able, who have command of the subject they are required to teach [and] who can produce results, mainly those of student academic achievement and social learning.” (Killen, 1995:18) The effective teacher draws from globalization this notion that teaching is an art and a science. By combining the science of education with the art of intuition effective teachers endeavour to understand and consider how the construction of letter essay knowledge, classroom management, relationship with the students and lastly the role of reflection, are central to a student’s ability to process and make meaning from the learning experience. Malcolm (1995, June:3) asserts “Generally the guidelines research paper way we teach is the purloined letter essay consistent with our deeply embedded beliefs about learning.” Munroe reinforces this in his predictions “[that] exposure to a systematic exploration of the learning process by arsenic essay, teachers increases the display of effective teaching behaviours and attitudes to learning” (Munro,10, 2:152,1999). Therefore central to effective teaching is an essay understanding of the in my essay'' construction of knowledge. Recent cognitive research recognises that the the purloined essay learner must engage and actively construct their own meaning; this asserts that a students ability to learn is influenced by attend essay, their existing knowledge, and is therefore achieved by connecting new units of information to his/her own existing beliefs (Barry and King, 1998:28). The Purloined Letter. Learning however often requires more than just making connections of old ideas to advantages, new ones; it sometimes requires the student to restructure their thinking radically. That is, to incorporate the new idea the learner must change the connections amongst the thing they already know. In some instances in order to assimilate the information some learners will distort the information to fit what they already know or reject the information altogether. This research has a number of the purloined letter implications for the effective teacher, especially in light of Munro’s assertion that the impact upon existing knowledge of the learner depends upon the extent to which the teacher is able to activate certain ‘learning functions’; Munro identifies key ‘learning functions’ that impact on globalization and disadvantages essay the existing knowledge of the the purloined letter learner as: “[…]having a reason or purpose for learning, being in a state of ‘cognitive conflict’ having an impression of the outcome or goal of the learning [and] reviewing what has been learnt.” (Munro,10. 2:152,1999).

This has explicit implications for bullying for spm the effective teacher: • Give students plenty of the purloined opportunity for in my room essay'' miller guided and independent practice with new concepts and skills. • Use techniques such as advanced organiser, key questions and prediction to prepare students for the purloined letter learning. • Use content that supports all types of learners, such as text, video, audio or multimedia. • Provide clear and focused instruction, emphasise key points and check student understanding that avoids digression. • Provide feedback and reinforcement regarding their learning progress. • Ask higher order questions and give students time to answer. • Provide regular and focused reviews of key concepts and guidelines research paper skills throughout the year to check on and strengthen student understanding. • Encourage both action and reflection on the part of the learner. • Provide real-world scenarios that arouse student’s interest and curiosity. (Curriculum Frameworks Document, 1998:33-39. Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and essay examples on Learning topics are traced by letter essay, plagiarism detection systems. All samples online are plagiarized. Don#8217;t download them and submit them as your own paper for school, college or university. Why not to in my room essay'', get a 100% original custom essay at PapersMart.net?

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"The Purloined Letter" By Edgar Allan Poe - Essay - 2540 Words

resume thomas rea Cases - assaults - actus reus. D went to a railway station looking for letter essay V there had been animosity between the two of them. There was evidence that V feared serious violence if D found him. V left his train and room miller was electrocuted trying to cross the tracks. There was no evidence that D had issued any threats or that as a result of his demeanour V could have naturally assumed that he was at risk. Held : There was no unlawful act in letter, standing on a platform looking into arsenic essay trains, and the conviction could not be sustained even if V's belief were true. There was insufficient evidence for a jury to conclude that an assault had been committed. [Assault – exceeding rules of essay game not always an assault] D caused a serious leg injury during a tackle during an amateur football match.

The tackle was said to have been late, unnecessary, reckless and high up on the legs. D stated that that whilst the tackle may well have been ‘hard’, it was a fair sliding tackle in do you attend school, the course of play, resulting in unintended accidental injury. Most sports had their own disciplinary procedures that would cater for the purloined essay improper behaviour on pitch. Physical injury was an inevitable risk of sport, and arsenic essay those participating consented to such injury. Even conduct outside of the rules of the game may not be criminal. An instinctive error, reaction or misjudgement in the heat of a game was not to be equated with criminal activity. ^[Assault – mens rea - specific intent needed for Sec 18] D pushed a girl to the ground, and he and an accomplice attacked those who came to help her. D slashed one man with a razor, causing severe wounds to his head and chest, and was charged with wounding with intent.

Per curiam: In directing a jury in relation to a charge under s 18 of 1861 Act it is unnecessary for the judge to explain the meaning of ‘intent’. He should direct the jury that what has to be proved is. (2) the wounding was deliberate and without justification; (3) it was committed with intent to letter essay, cause really serious bodily harm, and. (4) the test of the intent is subjective. ^[Assault - Sec 18 drunken intent – drunken mens rea] D1 and D2, cousins severely beat D1's father who had gender reassignment and caused the for spm young men embarrassment. They had been drinking, and caused her nasty injuries. Held : Intention to the purloined, be judged objectively. Not subjectively from the stand point of the victim. In a case requiring a specific intent, such as a s 18 offence.

Did D have specific intent? D was drunk and introduction research that if, because he was drunk, he did not intend or may not have intended to the purloined, cause the requisite degree of harm, then the defendant is entitled to be acquitted. ^[Assault – jury to research paper, decide if foresight sufficient to be intent] D wounded, with intent to the purloined letter, cause grievous bodily harm, by a long speech driving his car directly at three men. Held : Foresight that serious harm would probably happen is not the same as intention to cause grievous bodily harm and following R v Moloney , the step from foresight to the purloined letter essay, intention was one of inference to be taken by the jury not by the judge. On the facts of the instant case no reasonable jury could have come to any other conclusion. ^[Assault – inflict GBH includes psychiatric harm] D a naval petty officer inflicted grievous bodily harm to V after she broke off their relationship.

D refused to accept this and began to follow her, telephone her, write menacing letters to her, and call at her home. V suffered severe clinical depression as a result. Held : Lord Steyn said inflict includes inflicting psychiatric rather than physical injury. A Long Speech! Even where no physical violence is applied directly or indirectly to the purloined essay, the body of the victim. ^[Assault - ABH - includes psychiatric harm but not emotions – escape case] D subjected V to questioning about the in my essay'' miller theft of a ring belonging to D's fiance. D then dragged V upstairs to a room and locked him in. V feared D's return and injured himself when he fell to the ground escaping through a window. Actual bodily harm includes psychiatric injury but does not include emotions, such as fear or panic.

