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The Future of Oil: Geology versus Technology - IMF
In Praise of Idleness - An anti- work essay by Ber. In Praise of paper Idleness. finds some mischief still for idle hands to do.' Being a highly virtuous. child, I believed all that I was told, and acquired a conscience which has. kept me working hard down to the present moment. But although my conscience. has controlled my *actions*, my *opinions* have undergone a revolution. Squall Cruel Angel's Thesis! I. think that there is oil research paper far too much work done in the world, that immense harm is. caused by the belief that work is virtuous, and that what needs to be.
preached in modern industrial countries is thesis research methods quite different from what always. has been preached. Everyone knows the story of the traveller in Naples who. saw twelve beggers lying in the sun (it was before the days of Mussolini), and offered a lira to the laziest of them. Eleven of them jumped up to claim. it, so he gave it to paper the twelfth. This traveller was on the right lines. But in countries that do not enjoy Mediterranean sunshine idleness is more.
difficult, and project life essay a great public propaganda will be recquired to oil research paper inaugurate it. I hope that, after reading the following pages, the hydroelectric power plant leaders of the Y.M.C.A. will start a campaign to induce good young men to do nothing. If so, I shall. not have lived in oil research vain. Before advancing my own arguments for laziness, I must dispose of plant essays one.
which I cannot except. Oil Research! Whenever a person who already has enough to live on. proposes to engage in some everyday kind of job, such as school-teaching or. typing, he or she is plan told that such conduct takes the bread out of other. people's mouths, and is therefore wicked. If this argument were valid, it. would only paper be necessary for us all to be idle in hydroelectric power plant order that we should all.
have our mouths full of bread. Paper! What people who say such things forget is. that what a man earns he usually spends, and in spending he gives employment. As long as a man spends his income, he puts just as much bread into other. people's mouths in spending as he takes out of other people's mouths in. earning. The real villain, from this point of view, is the man who saves. If he merely puts his savings in project life cycle essay a stocking, like the proverbial french. peasant, it is obvious that they do not give employment. Paper! If he invests his. savings, the matter is less obvious, and research different cases arise.
But, I shall be told, the case is quite different when savings is oil research paper to. lend them to some Government. Piano Squall Cruel Thesis! In view of the oil research fact that the bulk of the public. expenditure of most civilizations consists in payment for past wars or. preparation for future wars, the man who lends his money to a Governement is.
in the same position as the bad men in Shakespeare who hire murderers. The. net result of the man's economical habits is to increase the armed forces of. the State to which he lends his savings. Hydroelectric Power Essays! Obviously it would be better if he.
spent his money, even if he spent it in drink or gambling. But, I shall be told, the case is quite different when savings are. invested in paper industrial enterprises. When such enterprises succeed, and. produce something useful, this may be conceded.
In these days, however, no. one will deny that most enterprises fail. That means that a large amount of. human labour, which might have been devoted to something that could be. enojoyed, was expended on producing machines which, when produced, lay idle. and did no good to anyone. Plan! The man who invests his savings in oil research a concern that. goes bankrupt is therefore injuring others as well as himself. If he spent. his money, say, on giving parties for cycle, his friends, they (we may hope) would.
get pleasure, and so would all those upon whom he spent money, such as the. butcher, the baker, and the bootlegger. But if spends it (let us say) upon. laying down rails for paper, surface cars in some place where surface cars turn out. to be not wanted, he has diverted a mass of labour into channels where it. gives pleasure to life no one. Nevertheless, when he becomes poor through the. failure of his investment he will be regarded as a victim of oil research undeserved. misfortune, whereas the gay spendthrift, who has spent his money.
philanthropically, will be despised as a fool and a frivolous person. All this is only preliminary. I want to say, in all seriousness, that a great deal of harm is being done in the modern world by belief in the. virtuousness of work, and illustration purpose that the road to happiness and paper prosperity lies in. an organized diminution of work.
First of all: what is work? Work is of two kinds: first, altering. the position of matter at or near the earth's surface relatively to other. such matter; second, telling other people to do so. The first kind is. unpleasant and ill paid; the second is essay purpose pleasant and highly paid. The second. kind is capable of indefinite extension: there are not only those who give. orders, but those who give advice as to what orders should be given. Usually.
two opposite kinds of advice are given simultaneously by two organized bodies. of men; this is called politics. The skill required for this kind of paper work. is not knowledge of the subjects as to life which advice is given, but knowledge. of the art of persuasive speaking and writing, i.e. of advertising. Thoughout Europe, though not in America, there is a third kind of. men, more repected than either of the classes of workers. There are men who, through ownership of oil research land, are able to homework help make others pay for the privilege of. being allowed to exist and to work.
These landowners are idle, and I might. therefore be expected to praise them. Unfortunately, their idleness is only. rendered possible by the industry of others; indeed their desire for. comfortable idleness is historically the source of the whole gospel of work. The last thing they have ever wished is that others should follow their. From the beginning of civilization until the Industrial Revolution, a. man could, as a rule, produce by hard work little more than was required for.
the subsistance of himself and his family, although his wife worked at paper least. as hard as he did, and his children added their labour as soon as they were. old enough to do so. Essay Purpose! The small surplus above bare necessaries was not left. to those who produced it, but was appropriated by oil research paper warriors and thesis research methods priests. Oil Research! In. times of famine there was no surplus; the warriors and priests, however, still secured as much as at other times, with the result that many of the. workers died of hunger. This system persisted in Russia until 1917, (Since.
then, members of the Communist Party have succeeded to this privilege of the. warriors and priests.) and still persists in the East; in England, in spite. of the Industrial Revolution, it remained in full force thoughout the. Napoleonic wars, and until a hundred years ago, when the bt business plan new class of. manufacturers acquired power.
In America, the oil research system came to an end with the. Revolution, except in the South, where it persisted until the homework help Civil War. A. system which lasted so long and ended so recently has naturally left a. profound impress upon men's thoughts and opinions. Much that we take for. granted about the desirability of work is derived from this system, and, being pre-industrial, is not adapted to the modern world. Modern technique. has made it possible for leisure, within limits, to be not the prerogative of. small privileged classes, but a right evenly distributed throughout the. community. The morality of work is the morality of oil research slaves, and the modern.
world has no need of slavery. It is squall cruel thesis obvious that, in paper primitve communities, peasants, left to. themselves, would not have parted with the slender surplus upon which the. warriors and priests subsisted, but would have either produced less or. consumed more. At first, sheer force compelled them to produce and part with. the surplus. Gradually, however, it was found possible to essays induce many of. them to accept an ethic according to which it was their duty to work hard, although part of paper their work went to support others in idleness. By this. means the project life cycle essay amount of compulsion required was lessened, and the expenses of.
government were diminshed. To this day, 99 per cent of British wage-earners. would be generally if it were proposed that the King should not have a larger. income than a working man. The conception of paper duty, speaking historically, has beens a means used by the holders of power to induce others to live for. the interests of their masters rather than for their own. Of course the. holders of power conceal this fact from themselves by project cycle essay managing to believe. that their interests are identical with the larger interests of humanity.
Sometimes this is true; Athenian slave-owners, for instance, employed part of. their leisure in making a permanent contribution to civilization which would. have been impossible under a just ecnomic system. Oil Research! Leisure is essential to. civilization, and in research methods former times leisure for the few was only rendered. possible by the labours of the many. Paper! But the labours were valuable, not. because work is good, but because leisure is good.
And with modern technique. it would be possible to distribute leisure justly without injury to. Modern technique has made it possible to diminish enormously the. amount of labour required to secure the necessaries of life for research, everyone. This was made obvious during the war. At the time all the men in oil research the armed. forces, all the bt business men and paper women engaged in the productions of munitions, all. the men and homework women engaged in paper spying, war propaganda, or Government offices. connected with the war, were withdrawn from productive occupations. In spite. of this, the illustration purpose general level of physical well-being among unskilled.
wage-earners on the side of the Allies was higher than before or since. The. Significance of this fact was concealed by finance: Borrowing made it appear. as if the future was nourishing the oil research present. But that, of course, would have.
been impossible; a man cannot eat a loaf of bread that does not yet exist. The war showed conclusively that, by the scientific organization of. production, it is possible to keep modern populations in fair comfort on a. small part of the bt business plan working capacity of the modern world. If, at the end of. the war, the scientific organization, which had been created in order to. liberate men for fighting and munition work, had been preserved, and the. hours of work had been cut down to four, all would have been well. Instead. of that the old chaos was restored, those whose work was demanded were made. to work long hours, and the rest were left to starve as unemployed. Why?
because work is a duty, and oil research a man should not receive wages in proportion to. what he has produced, but in proportion to his virtue as exemplified by illustration essay his. This is the oil research morality of the Slave State, applied in circumstances. totally unlike those in which it arose. No wonder the thesis research methods result has been. disastrous. Let us take an oil research, illustraion. Suppose that, at a fiven moment, a. certain number of people are engaged in the manufacture of pins. They make.
as many pins as the workd needs, working (say) eight hours a day. Power Essays! Someone. makes an oil research paper, invention by which the same number of men can make twice as many. pins: pins are already so cheap that hardly any more will be bought at a. lower price. Piano! In a sensible world, everybody concerned in the manufacture of. pins would take to working four hours instead of eight, and everything else. would go on as before. But in paper the actualy world this would go on as before.
But in essay purpose the actualy world this would be thought demoralizing. The men still. work eight hours,thereare too many pins, some employers go bankrupt, and oil research half. the men previously concerned in making pins are thrown out of work. There is, in the end, just as much leisure as on the other plan, but half the men are. totally idle while half are still overworked. Piano Angel's! In this way, it is insured that. the unavoidable leisure shall cause misery all round instead of oil research paper being a. universal source of happiness. Can anything more insane be imagined?
The idea that the poor should have leisure has always been shocking. to the rich. In England, in the early nineteenth century, fifteen hours was. the ordinary day's work for a man; children sometimes did as much, and very. commonly did twelve hours a day. When meddlesome busybodies suggested that. perhaps these hours were rather long, they were told that work kept adults.
from drink and children from mischief. When I was a child, shortly after. urban working men had acquired the vote, certain public holidays were. established by law, to the great indignation of the upper classes. I remember. hearing an old Duchess say: 'What do the poor want with holidays? They ought.
to work.' People nowadays are less frank, but the sentiment persists, and is. the source of much of our economic confusion. Let us, for a moment, consider the life cycle essay ethics of work frankly, without. superstition. Every human being, of necessity, consumes, in the course of his.
life, a certain amount of the produce of human labour. Assuming, as we may, that labour is on the whole disagreeable, it is paper unjust that a man should. consume more than he produces. Of course he may provide services rather than. commodities, like a medical man, for essay, example; but he should provide something. in return for his board and lodging. To this extent, the duty of oil research work must be. admitted, but to plant this extent only.
I shall not dwell upon paper the fact that, in all modern societies outside. the USSR. many people escape even this minimum amount of work, namely all. those who inherit money and all those who marry money. I do not think the. fact that these people are allowed to be idle is nearly so harmful as the fact. that wage-earners are expected to overwork or starve. If the ordinary wage-earner worked four hours a day, there would be. enough for everybody, and no unemployment-assumiong a certain very moderate. amount of sensible organization. Hydroelectric Essays! This idea shocks well-to-do, because they. are convinced that the paper poor would not know how to essay use so much leisure.
In. America, men aften work long hours even when they are already well off; such. men, naturally, are indignant at oil research paper the idea of leisure for wage-earners, except. as the cycle essay frim punishment of unemployment; in fact, they dislike leisure even for. their sons. oddly enough, while they wish their sons to paper work so hard as to. have not time to be civilized, they do not mind their wives and hydroelectric power daughters. having no work at all.
The snobbish admiration of oil research paper uselessness, which, in an. aristocratic society, extends to both sexes, is, under a plutocracy, confined. to women; this, however does not make it any more in agreement with common. The wise use of leisure, it must be conceded, is a product of. civilization and life education. A man who has worked long hours all his life will. be bored if he becomes suddenly idle. But without a considerable amount of. leisure a man is cut off from many of the oil research paper best things. There is no longer any. reason why the bulk of the population should suffer this deprivation; only a. foolish asceticism, usually vicarious, makes us continue to insist on work in.
excessive quantities now that the need no longer exists. In the new creed which controls the adhd homework help government of Russia, while there. is much that is very different from the paper traditional teaching of the West, there are some things that are quite unchanged. Help! The attitude of the governing. classes, and especially of those who conduct educational propaganda, on the. subject of the dignity of labor, is almost exactly that which the governing.
classes of the world have always preached to what were called the 'honest. poor'. Paper! Industry, sobriety, willingness to work long hours for hydroelectric essays, distant. advantages, even submissiveness to oil research authority, all these reappear; moreover. authority still represents the will of the Ruler of the Universe, Who, however, is still called by a new name, Dialectical Materialism.
The victory of the project essay proletariat in Russia has some points in common. with the victory of the feminists in some other countries. For ages, men had. concealed the oil research the superior saintliness of women, and had consoled women for. their inferiority by power plant essays maintaining that saintliness is more desirable than. power.
At last the feminists decided that they would have both since the. pioneers among them believed all that the men had told them about the. desirability of virtue, but not what they had told them about the. worthlessness of political power. A similar thing has happened in Russia as. regards manual work. For ages, the rich and their sycophants have written in. praise of oil research 'honest toil', which have praised the simple life, have professed a. religion which teaches that the poor are much more likely to go to plan heaven than. the rich, and in general have tried to paper make manual workers believe that there. is some special nobility about altering the power plant position of matter in space, just. as men tried to oil research make women believe that they derived some special nobility.
from their sexual enslavement. In Russia, all this teaching about the. excellence of manual work has been taken seriously, with the result that the. manual worker is more honoured than anyone else. What are, in essence, revivalist appeals ar made, but not for the old purposes: they are made to. secure shock workers for special tasks.
Manual work is the ideal which is. held before the young, and is the basis of ethical teaching. For the present, possibly, that is thesis methods all to the good. A large country, full of oil research natural resources, awaits development, and has to be developed with. very little use of credit. Piano Cruel Thesis! In these circumstances, hard work is necesary, and. is likely to bring a great reward. But what will happen when the point has. been reached where everybody could be comfortable without working long hours? In the West, we have various ways of dealing with this problem. Paper! We.
have no attempt at economic justice, so that a large proportion of the total. produce goes to a small monority of the population, many of cruel thesis whom do no work at. all. owing to the absence of any central control over production, we produce. hosts of things that are not wanted. We keep a large percentage of the.
working population idle, because we can dispence with their labour by making. the others overwork. When all these methods prove inadequate, we have a war: we cause a number of people to manufacture high explosives, and a number of. other to explode them, as if we were children who had just discovered. fireworks. By a combination of all these devices we manage, though with. difficulty, to keep alive the notion that a great deal of severe manual work. must be the lot of the average man.
In Russia, owing to more economic justice and central control over. production, the problem will have to be differently solved. Tha rational. solution would be, as soon as the necessaries and elementary comforts can be. provided for oil research, all, to reduce the hours of labour gradually, allowing a popular.
vote to decide, at thesis research each stage, whether more leisure or more goods were to be. preferred. But, having taught the oil research paper supreme value of illustration essay hard work, it is difficult. to see how the authorities can aim at oil research a paradise in which present leisure is. to be sacrificed to future productivity. I read recently of an bt business plan, ingenious plan.
put forward by Russian engineers, for making the White Sea and the northern. coasts of oil research Siberia warm, by putting a dam across the Kara Sea. An admirable. project, but liable to postpone proletarian comfort for a generation, while. the nobility of toil is being displayed amid the ice-fields and snowstorms of. the Arctic Ocean. This sort of things, if it happens, will be the result of. regarding the virtue of hard work as an end in itself, rather than as a means. to a state of affairs in thesis methods which it is no longer needed. The fact is that moving matter about, while a certain amount of it is. necesary to our existence, is emphatically not one of the ends of human life.
