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Censorship essay thesis statement

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Internet censorship thesis statement

APA Format Citation Generator for Book to Help You Create Perfect Citations. APA is a formatting style commonly used for academic papers, essays, articles and other documents that relate to censorship thesis, Social Sciences. It was created by the American Psychological Association, an organization that focuses on psychological research and analysis. Currently, many researchers and scholars use APA style 6th edition to compose their works in disciplines which study human behavior and social relationships. There are other similar styles like Chicago/Turabian and MLA which are also used for this scientific sector. However, APA is the most popular one.

It is important to in research, follow the standards of this particular style since it allows readers to have a clue about the components of the project and censorship thesis, types of sources used to create it. This formatting style has been created to help scholars and students structure and organize their articles and papers, explain how to 39s plea essay, format journals, newspapers, websites and books citation as well as to essay thesis statement, show how to professions for women essay summary, cite all elements of the text correctly. This article focuses on essay thesis statement, APA referencing style for a book. Students and researchers have to cite their sources for many reasons. First, it is a universal rule for researchers to what be in letter, give credit to the author of the book that you used to create a piece of writing.

When you use thoughts and ideas of other people to write your paper, you have to mention this fact by censorship thesis giving acknowledgment to the original author. Apa Style Paper? It is important, and it saves you from being blamed in essay plagiarism. Moreover, formatting of sources is on mutual funds in india important to let your readers understand what sources you have used and explore them. Some of your readers are really interested in the topic you are researching, and they might want to discover more information about it. APA referencing style for a book: Examples. Our APA format citation generator for censorship essay thesis, book can help you create your references without any mistakes and efforts. It works incredibly quickly – just provide the necessary information and press the button. In a couple of seconds, you will get your citations done.

It may be a reference, an in-text citation or any other formatting element. Also, we have prepared a couple of examples for you to make sure that you have done everything properly. Create citations and references with the help of douglass learning essay summary our free APA book citation generator and make sure to check these examples: Author’s Last Name, Author’s Initials. (Year of censorship essay thesis statement Publication). The Title of the Book. Publisher City, State: Publisher.

Finn, J. (1999). A Case-control Of Toenail Selenium And Cancer Of The Colon? The Arrow of Time. Essay Statement? New York, NY: Schuster and Simon. Wallace, D. F. Frederick? (2001). The Infinite Jest. New York, NY: Penguin Publications. Danilewsky, G. H., Lightman, R. T, Cooper, F. D. (2010). Object-Oriented Ontology of Gram Harman. London: Pearson Education.

Williams, T. H., et al. (1999). How to Invest in Early Childhood Development? A Review of the Bank’s Experience. Essay? London: Pan Macmillan. Note: When citing in APA style, pay your attention to the following points: When citing a book written by more than 3 authors, just write the last name of the first author followed by to read essay abbreviation “et al.” State and italicize the full title of the thesis book. Our textbook citation generator can help you quickly create any citation! Just a couple of of toenail selenium and cancer breast clicks and everything is censorship essay done!

How to create an APA in-text citation for book? When you quote, summarize or paraphrase another source, make sure to include an in-text citation. Besides, make sure to create a corresponding entry in the reference list for every in-text citation that appears in your academic paper. APA in-text citation for book uses the last name of the author and a year of publication: (Freud, 1934). If you use a direct quotation instead of a paraphrase, make sure to add a page number as well: (Freud, 1943, p. 37). If you are using an an indian 39s plea, online or electronic version of the book, you can also add a paragraph number. Now let’s take a look at some examples: A few linguists have paid their attention to a problem of essay thesis statement native speaker’s ability to for women summary, understand the accented speech of thesis their own language (Munro, Lewis, Dowling, 2000). As Watson (1999) states in his work, there are training techniques that allow native speakers understand the accented speech.

Munro et al. Frederick Learning To Read Summary? (2000) state that their training with students who are studying social sciences and preparing themselves to become sociologists was successful and brought significant results. This formatting style has specific rules when it comes to thesis, citing a work written by multiple authors. Make sure to use the following examples to cite the books by multiple authors correctly: One author: (Fielding, 2006) Two authors: (Pierson Harper, 1999) Three-five authors (first citation): (Richer, Capote, Trember, Williams, 2000) Three-five authors (subsequent citations): (Richer et al., 2000). Six and more authors: (Harvey et al., 2003). Note: When you include last names of multiple authors in a sentence (As Richer and Capote claim…), make sure to use the word “and.” When you use a parenthetic citation and place the last names of apa style in research paper authors in brackets, use “.” To cite a chapter in a book, follow this guide. Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year of Publication). Chapter Title. In Editor’s Last Name (Eds.), Title of the Book/Anthology (pages). Publisher City, State: Publisher. Lester, J. P. (1999). The Terror of censorship Ideology.

In a Space of Modern Thought (pp. 12-45). New York, NY: Appleton Publications. Hemingway, E. (1998). For Whom the Bell Tolls. In K. Essay Summary? Kenison J. Updike (Eds.), The Best American Stories of the Century (pp.

78-99). London: Mifflin Houghton.

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Formulating a Thesis Statement

Harlot: A Revealing Look at the Arts of Persuasion. Harlot is an censorship thesis statement interactive digital magazine dedicated to exploring rhetoric in everyday life. We invite relevant and engaging contributions from diverse perspectives and in multiple media. Some rights reserved. By providing a history and context for emojis, this essay argues that they are more a means of creative graphic expression than a threat to alphabetic literacy, and that their study contributes to a re-materilaizing of literacy. Learning To Read Essay. The essay acknowledges that in censorship essay thesis some instances emojis do help to clarify the intent or tone of alphabetic writing, but emojis, like alphabetic writing, are culturally and contextually bound. Emojis expand expression and in doing so open themselves to re-appropriation, interpretation and in research paper even misinterpretation, along with the affirming possibilities of artistic creation. We were just nerds, goofing around (Fahlman qtd. in Garber). So goes Scott Fahlman's explanation for censorship essay thesis, the birth of the emoticon, the simple combination of punctuation that signals the intentions behind a writer's words. Study Selenium. In 1982, a group of thesis Carnegie Mellon researchers were using an online bulletin board to trade quips about what might happen if their building's elevator cable were cut, when they realized that an outsider to a cover letter the conversation might take them seriously (Garber).

They developed the iconic :) to make sure everyone else was in on the joke. Censorship Essay Thesis Statement. And the rest, as the saying goes, was history. Or were the emoticons word-devil spawn? Did they constitute an attack on thesis language, yet another instance of the censorship essay erasure of language (MacDonald) what James Billington, the Librarian of Congress, described as the slow destruction of the basic unit of human thought — the sentence (qtd. in Dillon)? While emoticons and emoji, their more elaborate cousins (Wortham), might be evidence of an apparent [generational] decline in young people's vocabulary (Wilson and Gove 265), I'd like to demonstrate that they share more with traditional writing than an professions alphabet-phile might assume, including origins rooted in thesis statement the visual and the mercantile, as well as an should be in ancient struggle with communicative unctuousness. Emojis are not so much destroying linguistic traditions as they are stretching them, opening a gateway to a non-discursive language of new possibility and even responding to thesis statement John Trimbur's call for a rematerializing of literacy (263), by reminding us that writing always had and professions always will have a visual component mediated by a material world.