ABH does not include states of mind that are not themselves evidence of some identifiable clinical condition. Only expert evidence to this effect should be made to the jury regarding psychiatric injury. Per curiam : the phrase state of mind is unscientific, confusing and should be avoided when considering whether psychiatric injury has been caused. ^[Assault - transmitting disease - not an the purloined, offence by a long speech husband] D knew, but his wife did not know, that he was suffering from gonorrhoea, he had connection with her, that the result was that the disease was communicated to essay, her, and that, had she been aware of his condition, she would not have submitted to essay, the intercourse. Held : D's conduct did not constitute an offence.

^[Assault - definition of the purloined letter - apprehension of immediate force - mens rea is recklessness or intention - everyday jostling is not assault] D refused to speak to a policewoman. Bullying! The WPC took hold of D's arm to restrain her. D scratched the WPC's arm. 'An assault is an act which causes another person to apprehend the infliction of immediate, unlawful, force on his person; a battery is the the purloined letter essay actual infliction of in my miller unlawful force on the purloined letter another person . Want Attend School Essay! any touching of another person, however slight, may amount to battery.' Consent is a defence to battery; and most of the physical contacts of ordinary life are not actionable because they are impliedly consented to by all who move in society and so expose themselves to the risk of bodily contact… it is more common nowadays to treat…everyday jostling…as falling within a general exception embracing all physical contact which is generally acceptable in the ordinary conduct of daily life.

The vicissitudes of everyday life were also considered in Wison v Pringle . ^[Assault - Sec 47 - actus - sufficient proximity -psychological damage from letter essay, fear of arsenic toxicology essay violence - – lose interpretation of ‘immediate’ – can include words alone] D wished to form a relationship with V who did not reciprocate. D followed V sent her more than 800 letters, telephoned her on numerous occasions, only speaking sometimes, watched her house from his car and wrote on her door. V suffered from the purloined letter essay, a clinical state of depression and school for spm anxiety. Held : It was not essential that the victim was able to see the potential perpetrator of the violence. The Purloined Essay! Conduct accompanying words was capable of making the words an a long speech, assault. The fear was of violence sufficiently immediate to letter essay, be described as the fear of immediate violence. [Assault - continuing acts, no need to specify particular event] D had ended his relationship with Sandra he made silent phone calls, frequently lurked or prowled around outside her flat and allegedly left underneath a dustbin lid on toxicology the front doorstep a severed chicken's head on a bible.

He threatened her by drawing his finger across his throat twice. Before she was due to go on holiday, he telephoned her telling her that she was going to her death and that he could smell burning. The calls could be traced to the purloined letter, Lymington and New Milton, not far from where Sandra worked. Medical evidence showed it had caused her actual bodily harm in the forms of bullying for spm anxiety, depression, distress, insomnia and loss of weight. Held : It is absurd to suggest that the jury should have to consider each telephone call, one by one, but might that the majority of the purloined letter essay them were made by school D, the jury must be asked to apply their common-sense. [Assault - slashing clothes on the purloined letter person is an assault] D slashed P's clothes with a knife.

Held : It is an assault on a man's person to inflict injury to essay, the clothes on his back. In the ordinary case of a blow on the purloined letter essay the back there is advantages and disadvantages clearly an assault, even though the blow is received by the coat on the person. ^[Assault - biological GBH] D infected two women with HIV. Knowing he was infected he persuaded them to have unprotected sex; he did not warn them that he was infected. Held : Guilty of causing grievous bodily harm. Sentenced to 8 years.

[Assaults – GBH – inflicting HIV is GBH, although consent should be considered by the jury] D was convicted on essay a retrial because he infected a woman with HIV – so called biological GBH – (s 20). His appeal in want, 2004 resulted in the retrial, the Court of letter Appeal ruling that the original trial judge should have allowed the jury to consider consent as a defence. At the retrial the judge followed the Court of Appeal ruling at the earlier appeal. 4 ˝ years imprisonment was held not to be excessive. ^[Assault – Sec 20 - recklessness and globalization advantages malice (intention) are not the same] D shot V with an letter essay, air rifle believing that it had run out of pellets.

Magistrates said that he genuinely believed that he had used the last pellet. He ignored the risk that it might be loaded and so D was reckless. Held : In Caldwell, malice and recklessness were clearly distinguished. To prove malice the prosecution must show D actually foresaw that a particular kind of harm might be done to a long speech, his victim, in this case he had not. ^[Assault – malicious wounding – mens rea need be proximate to injury – indirect force]

D wounded a police officer by releasing his dog and told it to kill that man. The dog went up to letter essay, P, knocked him over, and essay'' miller bit him on the leg. D argued that the dog's act was the result of its natural exuberance. Held : A charge of the purloined letter malicious wounding might in principle be appropriate in such a case, there is a need to find some act of the want attend school defendant, committed with the necessary mens rea, that had been the proximate cause of V's injury. The actions of D were not connected to the actions of the dog, if they were the dog could be viewed as a weapon. ^[Assault – some actions are not hostile] Doctors sought permission to sterilise a 36-year-old woman with a mental age of five, who had become sexually active but who because of her condition she was incapable of letter giving informed consent; other forms of globalization advantages and disadvantages contraception were inappropriate. ….a man who seizes another and forcibly drags him from the path of an oncoming vehicle, thereby saving him from injury or even death, commits no wrong. He doubted any requirement of the purloined essay hostility such as was suggested in guidelines, Wilson v Pringle : a prank getting out of hand, or an over-friendly slap on the back, or surgery carried out by the purloined a doctor who mistakenly thought he had the patient's consent - any touching without lawful excuse, in fact - was capable of being an assault. The vicissitudes of everyday life.

Again it is well settled that most of the a long speech almost inevitable physical contacts of letter everyday life: the jostling experienced by travellers on public transport or indeed by pedestrians on busy pavements, the touching to obtain attention, the congratulatory slap on the back and the unwelcomely firm handshake: all are lawful. ^[Assault - phone calls - apprehension of globalization and disadvantages immediate force] D's (separate trials) made a large number of the purloined essay telephone calls to bullying, women and remaining silent when they answered. A psychiatrist stated that as a result of the letter repeated telephone calls each of them had suffered psychological damage. Held : Inflict bodily harm as used in sections 20 and 47 included the school bullying for spm infliction of psychiatric injury on the purloined another and did not mean that whatever caused the a long speech harm had to be applied directly to letter, the victim. An assault might be committed by words or gestures alone, depending on the circumstances; and that where the making of a silent telephone call caused fear of immediate and unlawful violence; the caller would be guilty of an assault. an assault can consist of any act causing the victim to apprehend an immediate application of force upon her. The views expressed in school bullying, Meade Belt's Case , were expressly rejected.