If it were, we should have to consider every navvy superior to Shakespeare. We have been misled in this matter by two causes. Paper! One is the bt business necessity of. keeping the poor contented, which has led the rich, for thousands of paper years, to. preach the dignity of labour, while taking care themselves to remain.
undignified in this respect. The other is the new pleasure in mechanism, which makesus delight in the astonishingly clever changes that we can produce. on the bt business earth's surface. Neither of these motives makes any great appeal to. the actual worker. if you ask him what he thinks the oil research best part of his life, he is squall thesis not likely to oil research say: 'I enjoy manual work because it makes me feel that I. am fulfilling man's noblest task, and because I like to illustration essay think how much man can. tranform the plante. It is true that my body demands periods of rest, which I. have to fill in as best I may, but I am never so happy as when the morning. comes and I can return to the toil from which my contentment springs.' I have.
never heard working men say this sort of thing. They consider work, as it. should be considered, a necessary means to a livelihood, and it is from their. leisure hours that they derive whatevery happiness they may enjoy. It will be said that, while a little leisure is pleasant, men would. not know how to fill their days if they had only four hours of work out of. every the twenty-four. In so far as this is true in oil research paper the modern world, it is.
a condemnation of our civilization; it would not have been true at any period. There was formerly a capacity for light-heartedness and play which has been to. some extent inhibited by the culy of efficiency. The modern man thinks that. everything ought to be done for squall cruel, the sake of something alse, and never for its. own sake.
Serious-minded persons, for example, are continually condemning the. habit of going to oil research the cinema, and telling us that it leads the young into. crime. But all the work that goes to producing a cinema is respectable, because it is work, and because it brings a money profit. The notion that the.
desirable activities are those that bring a profit has made everything. topsy-turvy. The butcher who provides you with meat and the baker who. provides you with bread are praiseworthy, because they are making money; but. when you enjoy the food they have provided, you are merely frivolous, unless.
you eat only to get strength for your work. Broadly speaking, it is held that. getting money is good and spending money is bad. Seeing that they are two. sides of one transaction, this is bt business plan absurd; one might as well maintain that. keys are good, but keyholes are bad. Whatever merit there may be in the. production of oil research paper goods must be entirely derivitive from the advantage to be. obtained by consuming them. Illustration Essay Purpose! The individual, in paper out society, works for profit; but the social purpose of purpose his work lies in the consumption of what he.
produces. Oil Research! It is this divorce between the individual and bt business plan the social purpose. of production that makes it so difficult for men to think clearly ina world in. which profit-making is the incentive to industry. We think too much of. production, and too little of consumption. Oil Research! One result is hydroelectric power that we attach too. little importance to enjoyment and simple happiness, and oil research that we do not judge.
production by the pleasure it gives to the consumer. When I suggest that working hours should be reduced to four, I am not. meaning to imply that all the remaining time should necessarily be spent in. pure frivolity. I mean that four hours' work a day should entitle a man to. the necessities and elementary comforts of life, and that the rest of his time. should be his to use as he might see fit. It is an essential part of any. social system that education should be carried further than it usally is at. present, and should aim, in part, at providing tastes which would enable a man. to use leisure intelligently.
I am not thinking mainly of the sort of things. that would be 'highbrow'. Peasant dances have died out except in remote. areas, but the impulses which caused them to be cultivated must still exist in. human nature. The pleasures of adhd help urban populations have become mainly passive: seeing cinemas, watching football matches, listening to the radio, and so on. This results from the fact that their active energies are fully taken up with. work; if they had more leisure, they would again enjoy pleausres in oil research paper which they. took an bt business plan, active part.
In the past, there was a small leisure class and a larger working. class. Paper! The leisure class enjoyed advantages for which there was no basis in. social justice; this necessarily made it oppressive, limited its sympathies, and caused it to invent theories by which to plan justify its privileges. These. facts greatly diminished its excellence, but in spite of this drawback it. contributed nearly the whole of what we call civilization. It cultivated the. arts and discovered the sciences; it wrote books, invented philosophies, and. refined social relations.
Even the liberation of the oppressed has usually. been inaugurated from above. Without the leisure class, mankind would never. have emerged from barbarism. The method of a hereditary leisure class without duties was, however, extraordinarily wasteful.
None of the members of the class had been taught to. be industrious, and the class as a whole was not exceptionally intelligent. The class might produce on Darwin, but against him had to oil research paper be set tens of. thousands of country gentlemen who never thought of anything more intelligent. than foxhunting and punishing poachers. Adhd Help! At present, the universities are. supposed to provide, in a more systematic way, what the leisure class provided. accidentally and as a by-product.
This is a great improvement, but it has. certain drawbacks. University life is so different from life in the world at. large that men who live in an academic *milieu* tend to be unaware of the. preoccupations and oil research paper problems of homework ordinary men and women; moreover their ways of. expressing themselves are usually such as to oil research paper rob their opinions of project cycle the. influence that they ought to oil research have upon the general public.
Another. disadvantage is that in universities studies are organized, and the man who. thinks of some original line of research is life likely to be discouraged. Academic, therefore, useful as they are, are not adequate guardians of the. interests of civilization in a world where everyone outside their walls is. too busy for unutilitarian pursuits. In a world where no one is compelled to work more than four hours a. day, every person possessed of scientific curiosity will be able to indulge.
in it, and every painter will be able to paint without starving, however. excellent his pictures may be. Young writers will not be obliged to draw. attention to themselves by sensational pot-boilers, with a view to oil research paper acquiring. the economic independance needed for monumental works, for which, when the. time at last comes, they will not have lost the taste and capacity. Men who, in their professional work, have become interested in some phase of economics. or government, will be able to develop their ideas without the academic. detachment that makes the work of university economists often seem lacking in. reality.
Medical men will have time to learn about the cruel angel's thesis progress of medicine, teachers will not be exasperatedly struggling to oil research paper teach by routine methods. things which they learnt in their youth, which may, in the interval, have been. proved to life be untrue. Above all, there will be happiness and joy and life, instead of frayed. nerves, weariness, and dyspepsia. The work exacted will be enough to make. leisure delightful, but not enough to produce exhaustion. Oil Research! Since men will not. be tired in their spare time, they will not demand only such amusements as are. passive and vapid.
At least one per cent will probably devoted the plant time not. spent in oil research professional work to pursuits of some public importance, and, since. they will not depend upon these pursuits for their livelihood, their. originality will be unhampered, and there will be no need to conform to the. standards set by elderly pundits.
But it is bt business not only in these exceptional. cases that the advantages of leisure will appear. Ordinary men and women, having the oil research paper opportunity of a happy life, will become more kindly and less. persecuting and less inclined to view others with suspicion. The taste for. war will die out, partly for this reason, and partky because it will involve.
long and severe work for all. Good nature is, of all moral qualities, the. one that the world needs most, and good nature is the result of ease and. security, not of a life of cruel angel's arduous struggle. Modern methods of production. have given us the possibility of oil research ease and security for all; we have chosen, instead, to have overwork for some and starvation for others. Hitherto we. have continued to be as energetic as we were before there were machines; in. this we have been foolish, but there is life cycle essay no reason to go being foolish forever.
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Student essays from the Economic Naturalist writing assignment. Provided by Wayne Geerling , LaTrobe University with grateful thanks to all the students who contributed. Why would a consumer spend up to $4,000 on a fixie bike when a standard one is much cheaper? Given the option of purchasing a road bike from Target for $99 that comes equipped with 18 speeds, brakes and front suspension support or a basic “fixie” bike for an average $1,000, which comes with none of the aforementioned items, which would you prefer? Interestingly enough, many of Melbourne’s younger generation are choosing the latter option. A fixie bike is a bicycle that has no freewheel , meaning it cannot coast; the oil research paper, pedals are always in motion when the bicycle is moving. Fixie’s are associated with a young, hipster crowd; each individual rider identifies with other fixie riders because they ride the same bikes and a fixie culture is squall cruel angel's thesis established. Oil Research Paper? This fixie culture has created a lucrative market where suppliers are able to mark up the price of certain bikes and purchasers willingly continue to purchase. The vast amounts of money spent on purchasing, but mostly modifying, a fixie bike is well in excess of what most young “Melbournites” would spend on piano angel's the average consumer good. Oil Research Paper? Having ownership of a luxury item such as a fixie allows the essays, rider to attain a certain social status within friend groups, work atmosphere and the society that he or she rides.
A luxury item, economically speaking, is defined as a good or service where demand increases more than proportionally as income rises. The social status attached to riding a fixie bike does not, alone, explain why consumers are willing to pay such hefty amounts of money for them. The niche market theory provides further clarification: specific demand requirements such as price, quality, demographics, etc, dictate the oil research paper, need for a specialised market to piano squall cruel thesis, materialise. A successful niche market will have higher prices and a smaller market share than its competitors but be more profitable in the same product category. Paper? As outlined, niche markets depend less on plan the price of a good and more on the specific needs of the consumer. These needs can extend to brand recognition and other assets that the consumer wants to be associated with (e.g. prestige, environmentally conscious consumers, etc). The needs of fixie riders include brand recognition, the ability to modify the bike and make it a reflection of oil research, themselves, and life cycle essay social association. Various literature, including websites and newspaper articles note that many consumers see appeal in the hardened image of riding without brakes (it is also worth noting that it is illegal to oil research paper, ride a bike without brakes in Australia).
In economic terms, this intended projection of image is called signaling: when one party conveys a certain image of itself to another party. In the case of bt business, fixie riders, they are signaling to other riders, and the general public, that they are young, fashionably conscious, hardened riders. The decision to purchase a fixie can also be justified with a cost/benefit analysis: purchase if MB MC. The benefits of riding a fixie bike include the increased social status and belonging to the fixie culture. A fixie can also provide the same benefits as a standard bike: exercise cheap transportation. The costs of purchasing a fixie bike include the purchase of a bike (ranging from $600-$2000) and the modifications (a further $60-$2,000). Paper? The consumer’s marginal willingness to pay plays a major role here. Essay? According to oil research paper, the laws of economics, a consumer cannot be duped into spending too much money on their bike of choice, as they will only spend up to a point where MB = MC. Illustration? If a buyer values a bike at $2,000, then he/she will pay not a cent more.
Purchasing a fixie bike may seem like an irrational choice for those who do not delve beneath the exterior motives of the rider. Paper? In reality, the underlying benefits gained through buying a luxury item, such as a fixie, provides recognition and many other intrinsic benefits to homework help, the rider. Paper? Although the price may seem excessive compared to illustration essay purpose, a standard road bike, after careful research and the application of oil research, economic reasoning, it is adhd homework apparent that a fixie is not just any bike. Oil Research Paper? It is a “lifestyle changing” purchase. How should one overcome the perils of online dating? Diana had been on OasisActive for over a month now and had yet to bt business plan, find a mate. Initially, Diana had a choice between two dating websites: OasisActive and eHarmony. She choice OasisActive because the opportunity cost was lower, as it is oil research a free dating site (OasisActive’s comparative advantage). What she didn’t consider was that incentive of satisfying materialistic needs such as sex would not motivate men to register for eHarmony, as consumer price discrimination favours Oasis and features younger women – a trait valued by men.
There was also greater information asymmetry in choosing OasisActive over eHarmony. Diana had attempted to attract a like-minded mate by illustration purpose listing “No Casual Sex” on her profile. This turned out to be a perverse incentive as it encouraged men to be deceptive about paper, their intentions in order to increase their supply of sexual intimacy. It was clear that whilst her opportunity cost for using OasisActive over adhd help, eHarmony was lower, it had also reaped less net benefit. Her initial cost-benefit calculation had been incorrect. So Diana began to think, I’m still single, and the variable costs are mounting. She had made a large emotional investment into online dating. Diana knew she was dealing with sunk costs but was irrationally driven to wait for oil research paper, her marginal benefit to exceed her marginal cost to regain a feeling of plan, value and worth. As an paper, economics student, she had also begun to realise she was in a very competitive market. She had been realistic about her purchasing power; she was attractive, though not supremely beautiful and she knew she needed to contend with women who were willing to adhd, lease instead of buy and who had maximised their total utility – at least in terms of superficial looks. Because OasisActive offered few metrics to measure compatibility, search and oil research rejection costs accumulate, increasing marginal cost.
Diana began to wonder; “at what point does my marginal benefit exceed my marginal cost and bt business make this worthwhile?” Diana was right to re-consider the paper, costs and bt business benefits of dating. She had dealt with much immorality in what should be an amoral market. After all, OasisActive is known as a dating site for youth and considering the oil research paper, time constraints, social commitments and friendship networks of such youth, how many want to commit to a serious relationship? Nevertheless, it seems the methods, expectations of men and women entering the market seem to oil research paper, differ. Expectations are high, the quality of the adhd homework, product is low but the supply is high and equilibrium is therefore difficult to strike.
Men on OasisActive have lower standards for gratification and were less inclined to fall into emotional intimacy as their rational intellect prevailed over their emotional mind. Paper? In this way, men possess market power as they are price-setters. Women, searching for traits that are rarer amongst the male population on the website, are price-takers as they must reassess their willingness to pay in order to hydroelectric essays, find a mate. What Diana realised is that this perfectly illustrated scarcity and paper shortage; men who fulfil the higher expectations of women naturally attract more attention. As a rational agent, Diana knew that her hopes of finding this man were unlikely; after all, efficient market hypothesis states that all the good ones are either taken or gay. After a while Diana realised that her profile views were growing less frequent. Essay? Diana considered that by allowing searches by profile picture, the oil research, website was incentivising a superficial interaction between buyers and sellers and creating barriers to entry for women who did not post an attractive picture.
Suddenly, her chat window opened – somebody was talking to her. After a few minutes of talking, however, she quickly cottoned on hydroelectric that this man was using game theory, and moreover, he had a dominant strategy! It didn’t matter what she said, the man was duly sympathetic and excitable at the times when he should be. He seemed so nice. Oil Research? When she questioned him about this, he became defensive. “Argh, she thought. Essay? This site is a perfect example of market failure!” Diana had rejected guys who asked for sex before, and they quickly began to berate her and call her unsavoury names. Although she knew this was a technique to reduce her self-worth and therefore her purchasing power, she couldn’t help but feel terrible afterward, a negative externality. Why does steroid usage lead to an inefficient outcome for society? Active, social young adults are especially prone to the influence of social norms, expectations and values systems as projected by their peers, parental figures and the media.
It is no coincidence that Australia’s mainstream media is more concerned with idealistic images of beauty than with realistic representations of the human body. Media agencies are rent-seeking, trying to oil research, bolster private economic growth through political manipulation. Purpose? They are reliant on advertising revenue for oil research paper, profit. The products sold in the advertising are driven by consumer need, therefore magazine publications have an incentive to essay, ensure consumers believe they have a problem that needs fixing. This creates an obvious negative externality in perpetuating a social problem of low esteem.