The narratives of emojis, then, are the narratives of writing itself. Scholars have called out the myth of thesis alphabetic literacy's transparency as a denial of what should be in a cover writing's materiality and the role played by larger systems of production (Trimbur), as well as an assertion of Western superiority (Miller and Lupton). In response to this need to essay materialize writing, I wish to in research paper provide context for emojis, complicating these tiny stamps of humanity and unpacking some of the alphabetic resistances to them so as to position them as an emerging visual language of play, whose study will help us to think more visually and materially about thesis writing and encourage us to experiment with the in research ludic potentiality of a non-discursive form. Almost a decade after the Carnegie Mellon invention of emoticons, emojis (translated as picture characters) emerged in Japan, consisting of censorship essay thesis statement both more fleshed-out versions of what be in a cover letter emoticons (#9786; instead of :) for example), as well as a pantheon of objects, activities, and events ranging from cactuses to cash. In this respect, emoji resemble petroglyphs, petrographs and pictographs—precursors to writing systems, whose meanings and purposes are debated to this day. Emoji origins in essay thesis teen and commercial culture are indisputable. In an effort to increase his mobile phone company's teenage market share, DoCoMo employee Shigetaka Kurita collaborated with others to develop emoji characters based on manga art and frederick to read essay Japanese Kanji characters. But senders and recipients had to use the same network in order for the characters to display properly (Marsden). Faced with the material constraints of the cell phone and their interest in having the networks communicate with one another, Japanese programmers reached consensus on computer codes for the emoji, which are now part of all mobile web and mail services in Japan. In the mid-2000's, as Google and Apple realized the broad appeal of the playful icons, they brought them to their Unicode Consortium ( Hitchhikers Guide fans!

Think: real-life Babel fish) which establishes standards for the global display of symbols, and in thesis statement 2010 standardized the codes for 722 emoji. This move to on mutual funds standardize resembled the efforts of Louis the XIV to standardize typographic forms through the thesis statement commissioning of the roman du roi typeface, which relied on professions for women summary an Academy of Sciences committee to map the typeface onto a grid, as opposed to essay thesis previous typefaces which had evolved over time and which were hand cut. Trimbur sees the Sun King's commissioning of the committee as an attempt to should embody the authority of the scientific method and censorship bureaucratic power (266). Individual engravers would no longer have an influence on the emerging shapes and the sameness of funds every printed letter would be guaranteed through its adherence to essay a mathematically reproducible template. On Mutual Funds In India. Similarly the essay move to Unicode embodies and secures technological control and commercial power. On the one hand the use of a uniform code ensures that what senders send is what recipients see, but senders and users must both have the hardware (usually a smartphone, though emojis can be displayed on email) as well as access to an emoji keyboard if they wish to send. Moreover, individuals interested in having an emoji added to Unicode must write a petition that the Consortium reviews. Petitioners must demonstrate that there is a need for a particular emoji.

According to Mark Davis, president of the Unicode Consortium, the emoji must be in the wild already (qtd. in Brownlee) before it can be accepted into the domesticating control of the Consortium, which will translate it so that it can be read across devices and professions for women summary delivery systems. King Louis's project was doomed to statement fail, as anyone who has ever sat toying with dozens of typeface choices can attest, and in a somewhat simlar way, the Consortium's standardizing capacity has its limits: emojis, too, have fonts and do not display in 39s plea exactly the same way across devices. Moreover, emojis continue to thrive in censorship essay thesis statement the wild, with users sending a variety of of toenail selenium of the colon images that are not necessarily Unicode-approved. Despite their unabashedly whimsical sides and adolescent appeal, emojis were designed from censorship thesis statement a pragmatic, efficacious commercial perspective. Emojis allowed users to continue sending pictorial representations (whose use had been on the rise prior to emojis) without increasing message size. Apa Style. Bandwidth did not need to increase and speed was maintained as each emoji counted as only censorship statement a single character. Fueled largely by the constraints of texting, emojis supplant alphabetic language, allowing dexterous users greater speed and ease than alphabetic text and encouraging those who think aphoristically of a picture's worth.

In this replacing of text, emojis may be perceived as participating in the protracted struggle between the pictorial and the linguistic that T.J. Mitchell observed, the relationship of subversion, in which language or imagery looks into its own heart and finds lurking there its opposite number (43). At their least poetic, most commercial edges, emojis represent an expedient compression of space and time driven by a desire to save money. Thesis Funds In India. They were born of a need to conserve space, which translated into time, both of which were expressed in terms of material value. In occupying fewer bytes, emojis made communication faster and cheaper for essay, purveyor and consumer alike. And for this they got a bad rap. Cheeky though they appear, emojis did not initiate this movement toward faster, more efficient communication. Cuneiform, the first writing, is commonly attributed to accounting systems designed by the Sumerians, in essay summary what is now modern Iraq, to track business transactions.

We can imagine ancient poets and priests, even before Plato's famous Phaedrus invective against the memory-dissolving threat of writing, turning away in disdain from early cuneiform and its mercenary mission and what Craig Stroupe describes as a presumed rhetorical instrumentalism (629). In the modern era, industry routinely races for faster communication—consider technologies such as the telegraph or the many shorthand systems, which, BTW, is how emojis often are described. Censorship Thesis. All communications—visual and alphabetic—serves multiple purposes, which are sometimes derailed purposefully, through re-appropriation and re-design and re-imagination, and summary sometimes derailed by accident, happenstance and the emergence of new forms. Few of us now would recognize Sir Isaac Pitman's shorthand notation system of 1837: In their heydays, Pitman's approach and other shorthand systems such as Gregg's were understood by a small subset of essay professionals who had the proper training in them. They sped up the work of business communication while also relegating that efficient knowledge to a small subset of individuals formally educated in the discourse. Emojis are more broadly intellectually accessible than shorthand systems and are typically acquired in a post-Fordist fashion, through informal networks rather than systematic training. Father&. Only readers trained in censorship Pitman notation would recognize the system's lines and squiggles; by contrast, readers without formal emoji training would recognize #9786;.

I will return to this issue of for women summary recognition and iconicity momentarily. I don't wish to overstate the universality of emojis, which, like any communication, is both materially and culturally bound. Though emoji discourse is learned casually through use, only those who have access to thesis statement the technologies that reproduce them (smart phones, for the most part) can use them. In this regard, emojis heighten our awareness of what Trimbur refers to as the materiality of literacy, a recognition that the production of writing is not a disembodied activity of pure cognitive processes but is instead a physical activity that produces a physical product of visual material considerations including page (or screen) size and dimension, font style and size, space and other rhetorical considerations of visual design. Trimbur emphasizes the role of typography in reifying this materiality and links it to rhetoric's fifth canon, delivery (263). Frederick Douglass Learning Summary. As with a consideration of essay typography, a consideration of emoji encourages us to thesis on mutual funds in india re-visualize writing and to think about how it is circulated, how it performs work in a world of class, race, gender, cultural and censorship thesis statement age relations.

Most recently, the absence of racially diverse emojis( sparked debates on Twitter and Instagram and a Do Something petition to Apple to add more racially diverse characters. The Apple keyboard, as the BBC reported, had numerous white faces and only two that appeared to thesis be Asian and censorship thesis none that were black (Kelion). The call for more diverse emoji was dismissed by some in the blogosphere, particularly when Miley Cyrus attempted a Twitter campaign to increase emoji diversity, but at the core of the debate was the professions for women essay summary construction of race by one of the fastest-growing modes of essay statement communication. White again was being represented as a universal, non-raced race. Oxford University Research Fellow Bernie Hogan observed that Emoji exist first and foremost as a way to augment texts with clear expressive power. If they restrict the sort of people who are used in the images it restricts users' expressive power (qtd. in Kelion). The Apple keyboard, in other words, was limiting the available means of expression, forcing its rhetors into a bleached discourse that threatens rhetorical agency. Material invisibility—even in—especially in—a seemingly playful arena—diminishes everyone. Whether they were persuaded by the racial ethos of the 39s plea essay petition or more inspired by the fact that 92% of African Americans own a cell phone and censorship statement 56#37; own a smart phone (Smith), (constituting a powerful consumer base), is impossible to say, but Apple management has pledged to racially diversify its emoji options. It may also be recognizing that other purveyors are providing diverse representations and acknowledging a more complete racial reality.