The proposition that a gesture may amount to an assault, but that words can never suffice, is letter unrealistic and indefensible. A thing said is also a thing done , and there is no reason why something said should be incapable of causing an apprehension of immediate personal violence. A telephone caller who says in a menacing way I will be at your door in a minute or two can certainly be guilty of an assault if he causes the globalization and disadvantages victim to apprehend immediate personal violence, and there is the purloined letter no reason why a caller who creates the same apprehension by remaining silent should not also be convicted. ^[Assault - wounding or GBH - actus reus ] D shot V with an room miller, air gun. The pellet hit V near the the purloined essay eye, resulting in a bruise below the eyebrow and fluid filling the front of his eye. Held : A wound is a break in globalization essay, the continuity of the whole skin; an internal rupturing of the blood vessels is not a wound. Not Guilty of wounding. [Assault - causing GBH with intent – sentence] Held : Six months' imprisonment, imposed on a rugby player who bit another player's ear during a match between two police teams.

^[Assault - ABH - harm caused indirectly – indirect force] D placed acid in a hot air drier (the nozzle was pointing upwards) to hide it from his teachers at Stowe School. Essay! V then used the drier and in my essay'' miller the acid caused burns on letter essay his face. Held : Parker LJ: D had. . just as truly assaulted] the next user of the machine [V] as if [D] had himself switched the essay'' machine on. If the charge was simply battery, it is not necessary to prove harm. [Assault – if none, no unlawful act - actus Reus of battery] D and letter a friend V were playing with a revolver. In the chamber there were two bullets, but neither was opposite the hammer when D, in jest, pointed the gun at V and pulled the a long speech trigger. The Purloined! The chamber rotated and arsenic toxicology essay V was killed. Held : Since V shared in the joke and did not feel threatened (since both believed the gun to be safe) there was no assault and hence no unlawful act to support D's conviction for manslaughter.

^[Assault - wilfully - action not aimed at police - mens rea ] D wilfully obstructed a police constable in the execution of the purloined essay his duty by essay opened the rear door of the purloined police van to ask his friend where he was being taken (D and his friend were drunk). Held : A person wilfully obstructed a police constable in the execution of his duty if he deliberately did an act which, though not necessarily aimed at or hostile to toxicology, the police, in fact prevented a constable from carrying out his duty or made it more difficult for him to do so, and if he knew and intended that his conduct would have that effect; Not Guilty but would be now. ^[Assault and battery - correct indictment] Information alleged that: 'D . did unlawfully assault and batter V.' Held : D's conviction was quashed for duplicity (meaning two bites at the cherry). Section 39 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988, provides that 'common assault and battery shall be summary offences,' deals with two offences, one of assault and the other of battery. An allegation that the defendant did 'assault and batter' was, in respect of one event, bad for duplicity. The word 'assault' must, by virtue of the the purloined essay contrast with 'batter' be taken as used in its pure sense of school bullying for spm putting in fear of force

Obiter, that in section 47 [Parliament employed] 'assault' as including the use of force, for without force it would only be in a most unusual case that an assault could occasion actual bodily harm. [Assault – threat sufficient – even if means not present] D showed V, a customs officer a replica gun that would not fire in a drawer and the purloined letter essay told her he would hold her prisoner until money owing him was repaid. Held : It was enough that V had reasonable cause to a long speech, fear that force was about to the purloined, be inflicted on her; the conditional nature of the implied threat, and the fact that D had neither the means nor the intention of carrying it out, were irrelevant. [Assault includes battery] D detained for toxicology essay shoplifting struggled in essay, the manager's office, and in my room spat in letter essay, a police officer's eye. D argued that s40 (power to join in indictment count for common assault) did not cover battery. drafting of the 1988 Act is a mess, and they must have meant to include battery in s40 as well as in s39. Battery is advantages and disadvantages hard put to exist independent of assault; there isn't even a verb to express it. So assault in the purloined letter, normal usage includes battery. Henry LJ; stated that the present state of the law concerning non-fatal offences against the person ‘is yet another example of how bad laws cost money and clog up the courts with better things to do’ ^[Assault - wounding or GBH - actus reus ] D returned home in a bad temper and in frustration, threw a container containing cleanser at in my room miller, his wife.

The cleanser was acid based and the purloined letter essay badly injured her face. In my opinion . . . the word 'cause' is wider or at essay, least not narrower than the letter essay word 'inflict. .' Thus, 'causing grievous bodily harm under s 18 … includes 'inflicting grievous bodily harm' under s 20; it was open to a jury to convict a defendant charged under s 18 of the alternative offence of inflicting grievous bodily harm, contrary to s 20. Not Guilty of arsenic toxicology Section 18 Guilty of Section 20. [Assault - actus reus of battery = inflicting unlawful personal violence - intentionally or recklessly – indirect force] D, as a joke, placed an iron bar in a theatre across an exit, turned out the lights on the purloined essay a staircase and yelled 'Fire!'. As a result, several people were injured. Lord Coleridge CJ:

The prisoner must be taken to have intended the natural consequences of that which he did. An assault as such was not essential to the offence; some unlawful act and the foresight of do you want school harm would be enough. Inflict meant no more than cause and did not require a face-to-face assault. [Assault – words and singing not sufficient] D1 and D2 fired a pistol killing V. D1 had angered local boatman by informing the letter Customs of attend their smuggling. The Purloined Letter Essay! The smugglers threatened to a long speech, come at night and burn down his house. In the middle of the night they came singing songs of the purloined menace; Held : No words or singing alone could amount to an assault justifying shooting in a long speech, self-defence, but invited the the purloined jury to consider whether any actions were also performed.

D2 was acquitted. D1 Guilty manslaughter. ^[Assault - ABH - actus reus - includes injury to state of mind] D had non-consensual sexual intercourse with his wife, after which she was in a hysterical and advantages nervous condition. 'Actual bodily harm includes any hurt or injury calculated to interfere with the health or comfort of the prosecutor. There was a time when shock was not regarded as bodily hurt, but the day has gone by when that could be said. It seems to me now that, if a person is caused hurt or injury resulting, not in essay, any physical injury, but in arsenic essay, an injury to the state of essay his mind for the time being, that is within the definition of actual bodily harm. Not Guilty of rape. ^[Assault - amount of a long speech force] D a publican wounded V during an attempt to throw him out. Held : A wound was excessive force.

^[Assault - GBH - actus reus - assault, battery – indirect force] D was seized by a woman police officer. The Purloined Letter! The WPC told D she was arresting him. D then dived through a windowpane dragging the WPC through the a long speech glass. The WPC suffered serious facial cuts. Held : Sect 18 requires an unlawful and the purloined letter malicious wounding with intent to resist the lawful apprehension of the introduction guidelines research paper person.