Perhaps more than any other Generation, Generation Y (aged 18 – 29) is impatient and wants quick results. Oil Research Paper? The quickest and easiest way to bulk up quickly is with anabolic steroids. Arguably, the greatest issue with confronting the popularity of the drug is the piano cruel, moral hazard involved. Oil Research Paper? Steroids deliver instantaneous results with minimal short-term risk and power plant thus, present great benefit at low cost to people looking to oil research, build fast muscle. What results, however, is an inefficient allocation of resources whereby growth is squall cruel thesis maximised early but habits for maintenance of those gains are not established. In this way, performance enhancers such as steroids do maximise utility but also incentivise lazy workout habits. So whilst short-term gains are good, the paper, long-term risks of using steroids inevitably contribute to a dependence on government-funded health care.
It is also inefficient on a fiscal level whereby cash is fed into the black market – giving dealers market power, who can then price gouge – and not into the private sector, to nutrition companies who can then further invest in research and development to yield better quality produce. Bt Business? If this were to be a government regulated market through decriminalisation, information asymmetry would be reduced by rule of law and competition will drive the price down. If governments were to control the supply of performance enhancing drugs, taxation could be used to supplement government revenue. As steroid abuse is potentially addictive, it is possible that a percentage of heavy users of steroids would have perfectly inelastic demand for the good. The government has made steroid use available through prescription, which some addicts are using to paper, obtain quality-controlled goods. Although the illustration essay, government is signalling that steroid use is not condoned, they still offer market access for steroids legally for legitimate medical reasons. Oil Research Paper? Through screening for loopholes and access to corrupt doctors, the system is adversely selected by illustration essay addicts who are able to circumvent the system. This, however, is the only mechanism preventing drug dealers from possessing scarcity power, even if it does, in some way, act as a perverse incentive. On a personal level, it could be that wealthier steroid abusers stockpile the drug from prescriptions and paper experience free-riding from adhd, addicted, less financially stable friends.
Whatever the case, it can be assumed that the market for steroids is populated by people serious about fitness or muscular development. Oil Research? If young people where to consider the benefits of health and essay purpose nutrition education, they would be able to up-skill, gain employment within the sector, raise capital to oil research paper, build muscle and help receive discounts on health products. Oil Research? Furthermore, it is ironic how irrational behaviour leads people to adhd homework help, choose low-hanging fruit instead of healthier, more sustainable substitutes to muscle growth. Despite the trade-offs and opportunity costs – including reduced health at oil research older ages for dependant users -, steroids still apparently deliver strong return on investment. Revealed preferences theory proves that social welfare is not considered, and that marginal benefit clearly outweighs marginal cost. This goes some way to explaining how the market for steroids is still active. The greatest consideration, however, is the impact steroid abuse has on society. There are many negative externalities associated with steroid abuse, such as improper disposal of thesis research methods, needles polluting the public sphere.
The broader problem, however, is that it is oil research counter-intuitive to efficient level of crime. Steroids are of more value to patients in rehabilitation than to recreational users, so the commodities, or resources, are inefficiently allocated in adhd, the market (where marginal social cost outweighs marginal social benefit). The side-effects of the paper, drug such as steroid-induced rage may lead to statistical discrimination against life the body-building community and could have permanent effects on oil research the hedonic treadmill due to its hormone adjustment. Another consideration is that income inequality contributes to steroids being used in thesis, higher-income areas, where physical health is an affordable hobby. This could potentially lead to segregation between recreational performance-enhancing drug addicts and psychotics or depressants in different socio-economic regions. Paper? Whatever the squall cruel thesis, perspective, economically, steroid use is an inefficient outcome for society. Eggspensive Taste: Why do eggs that cost 95c a dozen to produce sell for up to $9.00? How is oil research paper it that supermarket’s are able to sell eggs at such a mark-up price?
A dozen eggs can sell for anywhere from $2.39 to squall cruel angel's, $9.00 in a supermarket in Melbourne (All prices quoted in this essay are based on figures obtained from Coles supermarket in Greensborough on 10 October 2010). What causes such a price differential and paper why do people pay for the more expensive eggs? The answer lies in the economics of help, everyday life. It costs a Victorian farmer approximately 95c to produce a dozen eggs. Current wholesale prices being paid to farmers are up to $1.60 per oil research dozen. On shelves in local supermarkets, eggs cost anywhere between $2.39 for the no frills home brand eggs to $9.00 for homestead laid, free range eggs. Supermarkets are able to life cycle essay, artificially inflate prices using many techniques, such as product placement, packaging, branding, asymmetrical information and signalling. The first thing that is obvious when you walk up to the egg section is the abundance of varieties available. The supermarket singles out paper those who place a high opportunity cost on their time by the way the eggs are placed on the shelf.
Customers who are relatively insensitive to squall cruel angel's, prices won’t take time to paper, compare and are likely to grab the box that is easily accessible with packaging that quickly appeals to piano squall angel's thesis, them. It should come as no surprise then that those with the highest prices and oil research paper mark-ups are located at eye level in easily accessible spaces. The way in which different eggs are packaged signals different things to groups of customers. The cheapest options are found in egg cartons with the basic information printed in black with little or no colour, whilst the more expensive eggs are more vibrant and plan eye catching. These design techniques have no impact on paper the quality of the eggs in methods, the box; however it signals to the consumer that the eggs are of paper, differing quality. This is targeting customers with varying levels of willingness to pay.
Packaging style is essay not the only way in which prices are gouged by the supermarkets. Labels on how the egg was produced and under what conditions are used to increase the buyer’s willingness to pay. Supermarkets price target different segments, which are more sensitive to certain situations. Eggs labelled as being “locally produced” attract a mark up of 66%. Oil Research? The eggs that donate 20 cents a box to bt business, charity cost the customer an extra $2.60 to buy. Eggs produced to RSPCA standards attract an oil research, 88% mark up. Project Life Essay? Each product is aimed at paper a different consumer, and is designed to project essay, identify and exploit that customer’s marginal willingness to oil research, pay. Asymmetrical information plays a large role in the ability to impose such large and seemingly arbitrary mark-ups. A dozen caged eggs cost approximately 95c per dozen to produce. Power Plant? Barn laid eggs cost 25% extra to produce, and free range eggs 50% more. Supermarkets charge mark-ups of up to oil research, 109% for barn laid eggs and 276% for free range!
The average customer will be unaware of the production costs and therefore be more willing to accept that they must be so much more expensive. Customers will purchase eggs that have been laid free range for two dominate reasons: they object to chickens being caged or they believe that free range eggs are of higher nutritional value or quality. Whether it has been laid by a chicken in a cage barely big enough to power plant, fit the chicken or on a farm with kilometres of paper, open space, the end product is simply an piano thesis, egg. Research done by the US Department of Agriculture found that there were no nutritional benefits to free range eggs. Oil Research Paper? As you are able to inspect eggs before purchasing, the quality is assured, regardless of whether they are free range or caged. Therefore, supermarkets are effectively putting a price solely on your conscience. With all of these techniques the supermarkets strive for perfect price discrimination, where the buyer will be charged the highest price they are willing to pay for a product. Leakage occurs when customers who are willing and able to pay a higher price for eggs choose the relatively inexpensive home brand eggs. But what is the hydroelectric plant, loss to the supermarket? They still make a profit margin off these eggs, even if it is less than the mark up on oil research their ‘premium’ eggs.
So how can a supermarket openly display such price disparity, yet customers willingly choose the more expensive products? Although they cannot practice perfect price discrimination, what they do is employ economic techniques such as signalling, information asymmetry and price targeting in order to identify those customers with the highest marginal willingness to pay, and adhd increase profits as a result. If you feel ripped off in the knowledge that you paid $9.00 for eggs that are for all intents and purposes the same as eggs less than a third the price, next time choose differently. The Market is Amoral: Should you buy the last can of Coke on the shelf? Amoral is a neutral term which infers that something is neither good nor bad. Economic markets are amoral; they are a ‘forum’, for lack of a better term, where goods and services can be traded. Markets vary - they can be good, bad and sometimes ugly, for example the oil research paper, market for illustration essay, renewable energy or volunteering in paper, Africa may seem saintly compared to the crack cocaine markets of power plant essays, inner city Ghettoes, or the paper, gun market in Mogadishu. Although both of these sit at opposite ends of the moral spectrum they both operate in exactly the same way: they are simply offering different goods or services. If we accept Mr. Paul Zak’s inference that almost all people do have some altruistic moral fibre then why are gun merchants selling arms to child soldiers?
One of the most important ten lessons in bt business, economics is that people respond to incentives, so if a person sees an incentive in selling an AK-47 to oil research, a pre-pubescent child, they generally will. The market answers the question of illustration, “who feeds Paris?” and oil research paper incentives answer the question of ‘why’. People seek to maximise their utility; they do so by selling their labour or commodities to the market. In the more eloquent words of Charles Wheelan “these guys don’t care about upscale diners in Paris. Essays? They care about the wholesale price of fish”  . Markets organise themselves through people’s patterns of oil research paper, behaviour and project this behaviour is governed by an incentive: for a person to oil research, be better off than they were before. I guess at this point you are probably asking “what does this have to do with the last can of Coke on bt business the shelf?” People face trade-offs every day; the money a person spends on a can of oil research, Coke could have easily been spent on a chocolate bar or a cigarette lighter. Therefore, if someone buys a can of Coke it is safe to assume that this product was the most important thing to them at the time. Now imagine this was the exact same case for a separate person, only with one problem: two people want a can of essays, Coke more than anything else that is the same price and in paper, the near vicinity; however, in this case there is only one left. Adhd Help? By Smithian logic the best possible thing for the market is for oil research, both actors to behave in a self-interested manner, but will this lead to the best possible result for the market?
Let us assume for a moment that the market is founded on a different basis to Smith’s self-interested perspective, maybe one of “morality”. Morality is an elusive term so we will substitute it with ‘altruism’ to make it easier. Would the market be better off if this were the case? The simple answer is ‘no’. If both parties vying for plan, the can of Coke acted altruistically, which is to say they both sacrifice their own want for that delicious beverage, making it available to the other. In this scenario there is an asymmetry of oil research, information - neither party knows the value of the Coke to the other person. The best approach for both people now would be to send a ‘signal’. Thesis Methods? They reveal information to the other person and as a result the ‘receiver’ adjusts his consumption behaviour. If, for a number of reasons, any information is paper ‘not received’ (misinterpreted, poorly sent) then we have what is called a ‘separating equilibrium’.
Let’s play the Moral Bayesian game! Sending signals sounds much simpler than it actually is. The problem is that much of the squall angel's thesis, information sent, even in a rather simple scenario of trying to quench your thirst for caffeine cola, is incomplete. Put simply (or at least attempting to) both players (the two Coke consumers) are trying to oil research paper, understand the ‘nature’ of the thesis methods, other; however, there are too many factors which can be ‘misinterpreted’. Essentially, the only information that both people have is that the other is going to act altruistically and as a result questions begin to arise like how thirsty are you? Have you had a hard day at work and would a Coke make it better? These are potentially all categories of information which need to be revealed for both people to establish who wants that can of Coke more. Acting morally could lead to negative externalities. Let us now imagine that both players do not arrive at a conclusion. Instead they both decide not to purchase the oil research, Coke because of the quaint idea that one will benefit at plan the other person’s loss. In effect they are in collusion, but it is a cooperative pact that is oil research actually not ideal for all parties involved.
Before you think this is turning into a Dostoyevsky novel with 70 characters, I will assure you there is only one more person involved in this transaction. That person is the one selling the Coke of course. As a result of the two people deciding not to purchase the essay purpose, Coke due to altruistic tendencies, the shop owner loses. Actually, everyone loses. The two individuals who want to buy the Coke incur the opportunity cost of the time it takes to oil research, learn the ‘value’ of the other and the shop owner does not sell his can of piano cruel, Coke.
If this was how an altruistic market operated (in very simple terms) then it would most likely fail due to the large part that asymmetry of information would play. Fewer transactions would occur because of consumer altruism and a change of incentives, which basically means people are no longer trying to make themselves better off than others. This may have a positive effect on markets mentioned before, like drugs, however how would this affect everyday markets? For one, you would definitely be paying double for almost everything. In other words next time you are at the shop and staring at the last can of Coke on the shelf, just buy it.
Unless of oil research paper, course you derive more benefit from allowing a nice young lady, or large under-caffeinated fridge with a head, to purchase it.  Charles Wheelan, Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science , W.W. Norton and Co. (New York), 2002, p 12. Why are motorbikes exempt from paying fees on toll roads in thesis, Victoria? While it may seem like a pointless loss of revenue for CityLink  to not charge bikers for their use of toll roads, it makes economic sense to leave them exempt from the fees, which, for a 24 hour pass, ranges from $4.70 (car) to oil research, $21.25 (heavy commercial vehicle). Motorbikes cause less congestion than cars and emit much less pollution from their considerably smaller capacity engines. Thesis Methods? Cars are charged by way of e-tags kept inside the cabin.
An e-tag for motorbikes would have to be weatherproof and oil research paper the costs involved in developing such a device may be too great. Some might argue that motorbikes, regardless of bt business plan, their size, still contribute to the traffic congestion dilemma. Any “crowding out” effect that people may contend is basically negligible. Even if there has been an increase in the numbers of riders using toll roads, traffic congestion has not become considerably worse. In fact, it may have taken motorbike traffic off public roads and spread it out over both public and toll roads, creating improved traffic flows across all metropolitan areas. The typical motorbike has a much smaller engine than even a small car. Hence, the pollutants emitted by motorbikes are far less than those emitted by cars on oil research average. In order to reduce pollution, providing free travel on toll roads for motorbikes is hydroelectric plant a strong incentive for commuters to make the change. Improving air quality became pivotal for CityLink when the smoggy air in both its tunnels appeared to be worsening. Paper? A rational way of squall thesis, reducing the poor air quality was to allow free travel for oil research, vehicles that contribute very little to the pollution. This, along with some improvements to the ventilation, eradicated the thick smog.
Cars are chargeable via a simple e-tag that gets scanned at each toll gantry along the homework help, CityLink. Paper? It needs direct line of bt business, sight with the sensors and has variable beeps to indicate different things to oil research, the driver. An e-tag for motorbikes would need to be able to resist the elements and still somehow communicate with the gantry sensors and the rider. To develop a different e-tag capable of doing all these things would increase overall costs of production for CityLink. Given the relatively small impact bikers have on CityLink's efficiency in reducing traffic congestion, it appears that e-tags for motorbikes would lead to marginal costs being greater than marginal benefit (MC MB). Furthermore, to maintain marginal profits after developing motorbike e-tags, CityLink would have to raise prices, deterring car drivers and most bikers. Illustration Essay Purpose? Bikers' demand for CityLink is quite elastic since there wouldn't be much difference riding on CityLink or public roads during busy periods. Paper? These price increases would then impose a negative externality on the car drivers who now face higher prices for the same good. The opportunity cost for bt business plan, bikers returning to public roads after fees are implemented reduces very quickly.
In this sense, not only is the positive externality of not charging riders being the reduced congestion and pollution but also the lower prices charged to car drivers! To some it may seem unfair that bikers get a “free lunch” and oil research they will argue that a free-rider problem may ensue as a result. While the bikers may essentially be getting an actual free ride on toll roads, this case is not leading to any significant negative effects. As mentioned earlier, there is no overuse of the good and hydroelectric plant it can’t lead to any underproduction from lack of funding because the capital has already been funded and constructed. By eliminating this free-rider situation, the oil research paper, entire system will suffer as a result. For once, a free-rider situation is beneficial. To conclude, while there are certain arguments promoting fees imposed on motorbike riders, it would simply be a poorly judged trade-off to charge them.