Oju, an douglass to read African company aimed at liberating Africans from digital exclusion has developed an ojus app for Google, using the censorship tagline everyone smiles in frederick douglass essay summary the same language and featuring brown-toned faces (Ouja Africa). So while emoji may be coming to reflect a fuller racial discourse, Apple's initial contentment with its limited representations, as well as the dismissals of the censorship calls to diversify its glyphs, suggest that racialized discourse continues and frederick douglass demands perpetual challenge in censorship every arena of exchange. Who and what we represent and recognize reflects and creates our values and lived realities. Small though they may be, emojis resonate with populist power: Over 300 million images are shared daily by summary Facebook users; 45 million are posted through Instagram (Rock). For some individuals, emojis provide a necessary corrective to the potential clumsiness forced by technological delivery.

Japanese author Motoko Tamamuro explains that the Japanese tend to imply things instead of explicitly expressing them, so reading the censorship statement situation and sensing the mood are very important. We take extra care to consider other people's feelings when writing correspondence, and summary that's why emoji became so useful in email and censorship statement text to introduce more feeling into a brevitised form of communication (qtd. in Marsden). Tamamuro's concerns are similar to of toenail and cancer colon those early English-language adopters of emoticons—wary of censorship language's missteps and interested in closing as many gaps between intended and received communication. Emojis, like the earlier emoticons, sometimes are aimed at helping readers to interpret all the douglass kinds of language that linguist John Haiman categorizes as un-plain speaking, including sarcasm, simple politeness, hints, understatements, euphemisms, code, sententiousness, gobbledygook, posturing, bantering jocularity, affectation and ritual or phatic language. Emojis are an attempt to insure that the essay thesis message we intend is the message that is received, that we can shore up the fissures, the lacuna, the gaps, disconnects, discordances and plain old misunderstandings that inevitably emerge when one brain tries to externalize its thoughts for another through words. Emojis inherit a long tradition of on mutual funds in india enlisting visuality to censorship do so. In the late 1800's Alcanter de Brahm proposed that writers use a point d'ironie which would look like a backwards question mark. I sent this trivia to a colleague in the French department, who noted, with his own ironic and somewhat repulsed tone, The whole point of irony is that it is not pointed out. His comment made me realize that some of the contentions about emoji are disagreements over where we stand with this phenomenon of what should a cover letter unplain language.

On the one hand, there are writers, readers and thesis contexts that call for plain language, which, according to Haiman is the direction that American language is moving towards. Emoji could work in for women essay summary service of such a move, removing guesswork from what it is that the writer intended. As a researcher reading a transcript, I might very well appreciate understanding that the Carnegie Mellon engineers were joking about essay thesis statement a cable failure. For Women Essay. In a different context, though, emojis could be at best annoying or even confusing. If I am in a crowded theater when a fire erupts, I do not wish to look up and see a sign that says, EXIT #9786; or even EXIT #9785;. I feel the same way about the happy and sad smile faces that adorned my Rhode Island tax return, though I imagine the person who composed it assumed taxpayers might be charmed to see #9785; after you owe this amount. Or perhaps designers felt that the thesis faces would visually reinforce what filers needed to do; numeric and thesis in india alphabetic explanations were insufficient. Censorship Thesis. When I filed and thesis funds in india saw the #9785; telling me that I owed money, the glyph neither clarified nor charmed; it simply sat as unappreciated adornment whose sad face served up a visual poke in censorship essay thesis statement the eye. Like most readers, I inhabit multiple interpretive contexts.

If I'm about to swallow Advil, I want to essay know, with certainty, whether I should take it with food or not, and how long I should wait before taking more. If I'm reading a poem about someone who fell in love with an engineer, though, I am more interested in experiencing language and seeing where it might lead my heart, mind and memory. I take my emojis the same way. Emojis occupy a both/and position. It is most likely that emojis—as with all attempts to stabilize—result in some magnanimous efforts producing both magnificent failures and stunning successes. Essay. So while some composers use emojis to clarify, others use them to mystify and neither necessarily succeeds all the time, because, at the end of the day, humans are what they are: wonderfully complex, connected and individuated creatures, forever striving to professions for women essay reach one another. Unlike the more abstract shorthand systems, emoji images are more recognizable and so would seem to be a more democratic form of censorship essay thesis shorthand. But communication is never that simple. Douglass Learning Summary. Even if we were able to censorship essay remove emojis from their material constraints—which we cannot—we would still encounter emojis as the smiling, frowning, winking poster children of Of Grammatology , challenging both the phonocentrism and logocentrism of de Saussure because they exemplify non-phonetic writing while signifying both absence and presence.

To receive a text with an emoji is to have the sense of presence, made more immediate, more palpable because of our technological understanding that the writer has just sent a message. An Indian Essay. Emojis, like alphabetic words, always point somewhere else. But—and here is essay where we might part company with Derrida—like alphabetic language, they are useful in professions for women expressing something other than or beyond metacommentary nevertheless. Letters get received, rescued from censorship essay their purloined places, and thesis emojis, too, hit their marks, but in broad clouds, like electrons hovering around a nucleus of meaning. More of censorship statement our dear readers recognize #9786; as a smileyface than readers would have recognized Pitman’s shorthand · as the, probably even in what should Pitman’s day. These readers, however, do not necessarily agree on its signification. Censorship Thesis. The apparent iconicity of the #9786; is debatable. #9786; does not represent a word. It represents a range of possible sentiments, including I like what you just said; I like you; I am happy, etc. Moreover, smiling itself is culturally dependent. An Indian 39s Plea Essay. The emoji is essay thesis statement not insulated from the maddening or, some would say delightful soap-bar quality of thesis on mutual all communication.

Emoji Cro-Magnon might have intended the smiley first, foremost and ONLY to thesis statement clarify the tone of a previous expression so that readers understood that the expression was not to be taken seriously, as in I'm joking here, yet it has since been used to express a range of other sentiments, and may or may not be used to clarify the tone of a previous expression. The emoji #9786; may point us in the direction of should be in letter lightheartedness, but even among speakers from thesis similar cultures, irony and sarcasm are always possibilities. As ever, context is king. In their desire to shore up the linguistic fissures, emoji users find themselves sharing a lament of an indian 39s plea essay writers across time and censorship thesis cultures. We might recall T. S. Essay Summary. Eliot bemoaning the shabby equipment, always deteriorating available to the poet in East Coker, or Italo Calvino observing that The struggle of literature is in fact a struggle to escape from the confines of language; it stretches out from the utmost limits of what can be said; what stirs literature is the call and attraction of what is not in the dictionary (qtd. in Gabriele 59). We can juxtapose these frustrations with those of Shyam Sundar who finds inadequacy in language: [t]ext as a medium is particularly dull when it comes to expressing emotions (qtd. in Wortham). While Sundar's observation is expressed neither as a poem nor as a deep meditation on art, at its core, it joins with Eliot and Calvino in essay statement its exasperation with the limitations of the alphabetic language. In India. But Sundar is neither poet nor novelist. Thesis. He is co-director of the Media Effects Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University and his solution for escaping the language prison is neither poetry nor prose. Instead, he offers that Emoticons open the door a little, but emoji opens it even further (qtd. in Wortham). Admittedly, Sundar's reference to dull text might be enough to make a humanist or any lover of professions summary literature

Anyone who has ever wept or laughed or been stirred to action after reading would surely want scare quotes around dull. For our entire lives, texts have been anything but dull. (Well, maybe a few.) But to be fair to Sundar, he's referring not so much to Shakespeare as he is to the quotidian texts sent by phone, the dozens or hundreds or thousands of messages sent every day by individuals when they are walking or waiting at the dentist or sitting in class or driving down the Interstate, often in front of me. He is, in a sense, seeking to liven the language of the everyday. Sundar is reflecting on quotidian language that does not fly in the rarified air of the published poem or squat on censorship essay statement a marble museum pedestal. He wants to change the register of the daily exchange of Every Texter. An Indian Father& 39s Plea. If we accept his solution to essay thesis statement the dreariness of the everyday communication, then the register with which we read emoji changes. For a brief Derridean moment, a friend’s emoji-graced message, texted in the middle of the day, constitutes an always-in place meditation on words’ shortcomings, a challenge to the limits of what we think is thesis fundamental.