Not Guilty of the purloined letter essay Section 18. ^[Assault - GBH - mens rea - intentional or reckless causing of some physical harm] D struck V several times, knocking him unconscious. Essay! D's companion had taken money from V. V had seized D by the lapels and demanded to letter essay, know where D's companion was.

Held : Intention or recklessness as to the wound or GBH need not be proved. It is enough that [D foresaw] . that some physical harm to some person, albeit of introduction guidelines paper a minor character, might result. The intent expressly required by s 18 of the letter essay Offences against the Person Act 1861 is more specific than the element of school foresight of consequences implicit in the purloined, the word 'maliciously' in that enactment, and in directing a jury on a long speech this offence the word 'maliciously' is best ignored; in the offence of unlawful wounding (Offences Against the Person Act 1861 s 20), the word 'maliciously' imports, on the part of the person who unlawfully inflicts the wound or other grievous bodily harm, an awareness that his act may have the consequence of causing physical harm to some other person. Guilty of wounding. [Assault – transferred malice – cannot be transferred to a different offence] D broke a pub window. D picked up a stone and threw it at the group of men he had been fighting, missed them and broke the window behind them. Held : His malice in intending to the purloined letter essay, strike another person could not be transferred to an intention to break the window. Obiter: He could have been convicted had it been proved that he was reckless, having foreseen the risk of damage to introduction research, the window. [Assault - mens rea - intention as to consequences]

D attacked V with a hammer and strangled her, causing injury. You must feel sure that the defendant intended to cause serious bodily harm to the purloined letter essay, the victim. Arsenic! You can only decide what his intention was by considering all the relevant circumstances and in the purloined, particular what he did and what he said about it . There is essay no restriction to cases of virtual certainty.' (citing Lord Bridge in Moloney ) Guilty of Sec 18. [Assault – words accompanied by the purloined letter actions sufficient] D and his men surrounded P, rolling up their sleeves, and threatened to do you want attend, break P's neck if he did not leave. P was a rent collector who entered D's workshop and refused to go until the rent was paid. Held : This was an assault: the condition attached to the threat was not enough to nullify it. [Assault – mens rea – did D (or would D, if sober) foresee the consequences] DD two students lifted another over a balcony and dropped him about 12 feet to the ground, causing him serious injuries.

During horseplay following an evening's drinking. Held : Clarke LJ said that the the purloined essay question was not what another person would have foreseen but what DD themselves would have foreseen had they been sober. ^[Assault - escape cases - ABH - occasioning refers to guidelines, causation - not the assault] D in a car with V a not inexperienced 21 year old woman. They were travelling between two parties.

D made advances towards V who then jumped out of the car (travelling at 20 mph), sustaining injuries. Occasioning in the purloined letter essay, ABH relates to causation, and is an objective test. If the (common assault) was intentional there is no need to consider Recklessness. The proper test for occasioning is not whether D actually foresaw the conduct of the victim which resulted in the actual bodily harm, but whether that conduct could have reasonably been foreseen as the consequence of what he was saying or doing. ABH requires proof of an assault together with actual bodily harm occasioned by arsenic the assault. The prosecution are not obliged to prove that D intended to cause some actual bodily harm or was reckless as to whether such harm would be caused. The victim's reaction does not break the chain of causation if it was reasonably foreseeable, that is it was not. . Letter Essay! so daft . Advantages And Disadvantages! or so unexpected . The Purloined Essay! that no reasonable man could be expected to foresee it' thereby constituting a novus actus interveniens. ^ [Assault - actus reus - inactivity by D - an bullying for spm, omission can amount to the actus reus of an the purloined letter essay, assault]

D injured a woman police officer by allowing her to search him, knowing he had hypodermic needles in his pockets which stabbed her. D denied having any needles or sharps when asked. D had “ created a danger by an act … that act was a continuing act ”. The risk of injury was foreseeable. Not guilty but would be now. Comment : The police woman was not infected by advantages and disadvantages HIV or hepatitis present in the defendant's blood.

[Assault - meaning of grievous bodily harm] D, on a road at night, approached a stranger who was sitting resting at the roadside, asked him what the problem was and, when the victim said that there was no problem, D said that he would give him one and punched him in essay, the face. The victim suffered a broken nose and other injuries. Held: The origin of the phrase really serious injury was DPP v Smith [1961]: Bodily harm needs no explanation. ‘Grievous’ means no more and no less than really serious.. A broken nose on do you want attend any view was serious bodily harm,

Commentary (L. Norman Williams, Barrister.) The word really is, as the Oxford Dictionary has it, used to essay, emphasise the truth or correctness of an epithet or statement. It means no more than actually or as a matter of fact. In the context it does not add anything to serious but emphasises to the jury that the room miller harm caused must be - actually or really - serious. ^[Assault - ABH - actus reus of ABH and mens rea of common assault - not intention or recklessness] D intentionally threw beer at V (a former girlfriend of her husband). The glass left her hand and struck V, causing a cut. P roughly handled his child, causing the breaking of arms and essay legs. Held : Throwing the beer would clearly have been an assault. The offence requires an actus reus of in my essay'' miller assault causing bodily harm and essay the mens rea for common assault.

The intent required in s 47 relates not only to globalization and disadvantages, the assault, but also to the consequences of the assault, . maliciously in a statutory crime postulates foresight of consequence. the physical harm which the defendant intended or foresaw might result to the purloined letter essay, some person need only be of globalization essay a minor character for him to the purloined essay, be Guilty and it is a long speech unnecessary for the Crown to show that he intended or foresaw that his unlawful act might cause physical harm of the gravity described in letter essay, s 20, ie either wounding or grievous bodily harm. P Not Guilty of GBH. Guilty of ABH. ^[Assault – actus reus – cutting hair is ABH] D caused actual bodily harm to V by cutting off her pony tail. Guidelines Research Paper! D went to the home of his ex-partner and cut of letter her pony tail with kitchen scissors. The magistrates accepted that there was no actual bodily harm; the DPP appealed. Held : Cutting off a person’s hair amounted to ABH. A Long Speech! Harm was not limited to injury to the skin, flesh and the purloined essay bones and room essay'' extended to hurt and the purloined letter essay damage.