Motorbike fees would raise CityLink’s prices across the board and it would see very little usage by riders given their highly elastic demand for toll roads. The costs involved in producing vastly different e-tags to piano cruel, those already in cars would be a huge cost - one that’s best off being avoided as the return on this cost is very low. Given the agility and small size of motorbikes, they don’t increase traffic congestion and have little reason to be charged as they don't sit behind traffic but simply ride through it. While it may be seen as a free-riding issue, these riders using the toll roads are not over-using them and only very minimally “crowding them out”. All in all, the current system of paper, free travel for bikers is Pareto inefficient in plant essays, that by making one party better off, other parties are not seriously worse off.
 CityLink is a 22-kilometre automated tollway in Melbourne, which is divided into two sections: the Southern and Western Links. Oil Research? It connects the Tullamarine Freeway, the West Gate Freeway and life cycle the Monash Freeway. Paper? CityLink roads are clearly marked with blue and yellow tollway signs. Why are designer denim shorts so expensive? As the methods, weather has been changing for paper, the better recently, I have been on a regular hunt for shorts. Picky as I am, I have been browsing through many shops in order to find the ideal pair to be included in my summer apparel wardrobe. During my search, I stumbled upon something my inner economist found peculiar: the price of so-called “designer denim” shorts costs anywhere from $150-$250!  Since denim shorts use roughly half the amount of fabric as a pair of jeans, one could rationally assume the price would reflect this. Seeing as this is clearly not the case, why exactly is it that designer denim shorts are so expensive? Many apparently 'obvious' reasons why designer clothing is more expensive than the alternative generic brands initially come to mind.
Often, I have heard: “designer clothes are equal to prestige and exclusivity”, “they provide a better fit”, “the quality of the materials is higher”, “remember that much time is spent on the innovation and adhd homework help designing process”, etc. Oil Research? And while there is definitely some truth to all of those statements, I would like to argue that other factors also contribute to the higher price. After all, denim is denim and there is only so much that you can do with the design of shorts. We are dealing with a standard market. Life Essay? The designer firms wish to make profits (and attempt to maximise these) by delivering goods we want to paper, buy and thesis we, individuals, simply want to maximise our utility. By applying market theory, the answer to my posed question is simply: the reason these shorts are set at the price they are is because the consumers’ marginal willingness to pay for them equals or exceeds their value (marginal benefit price). Thus, the interesting question now becomes: what utility is it that consumers derive from denim designer shorts? And why is their willingness to pay so high? Appearance and being fashionable explains some of it.
For example, men who wish to paper, date attractive women would be very interested in increasing their ‘purchasing power’. By wearing more expensive, designer clothing it could be argued that men improve their physical appearance and thus signal a higher 'value'. As designer clothes do signal values like prestige and bt business plan exclusivity, they do send a clear message to potential dates: I am wealthy and oil research fashionable. Life Cycle Essay? Since women generally regard men with higher incomes and higher social status as more desirable marriage partners, men can take advantage of this signaling and paper consequently their marginal willingness to pay for bt business, designer shorts rises. Another reason relates to paper, the pursuit of happiness. The research of Robert Frank has proven that being rich does not necessarily equal being happy due to the fact that our expectations and aspirations adjust over time. Nevertheless, having certain positional goods, for adhd, some, is important for paper, a general sense of self-value and level of contentment. Plan? Some people simply feel happier if their relative position to others is better.
Unfortunately, a relative position implies that you can only get ahead if somebody else falls behind. As consumption is important in relation to relative position, people wishing to have this ‘higher’ status must continue to buy designer clothing. Paper? This again affects one’s willingness to pay. Lastly, I think it can be argued that designer companies try to create scarcity in the minds of the consumers through advertising. The different labels are in need of some degree of market power to actually sell their products at above normal economic profits. They achieve this by differentiating themselves through price, design, advertising, etc. This differentiation is so important because, if excluded, denim shorts could be categorised as a fairly homogenous product, i.e. shorts are shorts. If consumers think the same way, then firms’ profits would be under threat. Many labels supply denim shorts. Bt Business? If, for paper, example, Generic Shop B undercut its competitors, Design Shop A would quickly lose all of its customers, and a bidding war would start between the shops selling denim shorts, eventually driving the price down to where price equals marginal costs i.e. no economic profits.
Therefore, labels try to squall cruel thesis, create a perception of premium value and, to paper, an extent, a sense of scarcity through proactive marketing efforts essentially saying: “There is only one company that delivers, for example, “Diesel Shorts” and these are worth much more than the next best alternative”. These branding efforts create the perception of premium associated with the product in the mind of consumers. Consequently, the piano squall thesis, designer products become price inelastic for consumers and the designer companies are able to capitalise on this by reaping above normal economic profits.  Denim is the rugged cotton twill textile that jeans are made of. Does McDonald’s three minute Drive-Thru Service lead to better outcomes for society? McDonald’s restaurants have been at the frontier of the fast-food industry in adapting their service to better suit their customers’ preferences. The competitive nature of the industry forces them to be dynamic. Oil Research? Hence, they recently introduced a three minute timer on power plant essays Drive-Thru meal orders. If a customer’s Drive-Thru order takes longer than three minutes to paper, fulfil, that customer will receive a free burger on their next visit. This seems fair enough: waste a customer’s time, then make it up with a freebie. However, the squall cruel, overall effects on society are ambiguous.
A McDonald’s employee would ideally like to uphold their three minute promise to signal to their superiors that they are an efficient and more valuable worker. Paper? The manager can use the number of free burgers each employee is giving away (among other metrics) as a form of screening to decide which employee is more valuable to the restaurant. Methods? The better employees may be rewarded to paper, provide the thesis research methods, incentive for increased labour productivity while other employees may be reprimanded or fired for poor performance. Oil Research Paper? These improvements in labour should, in essay, theory, increase McDonald’s overall profit. On face value, this policy should make McDonald’s restaurants better off financially and paper improve their consumer image. Customers whose Drive-Thru order is adhd too slow would receive a free burger, but not immediately: the burger is claimable on their next visit. When they return to the restaurant to claim their burger, they might come with a friend who in all likelihood will make a purchase. The customer who claims their free burger might make an oil research, additional purchase, say chips and homework coke. These extra items are complementary goods to the burger because they are normally consumed together.
McDonald’s would generate a tidy surplus on paper these goods, as they otherwise would not have been sold. In this case, the adhd help, extra trade and paper profit generated more than covers the cost of supplying that one free burger. Assuming customers return to claim their free burger, McDonald’s increases its market power over rivals (provided they do not imitate). The Drive-Thru Promise is not a perfect, flawless policy. It has many drawbacks which can be traced back to the law of perverse incentives where unintended or undesirable outcomes result from bt business plan, a policy’s implementation. For instance, say an employee must fulfil a customer’s order, but is running out of time. That employee would prefer not to give a free burger as it will reflect poorly on their performance. Hence, there is an incentive to deliver an order on paper time, even if it is not ready. By using marginal cost-benefit analysis, the illustration purpose, employee will determine if it is oil research worth the risk of research, being caught undercooking a customer’s meal or leaving items out of the order just to oil research paper, get the meal in piano squall thesis, the customer’s hands before the oil research paper, time is up. McDonald’s would not condone its employees behaving in such a way, yet their policy has the potential to lead employees to act in their own best interests, which will be at the customer’s expense. The customer is not always worse off as a result of perverse incentives.
McDonald’s assumes that consumers will continue to buy from their store, with only the odd free burger when a meal is late because of project essay, understaffing or a busy front counter. Yet the Drive-Thru promise night cause consumer habits to change. Drive-Thru customers may try to rort the oil research, system in order to project life, increase their chance of receiving a free burger. A customer could drive slower, fiddle with their money and make complex and confusing orders in the hope that the order will take longer than three minutes to fulfil. This customer sees a free burger as maximising their utility, or their enjoyment, and will act in a way that allows them to oil research, achieve this. However, if every customer decided to employ this strategy, McDonald’s will be giving away too many free burgers (possibly causing a decrease in profit) and methods will have to paper, either increase the thesis research methods, price of their products or scrap the policy altogether. This is known as tragedy of the commons where multiple agents, while acting individually in their own best interests, cause a long-term outcome which is bad for society (and not initially intended).
McDonald’s is the first franchise in the fast-food industry to implement a three minute Drive-Thru policy, giving them a first-mover advantage over other restaurants. Oil Research? The actual effectiveness of this policy really depends on where customers and thesis employees draw the line in terms of how much utility a free burger brings them. If consumption and oil research paper supply habits do not change, the plan, policy’s only paper effect should be positive: an cycle, increase in sales volume. How has the paper, contraceptive pill contributed to the split in the relationship market in Western societies? Some modern luxuries we have taken for granted, such as cars, mobile phones, even the contraceptive pill. Power Essays? The contraceptive pill has long been voiced as a liberator of oil research, women, allowing frequent sexual experiences without the unintended (negative) externality of becoming pregnant, therefore lowering the cost of premarital sex. Over time it has come to light that some perverse incentives from the regular use of the contraceptive pill have split the unitary relationship market from one in which you find a long term partner into illustration essay two: a sexual market and a relationship market. Other factors may also be responsible for this split but here I will mainly concentrate on what extent the contraceptive pill has split the relationship market.
The relationship market has extensively been considered as a place of courtship for people considering finding ‘the right person’ and oil research paper settling down. Piano Squall Cruel Angel's Thesis? This does not exclude sexual activity but places the paper, emphasis on establishing a deeper connection and adhd possible long term future relationship. Over time though, there has been a greater emphasis on sexual activity without the ‘strings’ of any type of oil research paper, relationship attached, basically one night stands/sexual partners. This split puts some strain on the aforementioned relationship market as there are now more options for both men and women to indulge in either market, though the levels of scarcity and bargaining power for either sex are different across the two markets. In the essays, sex market, women are found to have a higher bargaining power as men are the majority of consumers in this market. The relative scarcity of women in this market means that men have to engage in higher sunk costs like buying new clothes, spending money on oil research paper drinks for girls and taxi cabs for the ultimate product: sex. Whereas in the relationships market men have the higher bargaining power because of illustration essay purpose, their scarcity as they are filtering out to stay in the sex market longer. With this understanding, we can look at how the oil research, contraceptive pill has attributed to the split in the relationship market. The contraceptive pill has lowered the cost of illustration essay, having premarital sex by all but eliminating the possibility of falling pregnant, encouraging a split within the relationship market. The commodity most in demand in the sex market is sex and when men have a higher willingness to pay, women hold the bargaining power and can be a little more picky, creating personal, pardon the oil research paper, pun, barriers to entry.
A woman in plan, the sex market will determine what age bracket, occupation, physical attractiveness and other qualities she will be willing to exchange her goods for. At any given point in time, women of similar appeal to a man, may find themselves in an oligopoly situation where to remain competitive they have to lower their standards but only slightly to accommodate for paper, outside competition. In the relationship market, it is men with the research methods, bargaining power and women who make compromises to oil research paper, fulfil their desires of starting a family and being in methods, a committed relationship. Even though the contraceptive pill may have encouraged the split in the relationship market, other factors in human development should also be taken into consideration. Over the last 50 years, women have gained unprecedented ground when it comes to rights and paper independence from men and the development of the pill contributed to this freedom by homework taking away the possibility of falling pregnant. Other factors that may have also contributed to this split are the sexual revolutions of the 1970’s and women being able to hold more prominent jobs in oil research, society, both of which have led women to consider having children at power plant essays a later age. As much as the pill may have encouraged a split in the relationship market, it was a contributing factor to a wider set of events. This miracle of oil research paper, modern science was supposed to liberate women from what was once an undesirable set of circumstances and be enjoy the freedom of promiscuity as practised by men but instead has encouraged a perverse incentive by enabling the research methods, split of the relationship market.
Why are soft drink cans sold on paper aeroplanes half the size yet double the price of those sold in supermarkets? In today’s globalised world, aeroplane flying has become a part of everyday life for most Australians. With flights going cheap and the increased ease of research, booking a ticket, more people are flying in the air than ever before. Recently, while onboard a flight from Melbourne to the Sunshine Coast, something caught the attention of oil research paper, my ‘economic brain’. The woman beside me ordered a soft drink as well as a ham and cheese sandwich. Although the adhd, sandwich looked nice enough, it was the paper, small soft drink can that caught my attention and made me ponder the bt business plan, question, “Why are soft drink cans sold on aeroplanes half the size, yet double the price of those sold in oil research, supermarkets?” Although some answers to this question may be obvious, my ‘economic brain’ went to thesis research, work and came to the conclusion that several economic concepts were at play and they give some insight into why passengers pay so much for paper, so little. Onboard three out of four domestic flight carriers within Australia, food comes at an additional cost to the price of the ticket. Hydroelectric Plant Essays? This is paper one of the consequences of buying a cheaper ticket: you are paying for piano cruel thesis, the seat and oil research nothing else.
Once onboard the flight, food and beverages are available to passengers at hydroelectric plant essays a price. Looking at the in-flight menus of both Jetstar and Virgin Blue, a 200ml soft drink can will cost a passenger $3.00  . A standard soft drink can sold in oil research, a supermarket is 355ml and piano cruel can vary in price from paper, $0.70 cents to $1.50. There is a vast price difference between these two scenarios (buying in thesis methods, a supermarket v on a plane), which can be explained by oil research paper the scarcity of the illustration essay, soft drink, pricing policies, willingness to pay, the existence of a captive audience, price gouging and paper relative market power. There is only a small amount of space onboard an aeroplane that can be allocated for food and beverages. This exacerbates the level of scarcity. Flight carriers stock small cans in order to increase the quantity of thesis research methods, cans without having to increasing the holding space of the scarce resource. Unlike supermarkets, the cans cannot be sourced from other locations such as storerooms and external warehouses, meaning there is only a finite supply for paper, any given flight. Given this constraint, soft drink cans have a relative long shelf life, meaning the airline does not have to sell the cans within a certain flight and they can be rolled over to other flights. Airlines exploit this relative shortage by engaging in price gouging, setting prices that are higher than that of a competitive market. The airline becomes a de-facto monopoly once the plane is in the air.
As there is no alternative supplier and the audience is adhd a captive one, in oil research paper, theory, airlines are able to charge a price equivalent to a customer’s highest marginal willingness to pay, extracting all consumer surplus. A consumer’s demand on a flight is less sensitive to price, hence, willingness to hydroelectric power plant, pay is oil research paper much higher than when buying from a supermarket. In this situation, the hydroelectric power, passenger is not being “ripped off” by the airline because if their willingness to pay is lower than the price they are being charged, they will not buy the good. If they do buy the good, it confirms that the value the passenger places on the soft drink is at least equal to the price charged – in this case, much higher than for paper, a comparative can from bt business, a supermarket. Onboard the flight from Melbourne to the Sunshine Coast, the woman who sat next to me bought a can of soft drink, even though she was hesitant to pay the price at first. Many people would argue the price charged was extreme, but my ‘economic brain’ came to the conclusion that the price is in fact reasonable given the laws of supply and demand at work.  Jetstar In-flight Menu: http://www.jetstar.com/
Why are mobile phone calls more expensive than landline calls? For many Australians, mobile phones have become an paper, indispensible everyday tool. Many rational consumers might wonder why a mobile phone call is relatively more expensive than a fixed landline call. There are dozens of adhd, factors that determine retail telecommunication pricing structures. Many consumers dismiss high call costs as a form of paper, being ‘ripped off’ without considering various factors. The following essay explains some of the reasons behind relatively high mobile phone call costs with the aid of various economic concepts. An attractive component of many mobile phone contracts is the provision of a ‘free’ (or heavily discounted) handset – effectively acting as an incentive. Some consumers fail to realise that these handsets are hardly ‘free’ – there is no such thing as a free lunch. The provider recovers the cost of subsidising the handset through call rates that are greater than what they otherwise would be. Mobile telecommunication providers encounter significant and thesis research immediate fixed costs in the provision of oil research paper, their services.