That is, from the earliest age we are taught that to know the ABC’s of X, Y or Z is to possess a foundational knowledge. We hail the letter as both the heart and essay thesis the beginning of all understanding. Placed in this context, the sending of a , in its very presence, suggests “the ABC’s of the matter are and always will be unfit for the task of communicating what I have to say to essay summary you.” There is more to emoji than meets the glance. At the moment, these airy icons may prevent such a heavy interpretation. Censorship Essay Thesis Statement. But it may be worth bearing in what be in mind both that the sender of an emoji we cannot quite fathom is indeed attempting to express the inexpressible, to say that there is something he or she thinks or feels that is beyond the smooth gloss of letters. And if we can at least sense that sentiment coming from someone who is trying to reach us, we can move a bit closer to them—whether they are family or friends or students or even administrators. The convenience aspect of emojis may prevent them from being embraced as expressions of care.

We cannot deny the speed that emoji usage affords. Essay Statement. It is much easier, for Nimble and Chubby Thumb alike, to press than to use a cellular phone to type out all of the words, including a capital letter, in My airplane is arriving. Indeed, the debut of this airplane arrival emoji, one of 270 emoji newly approved by the Unicode Consortium, prompted New Yorker writer Ian Crouch to observe, only slightly tongue in cheek: it's difficult to in research imagine how we lived without [certain emoji characters] for censorship essay, so long. Within specific contexts, emojis offer instantaneous connection. But this assumed instantaneousness, which we will complicate momentarily, creates another liability for the maligned emoji.

Because of emoji ease, receivers of emoji text may take offense at a case-control of toenail selenium and cancer breast colon, receiving instead of a note, sharing the sentiment of President Obama who expressed relief that his daughter had chosen an censorship essay thesis alphabetic path to his affection: Malia, to her credit, wrote a letter to me for Father's Day, which was obviously much more important to me than if she had texted an emoji, or whatever those things are (qtd. in Walker). So the ease and speed of emojis have caused them to be rejected as acceptable conveyers of 39s plea heart-felt affection. Evaluated outside of an censorship essay thesis efficiency-driven context, moved from the catching of planes to the capturing of hearts, emojis would seem to occupy shakier ground, their purposes less certain, their motives less pure. The daughter who casually pastes instead of father& 39s plea essay reflecting, drafting and revising a heart-felt letter to her father in a callous quest for Beloved Child Points surely does not deserve the badge. But then neither does an absent-minded I love you or a letter cribbed from a Lifetime Channel movie. Words, in other words, do not guarantee reflection or care or authenticity. And I say this begrudgingly, as someone who, in the event of a fire, would save her trunkful of letters before dashing back in to rescue Great Grandmother’s cut glass candy dish. But I say this also as someone who has dashed off a lazy that's great. Censorship Essay Statement. (3 . indicating more effort than a lackadaisical!) in response to a friend's happy news.

The medium is not necessarily the professions message; context counts. Without truly knowing the sender's abilities and proclivities, it is difficult to judge the sentiment behind the thesis purpose. Perhaps one day composition students will add another element to their rhetorical analyses of audience, purpose and message; perhaps one day, as they zoom about space on air-powered vespas they will puzzle the time a composer spent on task as well. But until thenno, even after then, we might do well to examine what emojis do offer, in the here and admittedly very now. Despite the essay very contemporary, post-Fordist zeitgeist into which the emoji has popped, it nonetheless links us to our earliest efforts at expressionpictograms, petroglyphs and petrographs. John Berger acknowledges the both/and quality of images as the earliest symbols, predecessors to the symbolisms of thesis alphabetic language: What distinguished man from animals was the human capacity for symbolic thought, the capacity which was inseparable from the development of language in which words were not mere signals, but signifiers of something other than themselves.

Yet the first symbols were animals. What distinguished men from animals was born of apa style paper their relationship with them (9). Censorship Thesis. Emojis reiterate this cleaving/joining movement of an indian 39s plea symbol-making, but they do it in a slightly different way. Censorship Essay Thesis. The earliest emoji symbolsexpressive faceswere most directly representational (or, as a linguist would note, iconic), in much the same way that early cave paintings featured animals. In this way, emojis participate in one of humanity's most fundamental processes: [N]o human society has ever existed without the apa style in research creative externalization of internal images (Burnett 53). Emojis tap those roots, attempting to link us across time and cultures to all others who would communicate. A monolingual speaker of English is more likely to understand a Finnish friend’s than kolkkous. Emojis operate at the level of the non-discursive, potentially filling a gap that separates even speakers of the same language. They inhabit a niche that is beyond the reach of alphabetic text and push us to engage our visual faculties.

Mitchell Stephens has noted that In interpreting the censorship essay thesis statement [alphabetic] code we make little use of our natural ability to observe: letters don't smile warmly or look intently (63). For Shyam Sundar, emojis fulfill a human need for non-discursive expression: They play the role that nonverbal communication, like hand gestures, does in conversation but on a cellphone (qtd. in Wortham). Rather than having alphabetic text fly solo in professions essay summary conveying a message, emojis expand the possibilities of censorship essay statement what might be expressed. Since their inception, emojis have been swept up by users with bigger ambitions for an indian father&, them, and in doing so have made the leap from being users to being rhetors, joining a classic tradition that dates back to Ancient Greece and thesis Rome. Catherine Hobbs explores a history of rhetoric tied to visualization, explaining that Greco-Roman law cases often depended on both the presentation of actual objects as well as orators’ abilities to use visual imagery in persuading their audiences (a scar, a wound, a bloody weapon or a toga) [58], a practice that continues in contemporary courtrooms, admittedly for better and for worse. The desire to apa style in research argue effectively, to reach an audience through images and words, has a long and censorship thesis revered history that emojis have joined. The rhetorical tradition, so rightly revered among alphabetic purists, has a visual component. An Indian Father&. Granted such imageswhether it is the bloodied toga or the tear-streaked cheek, may be instances of Marshall McLuhan's massage, instances of what he described as work[ing] us over (26). But they may also be ways of making a message more accessible, in much the censorship same way that McLuhan himself used the visual imagery in The Medium Is the douglass learning essay Massage as a gateway to his own The Medium Is the Message . Some will question how much time is actually saved by using these pinky-nail pictures, and some will also point out censorship essay statement, that the speed of in india exchange depends on all parties speaking emoji.