That the hair cut was dead tissue was not relevant. Obiter: If paint or some other unpleasant substance were to be put on a victim’s hair that would to could amount to actual bodily harm. R v Donovan [1934]; R v Chan-Fook [1994]; R v Stephen Cook (unreported, 28 July 1994, CA) and R (on the application of T) v DPP [2003] considered. ^[Assault - meaning of grievous bodily harm] D trying to escape from the toxicology essay police in a car was signalled to stop. He did not do so. Letter Essay! A PC jumped onto bullying essay, the car’s bonnet. D drove at high speed, swerving from side to essay, side, until the a long speech officer was thrown off and killed. Held : Viscount Kilmuir LC; I can find no warrant for giving the words “grievous bodily harm” a meaning other than that which the words convey in their ordinary and natural meaning. “Bodily harm” needs no explanation and “grievous” means no more and the purloined letter essay no less than “really serious”. We consider that the same is globalization true of the phrase “actual bodily harm”.

These are three words of the English language which require no elaboration and in the ordinary course should not receive any. Essay! The word “harm” is a synonym for injury. The word “actual” indicates that the injury (although there is no need for school bullying for spm it to the purloined essay, be permanent) should not be so trivial as to be wholly insignificant. In the essay first place, the the purloined essay word bodily does not limit harm to bullying, the flesh, skin and bones. The Purloined! The body of the victim includes all parts of his body, including his organs, his nervous system and brain. Bodily injury therefore may include injury to any of those parts of do you attend school essay his body responsible for his mental and other faculties. The phrase actual bodily harm is capable of including psychiatric injury, but it does not include mere emotions such as fear or distress or panic, nor does it include, as such, states of the purloined letter essay mind that are not themselves evidence of some identifiable clinical condition. The phrase which is introduction paper often used to the purloined letter essay, explain actual bodily harm – interference with the health or comfort of the victim – is likely to result in the jury thinking that this is sufficient, whether or not any injury has occurred; it should not be used.

Guilty of murder. ^[Assault - apprehension of immediate force] D frightened V by globalization advantages looking through her bedroom window late at night. V a policewoman was absolutely terrified, to the purloined essay, the extent that she was very nervous and jumpy for a few days afterwards. Held : D assaulted V as V apprehended unlawful personal violence. [Assault – mens rea – recklessness – Cunningham]

D caused ABH by shooting a 7-year-old girl with an air pistol. He was firing from the essay'' miller window of his flat, aiming at a target in letter, the yard below. V was playing in the yard D had not known she was there. Held : Recklessness as envisaged in Venna was clearly subjective recklessness (that is, that D foresaw the risk but went ahead regardless), because the judgement in Venna speaks of recklessness and intention as being often almost indistinguishable. [Assault – threatening actions sufficient] D advanced towards V with his fists raised but was stopped by another person before coming within striking range. Following an a long speech, argument. Held : It was enough that V was put in the purloined letter essay, apprehension even though the battery (the actual striking) never occurred. [Assault – no mens rea because of drunkenness] D, in a drunken state stabbed V causing GBH, during a fight outside a pub. He was charged under s.18, but the prosecution and the Recorder accepted a plea to s.20.

Held : Although the absence of mens rea due to drunkenness would be a defence to introduction guidelines, a crime of the purloined letter essay specific intent, that drunkenness would have to be very extreme to justify reducing a s.18 offence to s.20. [Assault – must be indecent - assault is - merest touch] D, a school caretaker assaulted a 12-year-old after taking hold of the hem of her skirt. Held : The act was not inherently indecent and there was no evidence of circumstances making it so. There could be no dispute that if you touch a person's clothes while he is wearing them, that is equivalent to touching him. ^[Assault - apprehension of immediate force] D struck V causing him to loose an eye.

D had placed his hand on do you want school his sword and said to V that, If it were not assize-time, he would tell him more of his mind. V ‘defended himself’ when there had been no assault, D's response was to the purloined, remove V's eye. Held : As the and disadvantages judges were in town D would not have used force on letter V. No assault, finding for globalization advantages and disadvantages essay D. [Assault - actus reus of battery] D a schoolboy, in fun seized the bag over C's shoulder, causing him injury, and C sued for the tort of assault. Held : C must establish an intentional and hostile touching of one person by another, though not necessarily an intent to injure. A claimant who cannot prove hostility on the defendant's part is likely to essay, fail, because in a crowded world people must be considered to take upon themselves some risk of injury from the lawful acts of others. ^[Assault - mens rea is want attend recklessness or intention] D struggled with the police officers who were arresting him. Essay! D fell to the ground and lashed out want essay, wildly with his legs, fracturing a bone in the hand of an officer.

The offence of battery is satisfied by essay proof that the defendant intentionally or recklessly applied force to the person of another. [Assault - words and actions sufficient] D threatened and kicked gatekeeper, calling out a long speech, Get out the knives. D was found poaching and the gamekeeper tried to arrest him. Obiter: Lord Goddard CJ; Words such as those were capable of letter essay being an assault on attend essay their own, even without any accompanying acts. Guilty of common assault. [Assault - ABH. sec 20- actus reus ] D, whilst driving, nearly ran down V. D got out of letter his car and punched V in the face.

Held : An infliction of grievous bodily harm contrary to s 20 may be committed without establishing first an assault. Lord Roskill, citing Salisbury (1976). [G]rievous bodily harm may be inflicted . either where the accused has directly and violently inflicted it by assaulting the victim, or where the accused has inflicted it by doing something, intentionally, which, though it is not itself a direct application of force to school bullying for spm, the body of the victim, does directly result in force being applied violently to the body of the victim, so that he suffers grievous bodily harm.

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"The Purloined Letter" By Edgar Allan Poe - Essay - 2540 Words

4 CIO Resume Builders to letter essay, Get Ahead. One of the arsenic toxicology most important things that you can do is highlight work or projects that have been done in conjunction with other non-technical/information related business units, explained Paul Peterson, National Talent Resource Manager, Human Resources at Grant Thornton. For example, write 'in conjunction with marketing developed strategy that #133;' or 'co-led finance project to #133;' The goal is to showcase your understanding of the business outside of your traditional role. The win is the difference between mastering a single brush stroke and being able to make an entire picture out of the paint of your experience. But how do you show command of the big picture when you've been busy mastering details? Connect the detail dots to paint a broader view for the powers-that-be to consider. Take, for example, a data governance program: If a CIO can articulate the business problems and stakeholders who were served by the purloined letter essay, the program, then the CIO is demonstrating three C-Suite skills: 1) the ability to deliver value from data assets, 2) balancing the needs of business units against essay, the overall health of the the purloined letter enterprise, 3) resisting the room allure of technology-based partial fixes in favor of a sustainable, systemic solution, said Gwen Thomas, president and founder of the purloined essay The Data Governance Institute.

Look at your accomplishments with a fresh perspective. Where have you worked with other business units? What was the outcome? How did your technology choices move the company ahead (as opposed to just keeping the lights on)? Find the business result of every decision you made and speak to that on your resume. But don't leave your career advancement strictly to the strength of your resume. Spend time with various business unit heads and learn what their obstacles are.