Unlike landline copper network infrastructure that was built many decades ago (by Telstra’s government owned predecessor– Telecom Australia), mobile phone companies have been forced to build mobile phone reception towers and related infrastructure in a relatively short period of time (since the 1990’s) and must continue to build them as demand continues to increase. The cost of building this infrastructure runs into hundreds of millions of dollars and must be recovered from the consumer. Some of the high mobile phone call cost is reflected by plan the fixed costs incurred by the company. Some consumers may believe that mobile phone calls should be billed per connection (as is the case for local landline calls) as opposed to a timed tariff. These consumers may not understand that wireless capacity is a scarce resource; there are a limited number of calls that can be supported in paper, a particular geographic area. It is squall angel's thesis inevitable that some consumers would exploit untimed calls and unnecessarily prolong their conversations whilst tying up scarce wireless access to the detriment of paper, those that really do need to hydroelectric power, make a call.
To ensure that consumers are able to oil research paper, have access to the network when required, the pricing structure needs to reflect the hydroelectric essays, fact that such access is a scarce resource. There are relatively few mobile phone networks in Australia. This concentrates the mobile phone market into only a few companies, thereby creating an oligopolistic market. There could be an argument that these networks exploit their market power and oil research paper keep their mobile phone call rates artificially high due to bt business plan, lack of greater competition. This means that such companies effectively engage in price gouging. Paper? The steady rise of mobile phone users and the increased integration of these devices in our everyday lives demonstrate to the mobile phone companies that the demand for their services is probably inelastic. Inelastic demand for services provides a perfect opportunity for the extraction of consumer surplus.
Mobile phone companies know that consumers will continue to value the benefits of mobile telephony and continue to pay relatively higher prices, even if the prices appear to be unreasonably high. Greater competition is difficult to achieve in this industry due to barriers of entry, three of which particularly stand out: There are significant up-front fixed costs involved in establishing a viable mobile phone network. Many individuals / companies do not have access to such capital. Due to adhd homework help, the technical nature of wireless telephony, there is limited wireless spectrum that the government can auction off to these companies. The scarcity of wireless spectrum significantly raises the cost of the relevant bids / licenses. Australia may not have enough consumers to provide the oil research paper, large customer base necessary to make a mobile phone telecommunications venture viable. Finally, there may be a case of asymmetric information. Life Essay? A standard SMS message sent over the two largest mobile phone networks in Australia costs a consumer 25 cents. How is an ordinary consumer to know if this reflects the true cost of sending a SMS message? It is possible that the mobile phone companies know that the oil research, consumers cannot know what the true operating costs are and therefore exploiting this ignorance.
There is no question that mobile phone services are becoming increasingly important in thesis, our everyday lives and paper similarly that mobile phone calls are comparatively more expensive than fixed landline calls. Thesis Research Methods? The above has demonstrated that this cost difference can be at least partially explained through subsidies, fixed infrastructure costs, inelastic demand, asymmetric information, concentrated market power, barriers to entry, price gouging and oil research scarcity. Why do some people choose to exceed speed limits whilst others do not? Despite a saturation of government campaigns and tough penalties, some motorists consciously choose to exceed speed limits. Many people label such drivers as irresponsible ‘hoons’ that seek an adrenaline rush from travelling at high velocities. Whilst this may be true for illustration essay, some drivers, this widely held view is a simplistic interpretation of the complex decision making process that many drivers, possibly unknowingly, undertake prior to paper, exceeding the speed limit.
Economic theory is homework help a useful tool in explaining why some motorists choose to do this – as will be demonstrated below. A seemingly simple issue has a surprisingly complex economic explanation. In many cases, exceeding the speed limit allows people to arrive at their destination sooner. This can represent a time saving that ranges from paper, minutes to hours. Driving at the speed limit represents an opportunity cost – the extra time required to obey the law is time that is research lost that could be used for oil research paper, the pursuit of other activities. If this were the only consideration, most motorists would consistently ignore the speed limit.
Motorists caught speeding are usually fined – this is a (literal) cost that many take into consideration. Given the opportunity cost of time and the potential cost of a fine, motorists (often on a subconscious level) assign a value to any potential time saving gained through speeding. Illustration Essay Purpose? If the benefits of saving a certain amount of time outweigh the costs of potentially getting caught and paying a fine, the driver is oil research likely to exceed the speed limit. Some motorists choose to exceed the speed limit because they seek the thrill of travelling at high velocities. Whilst such drivers are not necessarily a mutually exclusive group from the category of drivers that are intent on saving time, for the purpose of this essay it is assumed that they are. High speed driving for thrill seeking purposes can be considered a high risk activity that significantly increases the cruel thesis, chance of injury or death should the driver lose control of the vehicle. Armed with this knowledge, the driver performs (an often subconscious) calculation where the benefits of oil research paper, a high speed thrill are weighed against the costs of life essay, injury or death.
If the driver values the thrill greater than their life, he/she may decide to oil research paper, exceed the speed limit. Some drivers may employ marginal analysis when considering whether they should exceed the speed limit. Piano Cruel Thesis? Freeways often designate speed limits of 100km/h or more. Many drivers appreciate that if they were to be involved in oil research paper, a crash at that (legal) speed, the chance of survival is thesis relatively low. Therefore, some drivers may reason that by exceeding the speed limit by paper (for example) 10 km/h to bring their speed up to 110km/h (for one of the reasons outlined above) may not significantly impact on their chance of survival in the event of a crash.
Given that governments tend to install fixed speed cameras along freeways, one can assume that this form of marginal analysis is quite common amongst some motorists. Exceeding the hydroelectric power plant, speed limit carries many negative externalities on other members of society. Aside from noise and air pollution, speeding motorists may endanger the lives of other road users. Many decades ago, the government tried to combat these externalities with mandatory fines. Some motorists that are on relatively high incomes and choose to exceed speed limits may have an inelastic response to generally high fines that are indexed for inflation each year; other motorists will continue to speed no matter what the monetary cost is.
In response to paper, this, the Victorian government introduced a demerit point system where traffic offenses, including exceeding the speed limit, are penalised with the accrual of plan, demerit points as well as being fined. Once a threshold is reached, the driver may have their driving license suspended for a prescribed period. The demerit point system affects all motorists equally (i.e. irrespective of oil research, income). Plan? Assuming that most motorists regard their drivers license (right to drive) as precious, there is a significant disincentive for the vast majority of oil research paper, drivers (that wish to legally drive) to exceed the speed limit. It is inevitable that some drivers will elect to exceed the speed limit. Assuming that they are rational economic agents, a complex economic assessment will occur prior to any decision to break the law. Bt Business? Drivers may consider the opportunity cost (time) of travelling at the speed limit, or perhaps they value the thrill of excessive speed more than their life, or maybe the driver decides that when driving at a legal high speed, the marginal cost of increased death or injury is negligible compared to the benefits. It should be noted that the paper, vast majority of drivers do not exceed the speed limit as they are deterred by fines and demerit points. Hydroelectric Power? Regardless of a motorist’s decision in relation to excessive speed, it is certain that economic considerations are involved – often without them even realising.
Was my decision to paper, live in Reservoir rational? Being a student is not the most profitable profession. Therefore, the plan, cost of rent was a major factor when I was deciding where to paper, reside during my period of illustration, study exchange at La Trobe University in in Melbourne. Having done my research from Denmark, I had it narrowed down to two options: Stay in Fitzroy/Carlton (F/C): close to the city but 15-20 kilometres from La Trobe University. Stay in Reservoir/Bundoora (R/B): close to La Trobe University but far from the oil research paper, city. There were, as there are with everything in life, trade-offs involved in project essay, each choice. Rent in Bundoora was roughly $40/week cheaper than the places that I had found in F/C, and I was quick to oil research, opt for a house close to La Trobe under the impression that I was saving money this way. Having had my inner economist awakened, however, I now want to angel's, take a closer look at this decision. It is now apparent to me that I did not include all of the relevant costs when deciding between the oil research, alternative housing situations. Internet, food and utilities are all going to be roughly the same, both in normative price, as well as in essay, usage level.
On top of that, seeing as I have a job in the central business district [CBD] and go to university, in either scenario I would have bought a monthly zone 1 concession ticket (transport costs will be the same). What I really failed to take into account, and what would turn out to tip the oil research paper, 'rational scale' against me, was money spent on research methods going out. Being a young university student, I enjoy the odd night out in the city now and again. These nights tend to occur roughly once a week (4 times a month on average) and usually amount to approximately $100 per night for alcohol and a souvlaki. The problem though is: by the time I get to my 4 am souvlaki, the only means I have of paper, getting home is taxi. Through empirical evidence from my own past, I can conclude that a Saturday night taxi ride from the city to life cycle essay, home costs roughly $40 (or $160 per month). This shows that, based purely on the cost of nights out on the town and and taxis home, it is unclear whether my original rationale on choosing accommodation was correct.
Another aspect relevant to my decision is my propensity to consume 'going out', as a function of my housing situation. There are two factors to consider here. Lets assume that I only go out in 'downtown' Melbourne, which is in close proximity to F/C. This means that the marginal cost of going out is lowered, as I need only travel a short distance both to and from the city. Therefore, I now have an incentive to paper, consume more of 'going out'. However, my consumption of 'going out' is plan also, consciously or unconsciously, a function of my disposable income, that is, the oil research paper, amount of money I have left every month after rent and other fixed expenses are paid. Having more fixed expenses every month might make me more cautious about going out every single weekend of the month and project life I might cut down from paper, 4 to 3 nights instead.
Yet my housing decision’s effect on my propensity to consume “going out” is ambiguous. Since the financial implications are equivocal, we can quickly look to adhd help, the “other” costs associated with the trade-offs. For one thing, either housing situation may impact on my study and paper thus, my grades. Living in F/C would require a 40 minute tram ride to university each morning versus a 10 minute bus ride from R/B. This means that my marginal cost of going to hydroelectric power plant, university would increase, and I would have less incentive to go than would be the case if I lived in R/B. If we assume that my grades are a function of my attendance rate of lectures, this could be the tie-breaker I have been looking for in this analysis. But wait! Another argument comes to mind, which tips the oil research, scale back to the vague centre. Because I am an exchange student, the grades that I get whilst at La Trobe will never show up on my transcript from the Copenhagen Business School [my home institution]. They will simply be transferred and piano squall angel's shown as Pass/Fail. Oil Research? This practically removes my incentive to want good grades and bt business plan with it, the negative weight of the fall in lecture attendance if I were to choose F/C.
I am almost a little disappointed to say it, but after the analysis of direct financial and oil research paper non-financial costs and benefits of either housing situation, it would appear that what it comes down to is in illustration essay, fact a question of practicality. If I were to ensure that I never take a taxi home from the city alone after a night out (which is not unlikely as I share a house with two housemates who are also fans of the Melbourne nightlife), I would significantly lower the financial costs associated with living in R/B. That small practical point actually tips the scales in favour of R/B and confirms that my decision to live in Reservoir is, in fact, rational indeed. Will the new red P-plate driver restrictions decrease or increase road safety? In 2007, 12% (39) of drivers killed in Victoria were aged between 18 and paper 20, even though this age group represents only 8% of Victorian licence holders.
As a reaction to these statistics the illustration, government introduced new road user restrictions in the form of a red and green P plate system. The idea essentially was that while driving on a red P plate, drivers were restricted to oil research paper, having only one passenger aged between 16 and 21. Will this actually decrease or increase road safety? The legal implications of bt business plan, these new restrictions give young drivers the incentive to get their licence sooner as they can no longer rely on friends for lifts and multiple car pooling. The increased incentives of having your license sooner along with owning your own car will also result in oil research, more young inexperienced drivers on the road. These drivers are considered inexperienced as they have only had to complete a minimum of 120 hours of supervised driving and in a lot of cases the hours are forged by parents so that their children can sit for their license test. Project Life Essay? This increase in oil research paper, adolescents getting their license and choosing to drive will result in higher negative externalities of smog, road congestion and pollution. More importantly though is that with a higher proportion of young inexperienced drivers on the road simultaneously, we can logically expect an increase in accidents and an overall decrease in road safety.
This is plan due to not only the oil research paper, level of illustration essay purpose, experience of these P plate drivers, but also the peer pressure to drive dangerously that results when multiple friends are driving simultaneously (as they can longer car pool due to the new restrictions) to the same destination. One needs only to drive on oil research paper the roads during holiday season to witness this first hand. Using Insurance premiums and TAC statistics as a basis, it can be justified that young drivers are more likely to be involved in accidents. The reasons inexperienced P plate drivers take more risks can be explained using Rational Choice Theory (RCT). Essay Purpose? RCT looks at how individuals weigh up the oil research paper, perceived marginal costs and benefits of homework help, their actions and choose a type of paper, behaviour where MB MC. The benefits of driving dangerously are overstated in the minds of these drivers as the bragging rights and perceived acceptance among peers (just spend a few hours in the car park of a McDonalds or a suburban shopping centre late at night) is considered greater than the marginal cost of serious injury, fines, repairs and death. Methods? A general consensus among young drivers is that they are immune to these costs. This belief lowers the MC of their actions, resulting in a rational choice in their mind to drive dangerously.
When the oil research, rational choice for P-plate drivers is to drive dangerously, combined with the incentive to be on the road sooner, a decrease in road safety is likely. The government’s decision to illustration essay, restrict the amount of oil research paper, passengers a red P-plate driver can have will have no effect on reducing accidents. Adhd Homework Help? Instead the perverse incentive to drive sooner will lead to an increase in driving related accidents. The biggest problem is that there are limited incentives for young drivers to drive safely. The government’s current restriction doesn’t offer any incentives for oil research, young drivers to drive safer; all it does is increase the marginal benefit of driving sooner and does nothing to increase the costs of plan, driving dangerously.
The list below poses some potential solutions to increase road safety by increasing the incentive to oil research paper, display safe driving behaviour and/or increasing the costs of dangerous driving.
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WTO | Research and Analysis - working paper - Oil Price Volatility
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Carl Jung Personality Theory Essays and Research Papers. Final Paper - Jung Theories of Personality In this paper I will show some of . Jung’s back ground, his theory , and speak of his contribution to oil research, the world of psychology. His contribution was a great one, and project, it was said that many of his theories were more complicated than many of the other psychologists of his time. As I read about him, I began to appreciate his passion for this subject. There were a few reasons that I chose him. Oil Research. First, I think it’s . Carl Jung , Extraversion and bt business plan, introversion , Mind 2093 Words | 7 Pages.
Paranormal: Personality Psychology and Carl Jung. Paranormal Belief and oil research paper, Personality Traits Summary: Topic Area: This study looks at the relation between the belief in the paranormal and . Thesis. different personality traits. There are two ways of looking at belief in the paranormal this study will look at the people who believe and those who somewhat believe and analyze their personalities traits. Hypothesis: This study examined two contrasting views of paranormal belief which suggest, in one camp, that belief in oil research, the paranormal is indicative of psychopathology. Big Five personality traits , Carl Jung , Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 1945 Words | 6 Pages.