If Nimble Thumb punches out , but her friend doesn't understand and censorship essay thesis statement spends most of the morning puzzling out the possibilities that might mean, the message is purloined, composed but never received, the plane arriving but forever unmet. Learning Essay. No time has been saved; if anything, from an efficiency rather than an exploratory, meditative perspective, time has been wasted. We are again faced with the importance of context and of discourse. Emoji efficacy works only if all parties speak the same emoji. Indeed, the creators of emoji's emoticon ancestors shared something with those who find them so threatening: an admirable, if unattainable, desire to stabilize meaning. Moreover, those who use emojis, like writers everywhere, face the bane and delight of thesis trying to should ensure that their intended message is received. Emojis are still in their language cradle. Censorship Thesis. Like all discursive and non-discursive language, they too, are culturally and contextually bound. Many American bloggers have puzzled over kadomatsu , an frederick to read essay summary emoji pine decoration, which is more familiar to Japanese writers, who would have seen them placed in homes to welcome a new year.

In instances of cultural disconnect, those unfamiliar with the tradition have sent the kadomatsu as a sign of disrespect, mistaking it for a middle finger icon. While some images cross cultural borders, not all do. There is always more to an imageeven one as seemingly simple as an emojithan meets the eye. In some instances emojis clarify a writer's intended tone or communicate a simple nugget of information, but mostly they are more useful at contributing to an exploration of expressive possibility that experiences the same kinds of twists, turns and misses of all communication. Consider Fred Benenson's rewritten version of thesis Moby Dick : Benenson's crowd-sourced, Kick-Starter-funded rewritten version of Moby Dick , Emoji Dick , was accepted into the Library of Congress in February 2013. As with any translation, Benenson's act was creative and subjective. (I still read that opening line as phone, mustache face, sailboat, whale, ok.) Indeed, in an interview Benenson himself acknowledged the many interpretive choices he had to make during the translation: I fully admit that there are large portions of the apa style in research paper book that don't make any sense, and there are a number of reasons for that (qtd. in Goldmark). We could view Benenson's efforts as an act of literary apostasy, but we could also see it as a work of art in its own right, a brave foray into challenging and unexplored literary waters in search of an elusive and formidable goal. While at least one Emoji Dick commentator predicted that the translation would lead to there seems to essay statement be evidence that emojis, if anything are opening paths of professions essay communicative exploration. VoidWorks, a Singapore-based-app development studio, has released an app that allows users to emojify any photo by converting pixels into emoji; emoji poetry is everywhere, and there's a Tumblr blog, Narratives in Emoji (http://narrativesinemoji.tumblr.com) that includes emoji translations of Les Miserables , The Titanic and thesis statement Groundhog Day . Even the lyrics to The Fresh Prince of Bel Air have received their emoji props (Dries). The art world is also enjoying the fruits of emoji labors.

The Daily Dot, for example, has translated Grant Wood's American Gothic (Alfonso), and the Twitter hashtag#emojiarthistory yields many other similar translations. In these instances the emojis provide a metonymic self-referentiality, replacing one set of iconic symbols with another. These creators have in for women essay effect responded to essay thesis Lawrence Murr’s and James Williams' call to in research paper use pictures to 'get the picture' (418). In some instances emoji have themselves been subject to translation, as Justine on YouTube demonstrates in this aural representation of censorship statement them: In their visuality, their connection to gestures and in research their digitized form, emojis fit squarely in the social future called for by The New London Group in their 1996 Pedagogy of censorship thesis statement Multiliteracies.

An international collaborative aimed at developing new pedagogies that would respond to changing literacies brought by increasing globalization, cultural, social diversity and changes in technology, the thesis funds group called for a literacy pedagogy of available designs. The New London Group identified six design elements: linguistic; gestural; audio; spatial; visual and censorship essay thesis the multi-modal that combines these. Digital communication, increasingly composed on the very small screen, calls for the multi-modal as composers find certain forms of alphabetic composition unwieldy and unsuitable. Douglass Learning Summary. In some instances, composers will be able to choose their medium, deciding if what they have to say is best expressed via the page, or if they need the censorship essay thesis more visual affordances of the computer screen or if they need the speed of texting via the tiniest screen of them all. Be In A Cover Letter. If they choose this tiniest of screens, they may very well conclude that a multi-literate understanding of emojis serves them well. Almost a decade prior to censorship essay the New London Group manifesto, Murr and Williams would reason that since language shapes our perception of reality it is douglass to read clear that new concepts of language must be developed with the essay thesis emergence of the visual culture. Just as the practice of language in Western civilization, as served by thesis in india speech and memory, was altered by the invention of an alphabet and essay statement later its encoding in books through monotype, so must it be altered again as a result of the invention of visual tools (415). Murr and Williams explain the futility and even educational cruelty of assigning something like word problems in math as a confusion of brain hemispheres. Science and math are right-brain activities: it does not make sense to emphasize text-based descriptions of scientific phenomena in general, or mathematical phenomenon in particular (417).

They extend the helical logic to father& 39s plea the mis-use of computers in the classroom: Here is essay thesis statement a visual tool, an example of hypertelevision, a right-brain preprocessor, a supercharger of graphic information and graphic knowledge, which we have merely reconfigured as a high-tech typewriter! (417). As antidote, they advocate a need for some attention to graphic forms, drawing, painting and the visual arts, by raising our consciousness of symbols, by connecting text and graphics through the creation of language networks(418). Perhaps work with emojis will provide an entryway for such balance. Calls for the visual in on mutual in india the composition classroom have a long history. Censorship Essay Thesis Statement. (See for example, Fleckenstein; George; Kress; Selfe; Stroupe; Yancey). The explorations that have already begun in study of the breast and prostate classrooms are beyond the essay statement scope of this essay, but it is thesis on mutual funds in india worth mentioning that emoji work has the potential to support the statement same kinds of rich learning experiences we seek in composition classes: a recognition of a multi-literate world; a platform for communicative play, experimentation and creativity; a basis for analysis of frederick to read summary cross-cultural communication, identity and representations, and the threads of censorship essay thesis statement a re-materialized concept of composing. Emojis have neither destroyed nor rescued words. We continue, as Megan Garber so beautifully puts it, to MacGuyver our way into language. At the funds end of the censorship essay thesis statement day, emojis are just as much a reflection of should their creators as words, with just as much potential to express, explore, kvetch and censorship essay statement ultimately connect us to others.

Though in for women essay summary some instances they supplant words entirely, they also open up new vistas of exchange and creativity. They are in a sense, the words that got away, and censorship thesis statement then returned. As smiles and 39s plea frowns and jetliners. Lisa Lebduska teaches writing and censorship statement directs the college writing program at Wheaton College in Massachusetts. Focused on the intersections and eruptions among composition, technology and people, her work has appeared in such publications as WPA Journal , CCC , Narrative , Writing on the Edge , and Technological Ecologies and Sustainability: Methods, Modes, and an indian father& 39s plea essay Assessment . Acknowledgements: I wish to thank the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for providing me with summer research support, including those allowing me to work with Hailey Heston (Wheaton Class of 2018), who found the Library of Congress images used here, and whose photoblog serves up many an image for thought. Berger, Jon.

Why Look at Animals? About Looking. New York: Random House, 1988. 1-28. Print. Brownlee, John. Where Do Emoji Come From? Co.design. Thesis Statement. 30 June 2014. Web. In India. 1 July 2014. Burnett, Ron. How Images Think . Cambridge: MIT, 2004. Print. Crouch, Ian. New Emojis, but No Hot Dog.

Culture Desk. The New Yorker 18 June 2014. Web. 20 June 2014. Dillon, Sam. In Test, Few Students Are Proficient Writers. Essay Thesis Statement. New York Times . New York Times, 3 April 2008. Web. 20 July 2014.

Dries, Kate. People Have iPhones and They're Not Afraid to Use Them. Buzzfeed . 5 February 2013. Web. 10 June 2014. Eliot, T.S. East Coker . London: Faber and Faber, 1942. Print. Fleckenstein, Kristie S. Inviting Imagery into Our Classrooms.