Offer suggestions. Be helpful. In short, make sure they remember you in a fond light and essay'' miller, as a true profit-driven leader rather than as head of a drag-along cost center. These are the people you'll one day need as references and allies. Further, one of them may move up to a position where they can help you advance too. Board members and recruiters alike know that there are essentially two-types of essay CIOs: the techie and guidelines research, the visionary.

The techie knows technology inside-out whereas the visionary knows business outside-in. The techie can connect anything by wire or wireless. The visionary connects business units and goals by way of technology. Business-driven CIOs are rare and hard to find as most CIOs are individuals who entered the technology field because they are passionate about technology, not business, said Richard Meuris, partner at Nick Pierce Associates in Atlanta. The Purloined! A top-notch CIO will be passionate about in my miller reaching revenue, profit and other overall business goals through the use of technology, which is why he looks at resumes with an eye-peeled for letter a laundry list of business skills and globalization advantages and disadvantages, pretty much ignores any CIO resume chock full of technology terms. Another rare talent boards of directors and recruiters look for in a potentially promotable CIO is a well-honed ability to communicate. Too many CIOs are comfortable only speaking geek but it's the CIO that can speak confidently to the purloined letter essay, a non-techie group, make persuasive presentations, blog and write well that wins the essay for spm higher seat. Your resume is your pitch for why you deserve a promotion.

Great attention should be paid to how your resume reads and looks if you want to be a serious contender for that coveted position. It's more than just skills that are crucial to include when a CIO is vying for the purloined the C-Suite; it's how those skills are presented, said Adriana Llames, veteran career coach and author of Career Sudoku: 9 Ways to Win the Job Search Game . First, it's important to consider your resume in all its many forms: as a paper and a long speech, digital file, a LinkedIn account, descriptors on social media accounts, and the bio on your blog postings. Make sure each contains top keywords and the purloined letter essay, shiny details of arsenic toxicology essay business acumen. Remember always that the powers-that-be in your own company are reading what you post. If done right, your credentials may earn you an the purloined internal promotion or a lateral move that can aid you on your path to miller, the C-suite. While it's not impossible to move from a CIO role into a non-IT role within another organization, it is much easier strategically to gain additional experience by moving into new functions internally, within one's current company, said Howard Seidel, partner at the purloined essay, Essex Partners, a career advisory firm specializing in senior executive and a long speech, C-level career management. The traditional resume is still the most important consideration in the final promotion or hiring decision so make sure yours is up-to-date in terms of content and the purloined letter, form. Professional recruiters and career coaches say as many as four pages are acceptable but it is the one-pager that gets the want school essay most attention.

Decision-makers for C-suite new hires don't like a lot of letter detail but they want to know what the person has accomplished -- actual results in past positions, which gives them a very good idea as to what the guidelines paper person can accomplish in the new promotion, said Richard Deems, career coach and author of the purloined letter thirteen books on arsenic toxicology, key management issues. Deems said the perfect one-pager resume begins with a brief (three to five lines) summary of past results, each beginning with an action word such as increased, reduced, negotiated, developed, reorganized, etc. This is followed by letter, short descriptions of past results either by advantages essay, category: leadership, profit growth and reduced costs; or, categorized by the purloined letter essay, past employment. That is followed by a brief blurb on a long speech, your education. Lastly is the purloined letter essay, a segment Deems calls the What Others Say section. This is three or five -- always an uneven number -- statements that others have said about the person, usually with attribution. Keep all resume forms up-to-date and become as visible as possible both online and off.

But be careful how you go about it, because there is and disadvantages essay, one more thing experts say is the purloined letter essay, absolutely in demand from a C-suite candidate: they want a person who won't rock the boat, said Deems.

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essay on seminar The Seminar Paper. A good seminar paper fulfills two important functions. First, it reflects the author’s development in the course for the purloined letter which it was written. It demonstrates the author’s intellectual progress and meets, as closely as possible, the professor’s expectations for a term paper. Second, a good seminar paper fits into the author’s scholarly trajectory. However relevant to the individual’s specialization, it should generate ideas, skills, research, and questions that contribute to his or her overall scholarly project. Though these functions point, as it were, in opposite directions, they arise from the necessary assumption that seminars constitute the foundation for all future academic work. More than any other genre, quality seminar papers can motivate and structure dissertation inquiry.

A Rhetorical Situation. We can’t avoid the rhetorical nature of a long speech, seminar papers. Like most academic activity that counts for something, these essays come with certain expectations, many of which the professor, the primary audience, determines. The Purloined? Thus the basic characteristic of a seminar paper is advantages and disadvantages that there are no consistent characteristics but only letter a set of variables contingent upon each professor’s understanding and agenda. A Long Speech? Though we might bemoan having to adapt our (obviously brilliant) ideas to the demands of the purloined letter essay, a particular reader or readers, it’s worth remembering that academic life consists wholly of just that kind of advantages and disadvantages, adaptation. It may seem silly to specify the expectations of letter, a given professor, but doing so provides a structure within which an essay’s ideas can develop. Common conceptions of seminar papers include those thought of as. - a nascent version of a future publication, complete with thorough knowledge of secondary criticism, footnotes, and bibliography; - a highly informed and detailed exploration of a single primary text; a glorified close reading; - an application of the skills and knowledge the a long speech seminar is intended to transmit, referring to the texts, theories, or approaches covered during the semester; - a very specific type of paper with a pre-defined structure or purpose (e.g., an application of a particular theory to a particular text); - an opportunity to pursue individual inquiries, however unrelated to the course’s topic. Each of these various conceptions entails necessary practical steps. If a professor expects mastery of a body of the purloined letter, secondary criticism, for example, then it’s wise to survey that criticism and keep notes, perhaps even formalized annotations, on the materials you read.

That way, when you sit down to globalization advantages essay write the letter essay, you have already established a critical context in which to begin your own inquiry. The funny thing about seminar papers is do you want essay that although it’s easy to distinguish the different sorts and to approximate which sort a professor has in mind, a truly excellent seminar paper could fit into letter every sort. This over determined quality is what makes the seminar paper different from the other academic genres. Do You School? The best seminar papers, in letter other words, manage to do whatever their reader expects them to do, regardless of who that reader is guidelines paper or what s/he expects the paper to do. That peculiar, Protean quality makes it difficult to see any real value or purpose in writing seminar papers. Essay? A paper that does everything, it seems, does nothing. And many, perhaps most, papers never again see the light of cognitive day after a professor reads them.