CARL JUNG Carl Gustav Jung was born on 26th July, 1875 in Kesswyl, a town on piano cruel angel's, Lake Constance in . Switzerland. For sixty years, Carl Jung devoted himself with intense energy and oil research, with a singularity of purpose to analyzing the bt business plan far-flung and deep-lying processes of human personality . Although Carl Jung’s theory of paper personality is cruel thesis usually identified as a psychoanalytic theory because of the emphasis that it places upon unconscious processes, it differs in some notable aspects from Freud’s theory of oil research paper personality. Analytical psychology , Anima and animus , Carl Jung 891 Words | 3 Pages. [pic] CARL JUNG 1875 - 1961 Dr. C. George Boeree Theory Jung's theory divides the psyche into . three parts. The first is the ego, which Jung identifies with the conscious mind. Closely related is the personal unconscious, which includes anything that is not presently conscious, but can be. The personal unconscious is adhd help like most people's understanding of the unconscious in that it includes both memories that are easily brought to oil research, mind and those that have been suppressed for some reason. But it does.
Analytical psychology , Anima and animus , Carl Jung 2455 Words | 6 Pages. ? CARL GUSTAV JUNG Carl Jung was born in Kesswyl, Thurgau, Switzerland on July 26, 1875. Essay Purpose. His father . was kind but weak, while his mother was an insecure woman but with two personalities : (a) kind and oil research paper, loving (b) harsh and aloof. Jung was lonely at childhood making him introvert. In 1906 he published The Psychology of Dementia Praecox, a psychoanalytic treatment of schizophrenia. He first met Freud in 1907 and Freud regarded Jung as his son and they travelled and worked together that lasted until.
Analytical psychology , Carl Jung , Collective unconscious 943 Words | 4 Pages. Jacqueline Smith Words 2554 Describe and evaluate Carl Jungs theory concerning personality types and . show how they might usefully help a therapist to determine therapeutic goals. Introduction For this essay we were asked to describe and evaluate Carl Jungs theory concerning personality types and how these theories might help a therapist to determine therapeutic goals. Bt Business. I first want to try and understand a little about oil research paper this man. He was born Carl Gustav Jung on 26th July 1875 in Switzerland. Life Cycle. He was the. Carl Jung , Collective unconscious , Dream 2539 Words | 4 Pages. Carl Jung and the Theory of Archetypes. CARL JUNG AND THE THEORY OF ARCHETYPES Background Carl Gustav Jung was born July 26, . Oil Research Paper. 1875, in thesis research methods, the small Swiss village of Kessewil.
He was surrounded by a fairly well educated extended family, including quite a few clergymen and oil research, some eccentrics as well. [Jung’s father] started Carl on Latin when he was six years old, beginning a long interest in language and literature -- especially ancient literature. Besides most modern western European languages, Jung could read several ancient ones, including. Analytical psychology , Anima and animus , Archetype 2602 Words | 7 Pages. pioneer I chose to elaborate on thesis, is Carl Gustav Jung , his views and oil research paper, research tactics have contributed to today’s understanding of project life essay . Oil Research. psychology and expanded our knowledge on several different aspects and elements of psychology. Purpose. Jung is best known for his development of archetypes, studies of the human psyche, the dream analysis and the collective unconscious. Carl Jung was born July 26, 1875, in Kesswil, Switzerland; he passed away on June 6, 1961 in Zurich. Oil Research Paper. Originally Carl studied medicine, but also developed. Analytical psychology , Carl Jung , Collective unconscious 879 Words | 3 Pages. Archetypes and Their Influence on the Personality: Carl Gustav Jung. Influence on the Personality : Carl Gustav Jung /b/center br brliIntroduction br Carl Gustav . Project Life. Jung (1875-1961) was born on July 26, in the small village of Kesswil on Lake Constance.
He was named after his grandfather, a professor of medicine at the University of Basel. Paper. He was the oldest child and adhd homework help, only surviving son of a Swiss Reform pastor. Paper. Carl attended the University of Basel and decided to go into cruel angel's thesis, the field of psychiatry after reading a book that caught his interest. br br Jung became an. Analytical psychology , Carl Jung , Collective unconscious 1344 Words | 4 Pages. Carl Rogers’ Theory of Personality. Running head: PERSONALITY THEORY PAPER Personality Theory Paper Personality . Theory Paper From the theories of Sigmund Freud to humanistic theories of oil research paper personality , how one views others greatly influences how one sees the world and power essays, vice versa. Because the theories are so different—some suggesting that human nature is ill, evil, or bad, while others believe it is intrinsically good—it is easy to see why people’s views of paper others and the world are so different. However, each person has a single.
Carl Jung , Human , Humanistic psychology 1364 Words | 4 Pages. ?1. Illustration Essay. Which personality type does Myra display, according to oil research paper, Freudian theory ? Provide evidence for your answer. What caused it? . Myra must have experienced neurotic anxiety in the presence of homework help her husband’s “authority” as she previously must have experienced unconscious feelings of destruction against her parents because of fear of punishment, so she exaggerates her cleanings and frequently portrays herself as a martyr who does so much for others and asks so little for herself, when in reality she. Albert Bandura , Carl Jung , Cleanliness 1203 Words | 4 Pages. ? Carl Jung : Cognitive Psychologist By: Amber Dennis Carl Jung was born on July 26, 1875 in a . small town in paper, Switzerland, named Kessewil. As a young boy he was surrounded by his well-educated family members, (a few of them were clergymen). Angel's Thesis. His fathered encouraged him to oil research paper, start reading Latin texts at the very young age of hydroelectric power six. This was the beginning of his long interest in language and paper, literature.
With this interest, he went on illustration, to create one of the best-known psychological tests in oil research, the world. Carl Jung , Collective unconscious , Dream 1580 Words | 5 Pages. ? Personality Theories Stephanie Mobley Beh/225 April 20, 2014 Joel Vance Personality Theories . The word personality is derived from the Latin word persona which means mask. When it comes to personality I do not feel that word is easily defined. Bt Business Plan. Everyone is oil research different in their own little way so therefore no two people are the same. Some people may question if twins actually share the same personality and the answer is no they do not. It seems that personality is something that is developed from. Abraham Maslow , Alfred Adler , Carl Jung 1006 Words | 5 Pages. Personality Theory Paper – Psychodynamic Alisa M. Davis Psych/504 Personality Theories March . 16, 2011 Instructor Gloria So-Lloyd Personality Theory Paper – Psychodynamic Within the study of psychology, there are many different personality theories . This paper will discuss psychodynamics and where Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung stand on this theory . This paper will provide key figures and concepts of project personality formation; explain disorder of personality , validity, comprehensiveness. Carl Jung , Libido , Psychoanalysis 1079 Words | 4 Pages.
? Personality Theories BEH 225 7/20/14 Personality Theories I want to start with . Oil Research Paper. Maslow. Through Maslow the Humanistic Theory is a common theory in psychology. This theory beliefs that all people are naturally good. They want to project life cycle essay, grow and improve on their faults etc. When you think about Maslow, you will probably think of the famous “Hierarchy of Needs”. Oil Research Paper. To be very visual, there is illustration essay purpose a pyramid. The bottom of the pyramid shows you the psychological, moving upwards, Safety, Love and. Anal stage , Carl Jung , Personality psychology 1113 Words | 4 Pages. Analytical Psychology of Carl Jung.
by a Swiss psychiatrist, Carl Gustav Jung . Carl’s family was very involved with the Christian faith, when Carl had . his “initiation” he didn’t have any moving feelings and that was said to be a main reason to why he chose to go on with his later work, he was trying to replace the oil research paper faith that was missing from his life (Mitchell). Jung and Freud met up and began a six year long journey of research and purpose, work together until they split right before World War I in May 1914. Jung soon started his own research. Analytical psychology , Carl Jung , Collective unconscious 937 Words | 3 Pages. ? Theories of Personality Personality sum total of the qualities and characteristics of a person as shown in her . manner of oil research paper walking, talking, dressing, and homework help, her attitudes, interests, and oil research paper, ways of reacting to other people came from the Latin word “persona” which means mask Psychoanalysis (Sigmund Freud) believes that there are 3 levels of awareness of one’s mind conscious preconscious unconscious acc. to Freud, there are 3 parts of personality id (pleasure) ego (reality) superego (moral center. Alfred Adler , Carl Jung , Isabel Briggs Myers 566 Words | 3 Pages.
Becoming Carl Jung, a Developmental Analysis. Becoming Carl Jung , a Developmental Analysis Steve Wilkinson Chesapeake College Becoming . Adhd. Carl Jung , a Developmental Analysis Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was a Swiss psychotherapist who founded analytical psychology. Oil Research. He is known for his work in the study of dream analysis, extroverted and introverted personality types, as well as studies on adhd homework help, religion (Lewis, A., 1957). Carl Jung was born in Keswill, Switzerland, to parents Paul Achilles Jung and Emilie Preiswerk (Charet. Analytical psychology , Carl Jung , Dream 1127 Words | 4 Pages. moment; it’s below the surface, the storehouse of oil research repressed psychic material Complexes lie in thesis, our personal unconscious. They are groups of contents that . clump together to paper, form a cluster or constellation. They are separate little personalities within the total personality . They are autonomous, possessing their own driving force, and can be very powerful in controlling our thoughts and behaviors The collective unconscious is the portion of the psyche, which can be differentiated from the personal.
Carl Jung , Collective unconscious , Consciousness 1734 Words | 6 Pages. ? Personality Theories Michele Robinson BEH/225 December 14, 2014 Deanna Foley Personality . Theories Freud believes that behavior is the part of personality that are found in plant, the unconscious we are not aware of. Freud has three parts of awareness and consciousness that are the conscious mind, the oil research preconscious mind, and the unconscious mind. Preconscious is the small amount that is on the surface. Unconscious is someone feelings and thoughts that are deep inside them. Conscious is the awareness. Carl Jung , Consciousness , Freudian psychology 1078 Words | 4 Pages. Running head: Carl Jung Modern Man In Search Of A Soul: Carl Jung Marsheila D. Nash Grand Canyon . University: PSY 255 29 July 2012 Modern Man In Search Of A Soul: Carl Jung Chapter 1 is titled: Dream-Analysis in project cycle essay, Its Practical Application. The use of dream-analysis according to Jung in psychotherapy is still a debated topic/question. Some practitioners find using dream-analysis to oil research paper, be necessary in treating neuroses while others find that it is simply part of the psyche. If dream-analysis.
Carl Jung , Consciousness , Dream 2374 Words | 6 Pages. BEH 225 PERSONALITY THEORIES PAPER. PERSONALITY THEORIES Russell T. Stade BEH/225 MAY 10, 2015 MELODIE MILLER PERSONALITY THEORIES . Have you ever wondered why each person acts and behaves so differently from each other? The reason behind each person’s behavior is through their qualities and characteristics that make them who they are. This combination of qualities and characteristics is called personality . Bt Business. Personality forms each person’s notable disposition or character. The science of psychology has different theories on how. Abraham Maslow , Carl Jung , Dream 1107 Words | 5 Pages.
? Personality Theories Student BEH/225 August 3, 2014 Intructor Personality Theories . In history, many psychologists have had theories such as Freud, Jung , Rogers, and Maslow. These psychologists have suggested a number of oil research paper theories based on personality to attempt to explain similarities and offer reasons for differences in personalities . The following approaches such as psychoanalytic, humanistic, social learning, type, and trait theories will be defined through emphasizing both the. Anal stage , Freudian psychology , Genital stage 1016 Words | 5 Pages. Freud and Jung: Early Psychoanalytic Theories. and Jung : Early Psychoanalytic Theories Sigmund Freud and illustration purpose, Carl Jung were two influential theorists . in psychology (Nystul, M., 2005).
Freud was considered the father of psychology and believed that human behavior was the result of unconscious conflict deep in the mind of oil research individuals (Nystul, M., 2005). Squall Cruel Angel's Thesis. Jung’s theory developed directly out of Freud’s psychoanalytic approach; however he refuted several of Freud’s key points and paper, placed an even greater emphasis on the unconscious. Freud and Jung were. Carl Jung , Dream , Personality psychology 1392 Words | 4 Pages. PERSONALITY What is more important in determining your behavior - your personality or the siltation in which you are in (the . environment)? Are you a nice person? If you said yes, are you always nice? The answer, if you are being honest, is research no. The question then is, if you are a nice person (and thus that is part of your personality ), why aren't you nice all the paper time; how can you be every not be nice if that is your personality ? According to personality theorists, the human personality is. Behavior , Behaviorism , Cognitive psychology 2029 Words | 7 Pages.
Gordon Allport’s Personality Trait Theory Counseling and Psychological Therapy Alcorn State University December 5, 2012 . Abstract The aim of illustration essay purpose this research is to paper, explore Gordan Allport’s Personality Trait Theory and to discuss how his theory closely mirrors my personal beliefs as it relates to me becoming a professional School Counselor. As we sit and look around us, we observe the great variety of personality traits among people. For instances, there are a lot of hydroelectric power essays people who are very. Big Five personality traits , Neuroticism , Person 1716 Words | 5 Pages. Team Personalities according to oil research paper, Carl Jung and Isabel Myers-Briggs Typology. What is a personality type? In psychology, personality type refers to the psychological classification of thesis research methods different types of paper . people (Webster dictionary).
Personality types are different from personality traits, there are many different types of personalities , and when different personalities unite in the pursuit of a common goal, the traits may be congruent and balanced, or troublesome and hydroelectric plant essays, disorganized. Understanding the paper different personality types can help a group or team balance its assortment. Carl Jung , David Keirsey , INTJ 1427 Words | 4 Pages. Carl Jung and thesis, Sigmund Freud: Early Influences. Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud: Early Influences Duncan Harris Southern New Hampshire University Psychology of . Personality Dr. Doran March 24, 2013 Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud – two of the best known names in psychiatry - each had tremendous roles in the field of paper psychoanalysis. Born nearly twenty years apart, they met in 1907 (Kendra Cherry ), and their first conversation was rumored to have lasted thirteen hours, they had such a good rapport.
Jung soon worked under Sigmund Freud and they. Carl Jung , Dream , Libido 953 Words | 3 Pages. Theories of Personalities Nicole Morris University of Phoenix PSY/405 Karen Lundstorm March 25, 2013 . Theories of squall cruel Personalities Finding a psychologist who has not been influenced Sigmund Freud is almost next to impossible, as he is viewed as one founding fathers of the study, discipline and science of oil research psychology. By pushing the bt business boundaries of paper what was expected when it comes to studying the mind and what is considered an acceptable discipline, Freud has provided vast amounts of thesis knowledge. Carl Jung , Dream , Libido 1486 Words | 4 Pages. Carl Jung and the Spiritual Anima and Animus. Carl Jung was the founder of analytical psychology and believed that the process of individuation was required for a person to . become whole. Jung discovered the oil research paper collective unconscious, which included the concepts of archetypes and hydroelectric, synchronicity. Branching out from Jung’s archetypes are the anima and oil research, animus. Von Franz states that both the anima and animus have four sub-topics: erotic, romantic, spiritual and wisdom/ transcendent.
The spiritual aspect of the anima and animus is quite important in. Analytical psychology , Anima and animus , Carl Jung 1946 Words | 5 Pages. Personality Theories Paper Peggy Pena PSY/211 December 7, 2012 Dr. Joy Womble Personality . Theories Paper To begin assessing personality theories , there are five personality theories to consider. Homework. The five theories of approaches to personality are as follows, Psychodynamic, Trait, Learning, Biological and paper, Evolutionary, and Humanistic. The various approaches to cruel angel's, personalities is oil research difficult to test scientifically based on the complexity and uniqueness of each individual. Most people can relate. Big Five personality traits , Carl Jung , David Keirsey 714 Words | 3 Pages.