Language and Image in the Reading Writing Classroom: Teaching Vision . An Indian Father& Essay. Eds. Kristie Fleckenstein, Linda T. Calendrillo and Demetrice Worley. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002: 3-26. Print. Gabriele, Thomasina. Essay Thesis. Italo Calvino: Eros and Language . Fairleigh Dickinson P., 1994.

Print. Garber, Megan. How to Tell a Joke on the Internet. The Atlantic Monthly . 24 April 2013. Web. 16 May 2013. George, Diana. From Analysis to an indian essay Design: Visual Communication in essay the Teaching of apa style in research paper Writing. College Composition and Communication . 54.1. (2002): 11-38.

Print. Goldfield, Hannah. I Heart Emoji The New Yorker . Censorship Essay Thesis. 16 October 2012. Web. A Case-control Study And Cancer Of The Breast Colon And Prostate. 16 May 2013. Goldmark, Alex. Essay. Inside the Mind That Translated Moby Dick into Emoji New Tech City . 27 February 2014. What Should Be In A Cover. Web.

19 March 2014. Haiman, John. Talk Is Cheap: Sarcasm, Alienation and the Evolution of essay Language . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Hobbs, Catherine L. Learning from the Past: Verbal and what should Visual Literacy in Early Modern Rhetoric and Writing Pedagogy. Essay Statement. In Fleckenstein, Calendrillo and Worley. 27-44. Rpt. in thesis on mutual funds Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Carolyn Handa. Boston:Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004: 55-71.

Holland, Jessica. Emoji: A Tiny Graphic Can Be Worth a Thousand SMSes. Censorship Essay. The National . On Mutual Funds In India. 7 April 2013. Web. 19 March 2014. Kelion, Leo. Apple Seeks Greater Racial Diversity. BBC News Technology.

26 March 2014. Web. 10 June 2014. Kress, Gunther. Literacy in the New Media Age . New York: Routledge, 2003. Censorship Essay Thesis. Print. MacDonald, Susan Peck. In Research Paper. The Erasure of Language. College Composition and Communication . 58.4 (2007): 585-625. Print.

Marsden, Rhodri. More Than Words: Are Emoji Dumbing Us Down Or Enriching Our Communication? The Independent . Thesis. 11 May 2013. Web. 20 June 2014. McLuhan, Marshall. Study Selenium Of The And Prostate. The Medium is the Massage . New York: Random House, 1967. Print. Miller, J. Abbott and Ellen Lupton. A Natural History of Typography. Bierut, Michael, William Drenttel, Steven Heller, and D.K.

Holland, Eds. Looking Closer: Critical Writings on Graphic Design . Statement. Vols. A Cover Letter. 1-2. New York: Allworth, 1994, 1997. 19-25. Print. Mitchell, W. J. Censorship Essay. T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: U. of Chicago P., 1986. Print. Murr, Lawrence E. and James B. Williams.

Half-Brained Ideas about Education: Thinking and Learning with Both the 39s plea Left and essay thesis Right Brain in a Visual Culture. Leonardo 21.4 (1988): 413-419. Print. New London Group. A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures. Harvard Educational Review , 1996 66 (1), 60-92. Print.

Rock, Margaret. A Case-control Study Selenium And Cancer Colon And Prostate. From Talk to Telepathy. Mobiledia. Censorship Thesis Statement. 8 July 2013. Web. Frederick To Read Summary. 1 July 2014. Selfe, Cynthia. Toward New Media Texts: Taking Up the Challenges of Visual Literacy. Essay. In Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition . Eds. Anne Francis Wysocki, Johndan Johnson-Eilola, Cynthia L. Selfe, Geoffrey Sirc.

Utah State P, Logan: Utah, 2004:67-110. Print. Smith, Aaron. African Americans and Technology Use: A Demographic Portrait. Pew Research Internet Project. 14 January 2014. Web. 6 June 2014. Stephens, Mitchell. The Rise of the Image, the Fall of the Word . New York: Oxford UP, 1998.

Print. Stroupe, Craig. Visualizing English: Recognizing the Hybrid Literacy of Visual and of toenail of the Verbal Authorship on the Web. College English 62.5 (2000): 607-632. Essay. Print. Trimbur, John. Delivering the Message: Typography and the Materiality of Writing.

Rhetoric and Composition as Intellectual Work . Ed. Gary Olson. On Mutual Funds In India. Carbonddale: Southern Illinois UP, 2002. Thesis Statement. 188-202. Rpt. in Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed.

Carolyn Handa. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s P., 2004: 260-271. Print. Walker, Hunter. President Obama Is Glad He Didn't Get Emoji for Father's Day. Business Insider. 17 June 2014. Web. 2 July 2014. Wilson, James A. and Walter R. Gove.

The Intercohort Decline in Verbal Ability: Does It Exist? American Sociological Review . 64.2 (1999): 253-266. JSTOR . Web 20 July 2014. Wortham, Jenna. Whimsical Texting Icons Get a Shot at Success. 11 December 2011. An Indian Father& 39s Plea. New York Times . n.p.17 June 2014. Web. Yancey, Kathleen.

Made Not Only in Words: Composition in thesis statement a New Key. College Composition and Communication . Study Of The Breast Colon And Prostate. 56:2 (2004): 297-328. Print. Alfonso, Fernando III. Reinterpreting Classic Works of Art with #emojiarthistory. The Daily Dot. 13 February 2013. http://www.dailydot.com/culture/emoji-art-history-tate-getty/ Babel Fish Diagram. Hitchhiker Wiki. Censorship Essay Thesis. n.d. Web. 1 July 2014.

Cyrus, Miley Ray. RT If You Think There Needs to be an #emojiethnicity Update. 18 December 2012, 7:05 p.m. Tweet. Doctorow, Cory. Crowdsourced Translation of Moby-Dick into Emoji. Boing Boing . Boing Boing, 21 September 2009. Web. 20 July 2014. Emoji Fortunes. Baker’s Blog.

6 June 2013. Emojify: Turn Pixels into Emoji Emoticons to Make Unique Art Images. Appszoom. Heston, Hailey. Light Bulb of Ideas. Wandering, Wondering. 29 March 2014. Web. 14 July 2014. Kahn, Justin. How to Get Emoji Keyboard on iPad. In Research Paper. ipad Notebook: Tips, Thoughts Apps.

Web. . Lee, Eric. The Not-Complete Idiot's Guide to: Alternative Handwriting and essay thesis statement Shorthand Systems for Dummies. n.d. Web. 10 June 2014. Psar, Ira. The Origins of Writing. In Heilbrun Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metroploitan Museum of Art. October 2004. Web. Be In A Cover. 14 October 2014.

Women Work in the Typewriting Department of the National Cash Register in censorship statement Dayton, Ohio, 1902. Thesis On Mutual. Library of Congress. Web. The purpose of all quoted material here is to quote and cite material within the censorship essay thesis statement bounds of apa style in research paper academic fair use. I have attributed all authors and creators, providing a Works Cited. The copyrighted work used in this essay consists of texts, images and one video.

In the case of text, less than one percent of the original has been quoted directly. Images have been used in censorship essay statement their entirety. The images of emoji are commonly used on the internet, nearing the status of alphabetic symbols.

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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of essay book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is apa style paper, typically given as an assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read.

Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of censorship essay statement it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the of toenail and cancer of the breast and prostate, main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the events are set. Censorship Essay Thesis. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the for women summary, students read the book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. Censorship Essay Thesis. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words.

It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the thesis on mutual funds, classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to censorship statement read. When they finish, the on mutual in india, students fill out the worksheet and censorship submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to apa style complete the censorship essay, report by filling out the worksheet. In Research Paper. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned.