They quickly enter the realm of vague, barely retrievable reference, so that years later you’ll find yourself saying to students, “I think I wrote a paper on Moby Dick once.” You can avoid this miserable middle age only by striving to make use of seminar papers, or rather, to let them do more than simply earn a grade. They must somehow contribute to your intellectual development and future work, but that contribution needn’t be anything specific. Guidelines Paper? Not every seminar paper will become a published article or a chapter of your dissertation (if you go that route), though some might. The Purloined Letter Essay? You could use a paper to. - complete research, either primary or secondary, that you will use later.

You might, for example, write a paper on modern British poets in order to familiarize yourself with the introduction guidelines research paper library’s resources. - develop a set of letter essay, ideas in continuation with previous or contemporaneous papers. You might write an essay on Stoicism one semester and Neostoicism the do you school essay next. - experiment with or develop new methodologies. Perhaps you only tried Marxism as a joke in college and want to the purloined letter see how it really works.

- get a good idea of the scholarly conversation around certain texts. - read, think about, and write about texts you would not have otherwise attended to. Maybe you’ve always wanted to read Burton’s The Anatomy of Melancholy and just couldn’t find the time. - develop an idea for a conference paper. Toxicology? This is an especially useful purpose if you’re confident in an idea but not confident enough to submit it for publication. - think toward your master's thesis or dissertation.

- start a relationship with a professor. The Purloined Letter Essay? Visiting office hours wouldn’t hurt either. - write a draft of attend, your MA Thesis, an especially advisable purpose if you don’t feel confident about writing the entire Thesis in a single semester. Whatever you do in a seminar paper, it’s important to letter essay do something with it, to make it do something for you. Below is a series of in my room miller, practical tips for writing excellent seminar papers, even in difficult semesters. Start early: If you start your essay the week before it’s due, it will fulfill neither of its main functions. Though you may be an letter essay excellent writer of last-minute papers, you won’t be able to essay craft your inquiry to letter satisfy the professor’s requirements fully and essay, completely, nor will the essay aid your overall progress. It will simply take up space on letter, your hard drive. The best papers begin in the first half of the semester with questions and introduction, ideas. In-depth primary and essay, broad secondary reading progress together in the two months before the deadline, and outlining and bullying essay, drafting takes place over the last month of classes.

Occasionally, professors will ask for paper presentations in the weeks before the deadline, still another reason to begin early. Set time goals: Accordingly, give yourself artificial deadlines. If you’re writing the paper in the Fall semester, it will be due around mid-December. The Purloined Letter? You might spend October reading primary and secondary texts, November focusing your ideas and developing outlines and drafts, and December revising and finalizing. Don’t let the a long speech professor be the first to the purloined letter read it: Graduate school is, if anything, a collaborative experience. Make a point to room essay'' miller discuss paper ideas with your fellow seminarians. Trade drafts and outlines as you work on them, soliciting feedback from letter your peers before you seek it from the professor. A Long Speech? It makes little sense for the professor, the person who will grade it, to be the the purloined essay first to see a paper. Have ONE idea with purpose: Many of us mistakenly try to arsenic toxicology essay take up too large a topic for a single 20-30 page essay.

Doing so prevents the paper from demonstrating any real mastery and from contributing to scholarly impetus. Instead, take a single idea, one main question, and explore it extensively. Footnotes and bibliography: Even if a given professor doesn’t require footnotes or knowledge of secondary criticism, it’s still good practice to include it. Try to situate yourself in the current conversation over the texts that concern your paper. That way, when you do try to turn the letter essay essay into an article or chapter, that essential component will already be built in.

Be honest: All but the a long speech least rational professors understand the pressure each semester presents, and they recognize that you are teaching and writing two other papers at the same time as you’re writing one for their course. It’s safe to be honest about the limits of your time. If, for letter essay example, you recognize while writing that you need to cover a certain text but don’t have time to do it well, include a footnote to explain the situation, stressing what the section would do if you had time to do it. Besides showing that you recognize what a complete argument looks like, you’ll also have a good place to start revision in the future. Reflect the learning of the course: Even if your essay diverges widely from the course’s topic, it should somehow gesture in that direction, perhaps in footnotes. Cite at least one theorist: Get over your rabid formalism (if you ever had any). You don’t have to become a hard theorist, nor do you have to sacrifice emphasis on the text, to write a theoretically informed essay. Citing a theorist or using theory to articulate a point can give your paper a sophistication it would probably otherwise lack.

“A word may be a fine-sounding word, of an unusual length, and very imposing from its learning and novelty, and paper, yet in the connection in which it is introduced may be quite pointless and irrelevant. It is not pomp or pretension, but the adaptation of the expression to the idea, that clinches a writer's meaning.” William Hazlitt, “On Familiar Style” We almost always focus our writerly efforts on argument and method—and quite rightly, because content makes up the the purloined letter essay soul of academic life. Want School Essay? But we often emphasize argument at letter essay, the expense of clear, strong prose, mimetic as it can be, active and exact, self-conscious and purposeful. Essay'' Miller? Poststructuralism correctly taught us not to rely on the relationship between words and letter essay, things, yet that relationship is still the only means for in my essay'' signification (or significance).

Put another way, the world may be an essay unclear, insoluble, contradictory place, yet writing needn’t simply surrender to unclarity. Clear writing, however ultimately unstable, indicates clear thought: only when you articulate ideas with precision have you mastered them. Dismayingly, many English graduate students simply don’t know how to write strong academic prose. They often seem unaware that quality writing results more from discipline and continual revision than from preternatural ability. Far too many first drafts, far too little revision. Writing, like a muscle, strengthens with continual use, its sinews most solid when worked with purpose and action.

You owe your ideas the service of in my essay'' miller, your best writing, and the purloined essay, those who will judge your work—professors, fellowship and in my essay'', award committees, journals, university presses, tenure review boards—will perceive your ideas through the medium of your style. To be sure, the ideas cannot exist but within the medium. Academic writing centers on action, on the assumption that things (whether texts, characters, forms, authors, readers, cultures) do or enact some function. The Purloined Letter? Richard Lanham, author of Revising Prose (see below), encourages writers to ask “Who’s kicking who?” to specify what action the elements of a given sentence perform. Do You Want Attend Essay? This action provides the backbone, the foundation, of a sentence or piece of prose. Letter? For example, we might reword the static sentence, “The seven books of the Harry Potter series have intriguing effects on readers emotionally” to specify the action taking place and, as a consequence, the introduction guidelines research paper subject and objective complement: “The Harry Potter books intrigue the reader’s emotions” or “The Harry Potter books affect readers emotionally.” What seemed like one idea in the original sentence we reveal to the purloined letter essay contain two distinct ideas, and a long speech, the author can choose which action s/he was trying to convey. Essay? In this way and advantages and disadvantages, much more generally, academic writing revolves around verbs, and thus the choice of verb, the action around which the sentence (and the argument) builds, becomes the most important a writer makes.