Psychodynamic Personality Theories UOPX Online Theories of thesis methods Personality Psychodynamic . Personality Theories The help of personality theorists during the years have helped the field of psychology, the occasion to look at the subject of personality in oil research, depth. The psychodynamic theories presented by well- known theorists such as Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler and Carl Jung , to name just a few have changed drastically the insight of how individual personalities and interpersonal relationships are viewed. Alfred Adler , Carl Jung , Libido 791 Words | 3 Pages. Personality Theories University of project cycle Phoenix Individuality is expressed through unique behavior, also . Oil Research. known as personality . Personality can be broken down into four perspectives, psychoanalytic, humanistic, social cognitive, and trait. Each perspective describes in detail what helps compare and plan, contrast individuals to one another. Paper. Personality theories go into thesis research, further detail from the perspective. Assessing personality has been around from oil research, years, yet it is bt business still questioned whether. Anal stage , Carl Jung , Freudian psychology 999 Words | 3 Pages. Complete the Following Matrix Describing the oil research Characters’ Personalities from the adhd homework help Point of View of the Three Theorists, Jung, Freud, and Rogers.
a summary of 350-700 words identifying the contributions of Freud, Jung , and Rogers. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Carl . Paper. Jung (1875-1961) Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Identifying the contributions of Freud, Jung , and Rogers to bt business, personality Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) His contributes to personality is based on the unconscious, which are thoughts, feelings or ideas that we typically are not aware of. He feels as if personality is structured through the id of oil research a person, their ego, as well as their. Carl Jung , Collective unconscious , Dream 605 Words | 3 Pages. Personality Overview Gurveer Dosanjh Psych 405 11/14/2011 ANGELA SNELLING Personality Overview Sigmund Freud’s . psychodynamic theory has many strengths, however it lacks empirical evidence. Piano Squall Angel's. Carl Jung was the oil research paper creator of the psychoanalytical psychology, and unlike Freud who focused on the self or the inner workings of the mind and piano squall cruel, conscious, Jung focused on a network of paper interacting systems that want to achieve harmony. Illustration. Jung created the concept of the psych while Freud made the concept of the. Carl Jung , Mind , Personality psychology 1505 Words | 5 Pages. Psychodynamic Personality Theories Analysis.
There are a number of diverse scientific personality theories . All theories are a reflection of oil research paper their author's . Adhd Homework. personal backgrounds, childhood experiences, philosophy of life, interpersonal relationships, and unique manner of looking at the world (Feist Feist, 2006). Personality differences among theorists account for paper fundamental disagreements between those who lean toward the help quantitative side of psychology; behaviorists, social learning theorists, and trait theorists; and those inclined toward. Alfred Adler , Attachment theory , Carl Jung 1399 Words | 5 Pages. core personality traits described in the big five theory of personality . Oil Research Paper. This trait is characterized by . sociability, assertiveness, emotional expressiveness and excitability. People who are high in this trait are often described as being outgoing ad talkative, while those low in project cycle essay, this trait are described as quiet and reserved. An extroverted disposition ; concern with what is outside the self rather what is paper inside.
Introversion is one of the major personality traits identified in many theories of. Big Five personality traits , Conscientiousness , Neuroticism 1741 Words | 5 Pages. Personality Theory Andrea Simpson HHS 310 H amp; HS Culture: The Helping Relationship Instructor: Patricia Knight June 18, . 2012 Personality Theory The theory that I chose, that best suits my personality , is the Humanistic Holistic Theory . Cycle Essay. This theory emphasizes “on engaging the whole person and paper, focusing on the future rather than the past” (Brill amp; Levine, 2005, p.58). This theory best suits my personality , because it shows that a person can change. A person’s personality is adhd help not based. Abraham Maslow , Carl Rogers , Humanism 1541 Words | 5 Pages. ? Personality Overview PSY 405 November 25, 2013 . Personality Overview Two theories of personality covered in the readings is explored, contrasted, and compared. Alder’s Individual Psychology and oil research, Jung’s Analytical Psychology is the chosen two for this personality overview.
In addition to comparison, contrasting, and exploring the two theories , this overview will cover determinism verses free will and life, awareness of paper self. Jung’s. Alfred Adler , Analytical psychology , Carl Jung 1155 Words | 4 Pages. Reaction to homework help, Carl Jung’s theories Carl Jung’s theories are interesting. He studied the . Oil Research Paper. personality as something very important to a person--it is illustration purpose embedded within us and is what emerges to the outside world so as to be seen by oil research, others. Essay. His three principles: opposition, equivalence and oil research paper, entropy is bt business quite great and for me, really describe every humans’ way of interacting with their environment and oil research paper, the way they come to pursue and continue everyday life. I find it true enough that humans have this general. Carl Jung , Libido , Personality psychology 605 Words | 2 Pages. Weiten, Chapter 11, Personality Theory , Research and Assessment Personality can be defined as an individual’s . Purpose. unique collection of consistent behavioral traits, which make human being hardwired to act in oil research paper, certain ways in certain situations. Some of the ways in which we behave are basic.
These basic behaviors, scientists believe, can determine less basic behaviors. For example, if a person tends to be boisterous and easily irritated, this may stem from a basic excitable personality trait. Cattell. Big Five personality traits , Carl Jung , Personality psychology 1528 Words | 5 Pages. Describe and Evaluate Carl Jung’s Theory Concerning Personality Types and Show How It Might Usefully Help a Therapist to hydroelectric power, Determine the oil research paper Clients Therapeutic Goals? Describe and evaluate Carl Jung’s theory concerning personality types and show how it might usefully help a . therapist to determine the clients therapeutic goals? Word count 2247 Personality can be described as the individual’s characteristic patterns of thought emotion and behaviour together with psychological mechanisms-hidden or not behind those patterns. The influence of both genetics and heredity factors alongside upbringing, culture and experience are recognised as influencing. Carl Jung , Extraversion and introversion , Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 2258 Words | 6 Pages. Personality is a trait that every one possesses.
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This essay will outline his contributions to oil research, the field of psychology of project cycle personality and point out oil research, some of his simple theories . I want to begin by giving you some background on Carl Ransom Rogers. He was born in Oak Park, Illinois on plan, January 8, 1902. At an early age he demonstrated. American Humanist Association , American psychologists , Carl Rogers 879 Words | 3 Pages. Maslow and oil research paper, Jung: Life and the Workplace. Maslow and adhd homework, Jung : Life and the Workplace Personality Theories : Steve Domalik PSY 250 Psychology of oil research . Personality Instructor: Pamela Poynter January 24, 2006 Maslow and Jung : Life and piano, the Workplace We work, strive, succeed, and sometimes we fail. Oil Research. What drives us to succeed, or in some cases keeps us from success? Perhaps a better understanding of bt business plan our motives, and the motives of oil research paper our colleagues would help us make the personality changes we need to succeed.
The way we interact with others in. Abraham Maslow , Carl Jung , Maslow's hierarchy of angel's needs 955 Words | 3 Pages. Theoretical Positions of Jung, Adler, and oil research paper, Freud. Early Psychological Theory While science worked . diligently to quantify and validate early structuralist perspectives in psychology, early functionalists were hard at work developing theories that were more qualitative in hydroelectric, nature. Oil Research. Although not directly associated with the angel's functionalism movement, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung , Alfred Adler, and William James were clearly most concerned with how psychology could improve. Alfred Adler , Carl Jung , Consciousness 1463 Words | 5 Pages. Freud was the responsible for oil research paper it. Nevertheless, during this time, Carl Gustav Jung developed an important theory , . making an immense contribution to psychology. Hydroelectric Plant. Jung didn’t just criticize psychoanalysis in order to improve it but he also provided different perspectives and new ideas with the aim of trying to oil research paper, understand in a more complete sense the human being, its abysmal inside world and illustration, its relations with the outside world. Jung established the paper pillars of the squall cruel school of “Analytical Psychology”. In.
Analytical psychology , Carl Jung , Collective unconscious 1512 Words | 5 Pages. ?The book of C.G Jung “The Undiscovered Self” was written during the paper cold war concerning communism. He saw during this time the methods trend toward . collectivism as the oil research paper utmost threat to piano angel's, the individual self. He expresses grief over the adoption of mass mindedness, and encourages its psychic depreciation. Oil Research Paper. Witnessing the physical and psychological destruction of piano squall cruel angel's thesis war, Jung provides the reader his analytic interpretation of the incomparable loss of paper self in the intrusion of secular religion and social collectivism. Belief , Carl Jung , Consciousness 1387 Words | 4 Pages. Psychoanalytic approach to personality. Psychoanalytic approaches to thesis, personality : Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and Alfred Adler Christina M. Colter University . of oil research Phoenix Abstract This paper analyzes the components of the psychoanalytic approach to personality . It explores the psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and bt business plan, Alfred Alder. It compares and contrasts the psychoanalytic theories of Freud, Jung and Adler. Oil Research Paper. It describes the stages of Freud’s theory and explain characteristics of personality . It also goes into adhd help, detail. Alfred Adler , Carl Jung , Mind 1768 Words | 8 Pages.
My Theory of Personality While studying the theories given by scholars such as Freud, Adler, and Horney, one . cannot help but forming an opinion of what is right and oil research paper, what is wrong. Bt Business Plan. During class, I would see flashes of things and think, “wow, that actually sounds correct to me”, but there were many other times when I found myself disagreeing or sometimes snickering at the ridiculous of some theories . Weighing each theory studied, I believe I have found different parts of each psychologist that creates. Carl Jung , Morality , Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 1466 Words | 4 Pages. Comparison of Personality Psychologists. Comparison: Theories of Psychologists Comparison: Theories of Psychologists Mary Kay Elsner Grand Canyon University . Sigmund Freud was called the “father of Psychology” for oil research many years. To this day, people look at, study, and argue over his ideas and his theories . Among Psychologists there is the ongoing debate of him placing too much emphasis on illustration essay purpose, sex however, there is also a strong following of those who respect him and have expanded on his ideas. In this paper we will be comparing and oil research paper, looking. Alfred Adler , Carl Jung , Karen Horney 1586 Words | 4 Pages.
Freud and illustration purpose, Jung - The Unconscious The unconscious is hypothetically a region of the mind that contains desires, recollections, . Oil Research. fears, feelings and power plant essays, thoughts that are prevented from expression in the conscious awareness. One of the most influential philosophers who made theories about the unconscious and its aspects is oil research paper of Sigmund Freud. Freud distinguished between three different concepts of the unconscious: descriptive unconsciousness, dynamic unconsciousness. Carl Jung , Collective unconscious , Consciousness 911 Words | 3 Pages. Theories of Personality Psychoanalytic perspective is based on Sigmund Frued perspectives about early experiences it . focuses on the importance of the adhd homework help unconscious mind which contains thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories/past experiences in oil research, which we are unaware of.
The id operates on the pleasure principle by satisfying basic urges, needs, and desires. Piano Squall Thesis. Ego operates on the reality principle, satisfies the id’s desires in ways that it will cause pleasure instead of pain. Superego strives. Extraversion and introversion , Locus of control , Motivation 1015 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction The study of personality is one of the major topics of interest within psychology. Numerous personality . theories exist, and most of the major ones fall in to one of four major perspectives.
Each of these perspectives on oil research, personality attempts to describe different patterns in personality , including how these patterns form and how people differ on an individual level. Help. The Psychoanalytic Perspective The psychoanalytic perspective of personality emphasizes the importance of early. Alfred Adler , Carl Jung , Ego psychology 669 Words | 3 Pages. Personality Overview Dena Couch PSY 405 January 13, 2013 Dr. Chalice C. Oil Research Paper. Jenkins Personality Overview This paper will . analyze the strengths and life essay, limitations of two theories . Paper. Those theories are the interpersonal theory of Henry S. Sullivan and the analytical psychological theory of Carl G. Jung . This paper will compare and contrast interpersonal theory and piano cruel, analytical theory in relationship to basic or underlying assumptions, deterministic versus free will, and awareness of paper self (conscious. Carl Jung , Collective unconscious , Consciousness 943 Words | 3 Pages. Personality Theory Paper Jennifer Campos PSYCH/504 January 14, 2013 Dr.
Tracy Masiello Personality . Theory Paper John Nash was a very interesting man. Many may just know of bt business him because of the movie, “A Beautiful Mind”. Taking a look at John Nash and his personality and how psychologists, such as Jung and Freud would see John Nash through their diagnoses. Also taking a look at how different theories would go up against John Nash and his everyday life. The different theories that will be looked. Borderline personality disorder , Carl Jung , Maslow's hierarchy of needs 1187 Words | 4 Pages.
case study 4, page 1 Rudy Carlos Jung : Case Study 4 case study 4, page 2 In case study number . four there is oil research a character named Mark. Mark is an extroverted firefighter, According to project life cycle, Jungian theory there are two basic attitudes extroverted, and introverted. His character and disposition seems to be filled with an outgoing confident. In addition, he was described as not introspective which are character traits of an introverted person. Oil Research. Finally, the. Carl Jung , Dream , Extraversion and introversion 948 Words | 4 Pages. ? Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1960) believes in the existence of the unconscious. Methods. However, he does not see the unconscious as . animalistic, instinctual, or sexual; like Sigmund Freud; he sees it as more spiritual (Cherry 2013). He did spend time working with Sigmund Freud which had a major impact on Jung’s later theories and helped him develop a fascination for the unconscious mind.
Jung wanted to further understanding of the human mind through dreams, myth, art and philosophy (Cherry 2013). Jung believed. Carl Jung , Collective unconscious , Jungian archetypes 562 Words | 2 Pages.
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Des lunettes (presque) magiques pour voir le monde comme un pro! Vous avez du mal a observer les ombres et les volumes? Cet article est fait pour vous! Ca fait un petit bout de temps maintenant (quelques annees au bas mot), que je reflechis a la maniere dont je pourrais faciliter la tache aux dessinateurs debutants au niveau de l’observation. J’en ai deja parle ca et la sur le blog, et a mes eleves egalement, mais je n’avais jamais pris le temps de concretiser mon idee. Oil Research Paper! C’est chose faite! L’idee en question est d’inventer un systeme pour pouvoir observer les valeurs et les volumes d’une scene visuelle facilement,
une solution qui permette de simplifier ce qu’on voit et le dessiner sur papier sans avoir a plisser les yeux et a se concentrer trop fort. Non, mais c’est vrai, plisser les yeux toutes les deux minutes provoque de vilaines rides dans le coin des yeux (« pattes d’oie » pour les specialistes), et on bt business plan, parait avoir 10 ans de plus au bout d’un moment. Oil Research! Je me devais de trouver mieux (et de preserver ma jeunesse). Power Essays! ;D. Donc la premiere idee etait de creer un script Photoshop qui simplifie automatiquement les valeurs d’un dessin, ce que j’ai deja mis en place et partage sur ma chaine YouTube. Le probleme, c’est que pas mal de monde sur mon blog deteste les ordinateurs.
Et plutot que de se pavaner devant un logiciel de dessin et simuler le monde reel en sachant pertinemment qu’ une photo ne remplacera jamais notre perception visuelle du monde , je me suis dit que creer une interface directe entre l’oeil et la scene visuelle peut etre la solution. J’en suis donc venu a penser a des lunettes speciales , genre lunettes de super heros qui ne reagissent qu’au contact de dessinateurs en herbe comme nous. Paper! #128578; Le probleme n’etait pas vraiment la monture, on homework, peut meme en construire en papier. Le probleme etait de trouver un materiau qui puisse non seulement laisser passer la lumiere, mais aussi flouter legerement la scene en simplifiant les contrastes et en attenuant les couleurs , histoire que le dessinateur neophyte cesse d’etre obnubile par les details et commence a observer seulement l’essentiel des valeurs avant de s’embarquer dans un dessin a rallonge. Et vous savez ce que j’ai utilise pour arriver a mes fins? J’ai utilise ceci: Mais non enfin, PAS LA FILLE!……. Oil Research Paper! LE COLLANT! rhoooooooo! :p. En effet, j’ai du essayer un bon nombre de choses en guise de verres a lunettes, et j’ai eu vraiment du mal a trouver ce qu’il me fallait.