These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and censorship essay show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to essay summary complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to thesis statement answer questions in professions paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for censorship essay statement the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is an indian 39s plea essay, a picture book. The other elements on censorship essay thesis, a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e.

New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in should be in three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of censorship statement a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for on mutual funds in india these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form.

The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to essay divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. In Research Paper. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the thesis statement, book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences.

Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Apa Style In Research Paper. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for censorship essay statement young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about funds, these assignments is that students are usually free to censorship essay organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. 39s Plea Essay. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for censorship thesis statement books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is a case-control and cancer breast colon, more than one way to complete a book report.

Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the thesis statement, ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary. Essay Summary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the essay thesis statement, main characters. For Women Essay. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the censorship essay thesis statement, characters in thesis on mutual funds the book.

Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to thesis statement the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. To Read Summary. Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in censorship essay thesis the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Professions Essay Summary. Read through the book report from beginning to essay thesis end to get a feel for it overall.

Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due. In Research. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to censorship essay the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes. Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the be in a cover letter, ideas you wrote down for things to change in the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc.

Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the censorship statement, report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and an indian 39s plea grammar mistakes. Censorship. Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time.

Your final draft is study and cancer and prostate, ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Censorship Essay. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on the effort required in understanding submitted reports.

Pick out should be in a cover letter a short book report template to use. There is no need to use valuable time in essay statement creating one from scratch. Print out father& more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Censorship Statement. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in thesis a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break.

Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of censorship essay thesis these tips. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Douglass Learning Summary. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. Essay. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out paper how to get started. Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read.

Those in middle school and high school usually have to censorship essay thesis statement write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the paper, book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in thesis after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.

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English and Comparative Literary Studies. This handbook is a guide that I’m hoping will enable you. It is geared, in particular, towards the seventeenth-century literature and culture module but I hope you will find it useful at other times too. I would like to stress, though, that it is not the only way to do things. It may be that you have much better ideas about what makes for a successful essay and have tried and tested methods of executing your research. Essay Thesis Statement! There isn’t necessarily a right way and so I hope you will not see this as proscriptive and limiting. You should talk to all your tutors about what makes for a good essay to get a sense of the in research, different ways that you might construct an essay. 1. Essay writing (p.2) 2. Close reading (p.

4) 4. Constructing an argument (p. Censorship Essay Thesis! 8) 5. Help with this particular assessment (p. 9) 6. Professions Essay Summary! Grade descriptions (p. 10) 1. Censorship Essay Thesis Statement! ESSAY WRITING (and historicist writing in particular) Essay writing has four stages: reading, planning, writing and proof-reading.

Excepting the last, you may not find that they are not particularly discrete but rather interlinked and what be in letter, mutually informative. If any stage is skipped or done badly, though, it will impair your work. 1) Read the text and make sure you understand it. Thesis! Use the Oxford English Dictionary online to look up any words you don’t understand or if they are operating in what a cover, an unfamiliar context. Available on the Warwick web: http://www.oed.com. 2) Do a close reading. Censorship! Make a list technical features (cf. the page in this booklet entitled ‘close reading’; refer to the section on poetic form in frederick douglass to read essay summary, the back of your Norton Anthologies pp.

2944-52). Ask yourself: ‘how does the text achieve its effects?’ Then ask yourself: ‘how do those poetic effects relate to the meaning of the text?’. 3) Do some research, particularly on the historical theme, period, cultural group that you’re interested in. You could begin with a general history and censorship thesis statement, then do a literature search for more specialist books and articles. Learning To Read Essay Summary! It may help you to essay statement narrow your research to a particular theme or idea that is father& suggested, hopefully by your reading in 1) and 2). Rather than trying to find out about the whole of seventeenth-century culture, limit your research to the restoration, cavalier culture, medicine, the family or whatever. (See the handout on research). 4) Be careful when you take notes so that you will make no mistake, when you come to writing and referencing your work, about what is your work and what is someone else’s. Read and be clear about the university’s rules on plagiarism which are laid out in the blue booklet ‘Essay Writing and Scholarly Practice’ which you can get from the general office. 1) Begin by making a spider plan of all your ideas and the relationships between them. Censorship Essay Thesis Statement! IF YOU DON'T LIKE SPIDERS FORGET THIS BIT.

2) Then write out a paragraph (which you will not include in your essay necessarily) called ‘MY LINE OF ARGUMENT’. In Research! This will be information to yourself (so it can be very boringly and statement, functionally written) about paper, what you intend to say. Ideally this should be a single big idea, which you can sustain for the length of the essay, made up of stages that can be demonstrated with reference to the passage in question. It may well be that you want to write something similar to this ‘line of argument’ paragraph, only in a more dynamic and essay thesis statement, elegant way, for study of toenail and cancer of the colon and prostate your introduction. See the page entitled ‘constructing an essay thesis, argument’ that has an apa style paper, example of a ‘line of argument’ paragraph. 3) Then write out a linear plan of your essay with a logical ARGUMENT, an argument that is essay thesis assertively stated and then proved through the study breast colon, course of your piece.

TIP: try not to separate out style, content and context; discuss them together to show how the relate to one another. Censorship Essay! You are aiming to produce something that identifies and describes both the wood and the trees; indeed, the essay summary, trees are your evidence for thesis the existence of the wood! You need to put together a big argument out of lots of bits of evidence. 1) Everyone has his or her own way of writing. I sometimes find it easier to write the middle of the essay first and then come to the introduction last, which is perhaps the hardest bit to an indian father& essay write. You may find that your ideas change and are worked out more fully as you start to write. In which case go back to B) and produce another plan. Present your ideas as a finished thought, rather than a thought process. 2) Keep yourself closely to your argument by censorship imagining your reader. Perhaps a friend, a tutor or a parent might serve: imagine them behind you as you write asking ‘SO WHAT?’, making you insist on its relevance and trying to prove a particular point.

Imagine that you are a newspaper editor writing a polemic, trying to convince your readership of a particular point of frederick learning view. 3) Inventing a title and writing an essay, introduction. You should try to make your essay interesting to an examiner. Which do you think is the best of douglass learning essay summary these three titles: ‘Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’; ‘Discuss the question of race in Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’; ‘The “gallant slave”: the idea of the noble savage in Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’. Similarly with the introduction. The first sentence should grab the examiner immediately. Which is a better first sentence: ‘Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko was published in 1688 and censorship essay thesis, is a prose work about in research, Surinam’; ‘At the heart of Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko stands the censorship essay, deep paradox of the ‘royal slave’. 4) Using secondary literary criticism. It is, of learning to read summary course, good to read lots and to incorporate that reading into your work. What you are attempting to do, though, is to position your independently arrived at ideas in relation to statement other critics in douglass learning to read essay, the field.

You shouldn’t be deferential or let the ideas of others drag you off course. You should USE other people’s work in the service of censorship essay your own argument. For example, you might disagree with a critic; you might apply their theory about one text to another; you might say that their work hasn’t gone far enough in its assessment. Never use a quotation from someone else to clinch an argument: just because someone famous has said x or y it doesn’t mean that it’s necessarily true. I sometimes find it useful to write a draft of my paper that includes no secondary reading at all, basing it just on my general knowledge of the critical field. I then do some detailed research in secondary criticism before writing a second draft. Should A Cover! This means that the agenda is not dictated by essay other scholars, and ensures that I use them rather than becoming their spokeswoman. Make sure, of course, that all your reading is properly referenced to avoid a charge of plagiarism. 1) Check the spelling: in particular the names of the father& 39s plea, author and the text that you’re looking at MUST be spelled correctly. 2) Check your punctuation. Censorship Thesis Statement! If you don’t know how to use particular punctuation marks please get a book and learn how.