You should, as Hamlet rightly says, “suit the essay action to toxicology essay the word, the. Other stylistic habits—the good to letter essay be practiced, the bad to advantages and disadvantages be shunned—appear below, adapted from a list titled “Suggestions for the Writing of Acceptable Essays,” given to letter this handbook’s authors by a long speech, Professor John Rumrich: - Eliminate weak and extraneous words, such as very , quite , rather , total(ly) , somewhat , and letter essay, the like. - Never use the passive voice if you can avoid it. - Avoid vague and attend school, wordy approaches to sentences, such as, o Another example of…is when… o It is important to note that… - Do not dangle modifiers; do not write such sentences as this one: “After presenting a scene of letter, darkness, the boat sits quietly on the Thames.” - Do not stack up great bunches of prepositional phrases; avoid such sentences as this one: An explanation of the introduction guidelines status of mankind with respect to the overall plan is followed by a consideration of the passions. - Do not use for , as , or since when you mean because . - Do not use the pronouns this , these , that , those , which , or it unless they have clear and letter essay, unmistakable antecedents. - However should not come at the first of and disadvantages, a sentence; place it deeper in the sentence: e.g., The irony in The Rape of the Lock , however, grows more complex than one might expect. - Semi-colons should be used in sentences composed of two independent clauses that are not connected by and , or , for , nor , yet , but . - Typed dashes are made of two hyphens and no spaces: Shelley—or rather the speaker—begins the stanza with an the purloined essay imperative.

- Avoid vague and static sentences built around the verb to be . Arsenic Essay? Instead of “Hamlet is representative of a new kind of character,” write “Hamlet represents a new kind of character.” Below is a helpful excerpt from Gerald Graff’s “Scholars and Sound Bites: The Myth of Academic Difficulty.” PMLA 115: 5 (October 2000), 1050-1. Do's and letter, Don'ts for academic writers. 1. Be dialogical. Introduction Research? Begin your text by directly identifying the the purloined prior conversation or debate that you are entering. What you are saying probably won't make sense unless readers know the conversation in a long speech which you say it. 2. Make a claim, the the purloined letter sooner the better, and flag it for the reader by a phrase like “My claim here is that [. . .].” You don't have to essay for spm use such a phrase, but if you can't do so you're in the purloined essay trouble. 3. Remind readers of your claim periodically, especially the more you complicate it. If you're writing about a disputed topic (and if you aren't, why write?), you'll also have to and disadvantages stop and tell readers what you are not saying, what you don't want to be taken as saying. Some of them will take you as saying that anyway, but you don't have to make it easy for them.

4. Summarize the the purloined objections that you anticipate can be made (or that have been made) against your claim. Remember that objectors, even when mean and nasty, are your friends--they help you clarify your claim, and they indicate why it is of interest to others besides yourself. If the objectors weren't out in my room essay'' miller there, you wouldn't need to the purloined letter say what you are saying. 5. Room Essay'' Miller? Say explicitly—or at least imply—why your ideas are important, what difference it makes to the world if you are right or wrong, and the purloined, so forth. Imagine a reader over your shoulder who asks, “So what?” Or, “Who cares about any of this?” Again, you don't have to arsenic essay write in such questions, but if you were to letter essay write them in and couldn't answer them, you're in trouble. 6. (This one is already implicit in several of the above points.) Generate a metatext that stands apart from your main text and puts it in perspective.

Any essay really consists of two texts, one in which you make your argument and a second in which you tell readers how (and how not) to read it. This second text is usually signaled by reflexive phrases like “I do not mean to suggest that [. . .],” “Here you will probably object that [. . Toxicology Essay? .],” “To put the point another way [. ],” “But why am I so emphatic on this point?,” and “What I've been trying to say here, then, is [. . .].” When writing is unclear or lame (as beginning student writing often is), the reason usually has less to do with jargon or verbal obscurity than with the absence of the purloined letter essay, such metacommentary, which may be needed to arsenic toxicology explain why it was necessary to write the essay. 7. Remember that readers can process only one claim at the purloined letter essay, a time, so there's no use trying to squeeze in secondary and tertiary claims that are better left for another book, essay, or paragraph or at least for another part of your book or essay, where they can be clearly marked off from your main claim. If you're an academic, you are probably so eager to prove that you've left no thought unconsidered that you find it hard to in my resist the temptation to letter say everything at once, and consequently you say nothing that is understood while producing horribly overloaded paragraphs and sentences like this sentence, monster-sized discursive footnotes, and readers who fling your text aside and turn on guidelines research paper, the TV. 8. Be bilingual.

It is not necessary to avoid academese—you sometimes need the stuff. But whenever you have to say something in academese, try to say it in the vernacular as well. You'll be surprised to find that when you restate an the purloined letter academic point in your nonacademic voice, the point is enriched (or else you see how vacuous it is), and you're led to new perceptions. 9. Don't kid yourself. If you could not explain it to your parents or your most mediocre student, the chances are you don't understand it yourself. None of what I have said in this essay should be mistaken for the claim that all academic scholarship can or should be addressed to a nonacademic audience.

The ability to do advanced research and the ability to explain that research to nonprofessional audiences do not always appear in the same person. Advantages And Disadvantages? To adapt a concept from the philosopher Hilary Putnam, there is the purloined letter essay a linguistic division of labor in which the work of research and essay, that of letter essay, popularization are divided among different people, as Friedrich Engels was rewrite man for Karl Marx. Yet even Marx's most difficult and uncompromising texts have their Engels moments—Engels could not have summarized Marx's doctrine if they did not. In short, it is time to rethink the view that the essay for spm university is not in the purloined the “gist business.” Many other books and aids have proven useful in a long speech improving academic style. Below are just a few: Griffith, Kelley. The Purloined Letter Essay? Writing Essays about Literature: A Guide and Style Sheet . Introduction Paper? Boston: Thomson, 2006.

Griffith’s study provides a nice introduction to writing on literary texts, though the the purloined essay guide speaks primarily to undergraduates. Lanham, Richard. Revising Prose . New York: Longman, 2000. Lanham’s book is a classic guide for making prose dynamic and clear. The book centers on the “Paramedic Method,” a set of discrete steps for articulating ideas as clearly and actively as possible.

The first two chapters, on “Action” and “Shape,” apply directly to most graduate student writing. Williams, Joseph M. Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace . New York: Longman, 2003. This guide offers a counterpoint of praxis to a long speech Lanham’s gnosis .