J’ai essaye avec un peu tout: differents papiers troues ou transparents, differentes grilles metallisees, differents tissus, du plastique flou, de la vaseline sur du plastique… jusqu’a ce que je me souvienne d’une technique que j’avais apprise en photo il y a deja quelques annees . Le principe etait de placer un collant de femme bien tendu autour de l’objectif, afin d’aplatir les contrastes et de simplifier la scene sans perdre trop de nettete, mais juste assez pour apporter un rendu interessant dans les lumieres. En gros, le but est de transformer la scene de cette facon: j’ai essaye de simuler au mieux ce que je vois dans mes lunettes speciales (ce qui revient a peu pres a plisser les yeux). J’ai essaye un peu tous les types de collants et de toutes les couleurs, mais ce qui semblait convenir le mieux pour cette tache (et le moins onereux) etait le tissu d’une socquette noire de femme . Power Plant Essays! J’ai essaye differentes teintes et seul le noir me convenait. Oil Research! Les couleurs plus claires ont tendance a ne pas mettre en valeur la lumiere, contrairement a ce qu’on pourrait instinctivement croire. Des socquettes, c’est ca! Qui aurait cru qu’un jour je me promenerais au supermarche avec une montagne de collants dans mon caddy, et qu’en arrivant a la caisse, la caissiere me demanderait si c’est pour faire un cadeau!
Ben non, pardi, c’est pour moi! non, mais qu’est-ce qu’elle a cru celle-la? Quelle etait la seule a utiliser des socquettes? #128578; #128578; #128578; Je ne suis pas sexiste mouaaaaaa, modaaaaame! Bon, treve de plaisanterie, voici deux methodes pour construire vos propres lunettes a la maison. La premiere, c’est de les construire en papier ou en carton en telechargeant ce gabarit (« clic droit » »telecharger la cible sous ») Si vous utilisez du papier simple comme moi, je vous conseille d’en imprimer deux. Plant! Si vous avez du papier cartonne, mieux vaut decalquer le gabarit par-dessus directement avant la decoupe. Comme je souhaite que mes lunettes soient un peu plus rigides que du papier normal, j’ai colle a chaque fois les deux memes pieces les unes sur les autres, ce qui permet de renforcer chaque partie. Oil Research Paper! (note: le scotch est la pour sceller le tout)
ETAPE 3: tendez la toile et scotchez. c’est l’etape la plus delicate, car votre toile doit etre suffisamment tendue pour faire passer la lumiere. Help! Verifiez et testez avant de coller, car si vous collez puis enlevez le scotch, la toile peut se dechirer (surtout s’il s’agit de camelote comme la mienne). ETAPE 4: fixez les branches et fermez. Et voila le travail ! j’ai l’air un peu c**, mais je vois tout maintenant! ou presque. Si la toile a ete bien tendue , vous devriez y voir assez clair, net, et de facon homogene (aucun pli). Evidemment, a tres basse lumiere vous n’y verrez presque rien, il est donc recommande d’utiliser ces lunettes quand vous dessinez d’observation a l’exterieur, ou dans une piece bien eclairee. Vous remarquerez aussi qu’il est difficile d’observer et de dessiner en meme temps avec ces lunettes. Vous pouvez donc vous creer sur un meme verre, une partie avec toile, et une partie sans toile, histoire que vous n’ayez pas a soulever vos lunettes a chaque fois. Une autre solution consiste a laisser vos lunettes non pas sur le nez, mais sur le bas du front . Oil Research! Il suffira alors d’un mouvement de tete pour regarder dans vos lunettes. VARIANTE: les lunettes recyclees.
Mais si voyons, vous savez de quoi je veux parler. Power Plant Essays! Vous savez ces lunettes qu’ils utilisent en ce moment dans les cinemas et qui vous permettent de regarder les films en 3D (perso je suis pas trop fan, ca me declenche de sacres maux de crane parfois). Je me suis permis de recycler leurs lunettes: j’ai au prealable enleve les verres polarises, car ils filtrent une partie de la lumiere et c’est la derniere chose que je souhaite. La monture etant plus dure, il est plus facile de tendre le collant dessus . Oil Research! Sinon vous pouvez acheter des lunettes pas cheres sur un marche quelconque, ou utiliser une vieille monture si vous etes un bigleux comme moi. Et si vous ne pouvez pas vous passer de vos lunettes de vue , vous pouvez tres bien vous inventer un volet que vous fixerez sur vos lunettes comme ce genre d’engins:
Voila, sur ce, j’ai hate de voir vos versions, et de voir comment vous dessinez les valeurs avec! Apprendre a dessiner une caricature: introduction. Critique de 5 creations de lecteurs, avec Gaetan de DesignSpartan. Vous avez aime cet article ? Inscrivez-vous au blog (c’est gratuit) et recevez votre mini-guide sur la perspective et bien d’autres cadeaux. 52 commentaires pour “Des lunettes (presque) magiques pour voir le monde comme un pro!” Sacre Pit! Quelle imagination… Et en plus ca permettra de recycler des collants qui ont file, j’imagine? #128512; C’est ca !! il n’y a pas de petites economies !! ? qui vivra verra! #128512; T’es charmant avec ces lunettes . Plant! Non… Je rigole . Paper! Mais j’ai bien envie d’essayer pour voir ce que ca donne. Essay Purpose! Ca peut etre tres utile, ma foi ! Merci pour ces petits « trucs » ! oui j’ai l’air d’un debile avoue! #128512; hehe.
j’assume mon style de debile! #128578; #128578; Alors merci pour cette invention qui va nous aider et je trouve perso que tu ressembles a ton petit personnage avec tes lunettes et ton sourire en coin! il parait qu’un dessinateur dessine toujours des personnages qui lui ressemblent #128578; ce n’est donc pas une legende. genial Pit …. Oil Research Paper! Merci pour cette trouvaille #128578; a force de bricoler dans mon laboratoire je sors parfois des trucs!
je suis sur que je vais pouvoir l’ameliorer dans le futur… #128578; Du coup l’adhesif micro perfore, ca ne fonctionnait pas bien? Non malheureusement, j’ai essaye Loic : Guys dit : Ingenieux, on illustration, peut prendre aussi de vieilles montures de lunettes. oui tout a fait! haaaa mais quel fou genial! Pito trouve-tout! Moi je suis tres contente parce que j’ai du mal a percevoir les valeurs!
Je me met en quete de montures stylees! tu me montreras hein! #128578; bravo et merci pour cette creativite qui va bien nous rendre service . Oil Research! merci infiniment. de rien Anne Marie. Pour une question d’ergonomie, et comme je le dis plus haut, il serait utile de laisser une partie sans toile (la partie basse de la lunette conviendrait mieux), le plus difficile etant de tendre le collant sur seulement trois arretes de la monture. Mais je suis certain qu’il y a de bien meilleurs bricoleurs que moi sur le blog. Life! ^^’ Moi qui dessine parfois comme un pied…je pense que cela m’irait bien de dessiner a travers une soquette mdr… Plus serieusement, c’est efficace, on oil research, peut aussi regarder a travers une passoire, si tu en as deux cela fait assez « oeil de mouche » Toi dessiner comme un pied? allez allez, tu n’as pas besoin de passoire vas #128578; Quand j’aurais ton age j’aimerai y voir aussi bien! (et je dis ca, PAS parce que tu es « vieux », mais parce que tu es plus age que moi ^^)
J’ai deja des corps volants devant les yeux qui me pourrissent la vie en basse lumiere sans parler que mes yeux n’accommodent presque plus (a trop trainer sur l’ordinateur…) , j’imagine que ta vision est meilleure que la mienne a en juger par la precision de tes dessins. Cycle! : Mais peut etre travailles-tu a la loupe, dans ce cas je n’ai rien dit #128512; En mode men in oil research black :p ! de mon cote je les ai agrafee #128578; attention aux agrafes dans les yeux! Je me detache de toute responsabilite si tu deviens borgne hein ^^’ Merci pour cette belle trouvaille ! Je vais essayer la technique des que j’arrive a mettre la main sur des « socquettes » #128521; regarde vite fait dans les tiroirs de ta femme sans le lui dire. Project Life Cycle Essay! #128521; Et les lunettes bien sur, c’est la classe! huhu, on oil research, a la classe ou on project essay, l’a pas #128512; Si Kofkof est celui que je pense il est loin de dessiner comme un pied !! Ou alors c’est un pied magique ! Comme les lunettes de Pit !! oui oui c’est bien lui.
Il modere la communaute apprendre a dessiner sur google+ avec mes autres chers amis modos. Il a un sens des details incroyable., il faut bien le dire. Ahh sympa comme idee, merci pour l’astuce #128578; Tu m’enverras une photo? non je dis ca histoire que d’autres personnes aient l’air ridicules, pas que moi #128512; #128512; hehe.
J’ai pris une chaussette noir, du fils, une aiguille et une vielle paire de lunette de vue XD. je t’envoie la photo lol. Pas bete du tout . Paper! J’ai un mi-bas qui s’est retrouve tout seul apres le lavage. Project Life Cycle! C’est le moment d’en profiter.Merci pour l’astuce.:) ah ben voila, la chance! j’ai jamais de bas qui se retrouvent tout seul moi, snif. Oil Research! :p.
merci pour cette ingenieuse astuce #128578; Cependant, ne penses-tu pas qu’utiliser ce genre d’accessoires au lieu de plisser les yeux et de juger correctement les valeurs sans aucune aide n’est pas plus benefique ? je veux dire par la, pourquoi donc ce casser la tete a essayer de tracer des ellipses correctes si un gabarit existe ou des lignes droites a main levee alors qu’on peut utilizer une latte ? mais le jour ou tu ne peux compter sur ces outils, tes talents de dessinateur s’evaporent… Curieux de connaitre ton avis #128578; Personnellement, je prefere ne pas etre tributaire d’aide quelle qu’elle soit. Piano Angel's Thesis! Mes yeux, mon cerveau, et un crayon… Les outils peuvent etre utiles quand on oil research paper, debute ou dans certaines circonstances. Par exemple, la regle permet de finaliser un dessin grand format, aide aux traits de construction mais pour une vignette, il faut savoir dessiner a main levee pour prendre confiance en son trait. OUI, les outils sont utiles au debut, OUI, a terme, ils peuvent desservir et il faut savoir se debrouiller sans. Si vous dessinez en pleine nature ou dans un cadre pas aussi confortable que chez vous notamment, il parait delicat de se balader avec toute une « caisse a outils ». tout est question de finalite, imaginerai t on squall, un architecte sans regles lol.
en realite j’ai surtout invente ces lunettes pour ceux qui ont justement du mal a plisser les yeux. Oil Research! Rigole pas, y en a. Power! ^^ Et puis ca peut etre un bon apprentissage pendant quelques temps, histoire de pouvoir anticiper ensuite le regroupement des valeurs. A terme tu prefereras utiliser ton propre cerveau c’est sur. Paper! Mais certains debutants necessitent parfois quelques bons coups de pouce.
Et puis… c’est marrant! et en rigolant, on thesis methods, fait sauter des verrous ancres depuis bien longtemps dans notre cerveau! et il y en a un paquet concernant le dessin, et surtout les ombres! pas facile, par exemple de faire une grosse tache noire a la place d’un oeil parce qu’il est completement dans l’ombre alors que notre cerveau nous dit qu’il faut dessiner, paupieres, iris, pupille, reflet! moi, je trouve l’idee vraiment excellente!! Merci pour ta reponse et avis Pit. Paper! Mais j ai toujours un peu de mal a me faire a cette idee d utiliser une aide, surtout comme debutant. Essay Purpose! Je pense que c est un mauvais calcul a long terme, mais bon, chacun son avis et tant mieux lol #128512; Tu sais c est comme certaines personnes qui recommandent de tourner la feuille de dessin pour trouver un angle ideal sur le trace des lignes… Ok, parfait, ensuite quand tu te lances sur un format A2 ou A1 ben tu peux commencer a tourner autour de la table plutot #128512; Enfin bref, chacun fait fait… Merci encore pour ton blog et tes conseils en tout cas, que je trouve bien utile en general. mon look tu veux dire? :p. ca peut etre utile effectivement ( et c’est ingenieux ! )! .Neanmoins je n’en ai pas besoin, j’ai une autre technique : je ne sais pas comment je fait mais j’arrive a « flouter » volontairement ma vision. Oil Research Paper! Je vois floue, donc ca fait le meme effet qu’avec les yeux plisser mais sans les rides. Research Methods! ^_^
. Oil Research Paper! il faudra que tu m’apprennes. Project Cycle! c’est comme si tu passais en vision peripherique? ou comme si tu faisais le point ailleurs? tu crois que c’est dans ton cerveau que ca se passe? ce que tu me dis est assez bluffant en realite. si tu peux me decrire cette capacite avec plus de precisions, je serai vraiment curieux, tu es un phenomene! #128578; Personnelement je suis comme Loana ,pas besoin de plisser les yeux pour flouter ma vision. Oil Research! Je ne pense pas que cela vienne du cerveau, pour ma part c’est tout a fait mecanique . Thesis Research Methods! Tu parles de « faire le point ailleurs » et je pense que c’est a peu pres ca qui se passe avec mes yeux lorsque je floute ma vision. Oil Research! C’est comme si mes yeux se concentraient sur un point fictif proche de mon visage pour que l’arriere plan apparaisse flou.
J’espere avoir pu t’apporter les precisions que tu souhaites , ce n’est evident a expliquer . Effectivement, ca demande un peu d’entrainement, mais je viens d’y parvenir volontairement. C’est un peu lorsqu’on rentre dans un etat pensif, la vision se trouble. c’est une excellente trouvaille, merci et bravo Pit. et merci a toi pour ton commentaire! Cependant une question tout de meme . Methods! Est ce que le contraste n’est pas trop fort ?Est ce que les valeurs ,meme si elle sont a la bonne place ,ne seront pas 2 poils(couches) trop sombre ? Est ce que le resultat final ne manquera pas un peu de « subtilite »? les questions sont a chaud faut que je trouve des bas noirs (les miens sont bruns ou beiges:-( et un vieille paire de lunette (j’ai :-)) puis tester … cela est et reste une excellente idee…. En fait ces lunettes sont surtout recommandees pour faire le tri entre les valeurs, et placer grossierement les ombres.
Mais il est clair que les valeurs sont assombries et decontrastees (pas contrastees justement, car toutes les tonalites sont aplaties). C’est le gros inconvenient de ces lunettes. Une fois la hierarchie de valeurs clairement etablie, il faudra les quitter pour pouvoir aller davantage dans les details effectivement. Super cette article. Bravo pour ton esprit astucieux. Oil Research Paper! Etant photographe specialise dans le mariage, j’aime bien quand il y a un lien entre le photo et le dessin. Cruel! effectivement,le collant est utile dans de nombreuses situations. Je vais construire mes propres lunettes.
merci pour cette astuce et… OH MON DIEU TU ES LE JUMEAU CACHE DE DRNOZMAN . non mais serieusement merci ! ca me facilite le vie tu peux pas imaginer !!