In particular the misuse of apostrophes is deeply irritating to an examiner. A Case-control Study And Cancer Of The Breast And Prostate! The Collins gem guides are really good also Lynne Truss, Eats, Shoots and Leaves is fun and thesis statement, informative. 3) Make sure that you get hold of the apa style in research, blue booklet, ‘Essay Writing and Scholarly Practice’, from the general office. You must use the reference guide in there. Essay! I favor the MHRA guidelines; you may prefer the MLA style. If you do reference a website it is best to put it in a footnote rather than the text were it looks ugly. You should always include some close detailed analysis of the literary text(s) that you’re discussing in your essay. And Cancer Of The Breast! This demonstrates your sensitivity to the forms, textures and ideological purpose of censorship essay thesis language. You should aim to show the relationship between form and meaning, between the on mutual funds in india, text and censorship essay, its world. Before you can put together an argument about the relationship between a text and frederick douglass summary, its time you will need to do some close reading, compiling a list of technical features in a text or an excerpt from a text. Essay! Choose excerpts that relate to themes or passages that interest you.

Then you can develop a checklist of features to look for. Essay! Use this as a guide but you may want to add to, or amend it. *** What you see will be very different from what other people see. So, although it looks like a slightly dry exercise, this is where your ideas, your originality will come from. Close reading, in any module, will make your essays sparkle. *** #61623; Prose, drama or poetry? #61623; Genre? (e.g. is it panegyric, epic, restoration comedy or what ever) #61623; Does it remind you of anything? Can you compare or contrast it with something of a similar date? Or, alternatively, compare it with something of a similar genre from the previous or next decade, for example, in essay thesis, order to investigate change over time. #61623; Poetry: metre, rhythm and rhyme. Look at the section on poetic form at the back of the Norton Anthology (p. An Indian 39s Plea! 2944) and other guides.

Don’t just describe metre etc but ask yourself how it works in that particular passage. Censorship Thesis Statement! How are units of meaning created by the line divisions? When a poet downplays or emphasizes a particular word through positioning it in a particular way, what effect does it have? How does the poet manage tone, pace and register with his use of rhyme and rhythm? iF THESE FEATURES ARE NOT IMPORTANT IN YOUR PIECE IGNORE THEM. #61623; Drama: look at the length / speed of the speeches, the an indian 39s plea essay, stage directions, the entrances and exits. #61623; Prose: rhetorical features and clause structure are the censorship essay thesis statement, things to look out for in particular. Are the sentences complex or simple? Is it in 39s plea essay, hypotaxis or parataxis? What about word order and syntax, is there anything unusual or unexpected there? #61623; What is the overall structure of the passage / text? Are there abrupt changes or a progression from one idea to another?

#61623; What other structures are there? Symmetries, comparisons and contrasts, digressions, asides, repetition. Is there any dialogue? Are the arguments circular or progressive? #61623; Are there any words you don’t fully understand? If you aren’t in a closed exam you could look them up in the Oxford English Dictionary online. Essay Statement! This would also give you a sense of the essay, other meanings that that word might have. Censorship Essay Thesis! Are there any puns? #61623; Think about grammatical features: tenses, conditional constructions, the passive voice. Is the should letter, passage in the first, second or third person?

Perhaps there are tense or person shifts; what effect do these produce? #61623; Look out for predominance: several superlatives or comparative adjectives and censorship essay statement, adverbs; a lot of words that mean a similar thing, repetitions of an indian essay possessive pronouns or what ever. #61623; What kind of censorship statement language is being used? i.e. what register is it in? Is it elevated or earthy, legal or lyrical, rhetorical or religious? Why? #61623; Look for particular rhetorical features: metaphor and simile, hyperbole and litotes, personification, metonymy and so on.

#61623; Look at punctuation (but be careful: it could be the intervention of a printer or a later editor). Look out for: enjambment, parentheses, direct speech? When the frederick douglass learning essay, punctuation is sparse, why? Is it because there is censorship a proliferation of conjunctions that resist punctuation like, for example, the learning to read essay, word ‘and’. This may indicate parataxis or a very conversational style. #61623; Look out for allusions and references, often to the bible or classical stories.

If you don’t know them and you’re not in a closed exam, look them up in censorship thesis statement, a reference dictionary or on the internet. #61623; What is the tone of the should be in, passage? Is it homiletic, comic, anxious, melancholy or ironic? How is censorship statement this effect created? #61623; Where else does that poet use similar phrases, ideas, patterns and images? What does it say about his or her concerns and art? TIP: Don’t make simple associations between sense and sound. What Should Be In! For example, whilst there are a lot of warm words that begin with ‘m’ (like, for censorship thesis example, milkmaid, mother, magic etc) there are also some, like ‘malice’, ‘muscular’, ‘murder’ which evoke quite different associations. You then need to think how those technical features, which you’ve noted construct the meaning of the passage / text. Do not think about form and content as separate things as if form were a kind of cloak in which meaning is dressed: they are organically connected. Above and beyond that you will also need to paper think about essay, how that text (both its form and selenium colon, its meaning) relate to the particular concerns and fashions (literary, political, philosophical etc) of its time.

You might think about the way in which repeated ideas in your text / excerpt link to significant contemporary discourses. Look for substituted vocabularies: i.e. when love / sex is discussed with the language of money / credit for example. Censorship Essay! Could that be related to essay prevailing economic trends and ideas? When you are constructing your ARGUMENT and statement, writing your essay, consult your close reading list. Not everything there will be relevant to your ARGUMENT; you only want to include the things that relate, that offer evidence for a particular point of view about how the text is placed culturally, politically, socially and / or historically. Research is what should letter crucial for any essay and requires a certain amount of initiative. You will partly have to learn by trial and error. Here are a few tips and ideas, though. Read both narrowly (and address the theme of your essay) and thesis, also widely. A Cover! So if you are, for example, researching infanticide, also research the censorship essay, family or law / crime.

When you research a context it might be worth look at the work of philosophers, painters, and frederick douglass learning to read, theologians and see what they were saying / doing in this period. An essay which looked at the early modern patriarchal family in the light of Robert Filmer’s political tract Patriarchia, for censorship example, would be much more interesting than one that only looked at on mutual funds modern historians’ account of the early modern family. An essay that discussed the thesis, panegyric written to, or on a particular king, alongside the portraits that were painted of him could also be very suggestive. EEBO might be very useful here at helping you to find out about, say, sermon culture or advice literature. (look at the last page of what should be in a cover letter this booklet for some help here). Think of some the areas, themes, historical moments, authors and ideas that you want to essay thesis find out about. Douglass To Read Essay! List them as key words. For example: Aphra Behn, Oroonoko, race, royalism, restoration, early modern, colonialism, slavery etc Do not be limited here. Think of terms / phrases that will give you some background too.

How about censorship thesis, ‘cheap print’, ‘renaissance politics’ etc Then begin on the computer. Be careful of stuff that you find on the ordinary WWW. It is not usually very reliable. Often this is stuff that people can’t publish in proper books. Use it is a guide and be very critical. 1) http://www.jstor.org (through the Warwick network only). Here you can read articles from reputable, peer-reviewed journals on line. An excellent starting point.

Try various combinations of your search terms in either the Basic search (will give you hundreds of items) or in the advanced search form (which will give you much narrower and probably more useful stuff. Try it out; go to the advanced search form: A) In the box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the word ‘Behn’. Then tick the box marked ‘title’ and then also the box marked ‘article’. Press the ‘Search’ button. See if you can identify any articles with a particularly historicist bent. B) In the box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the words ‘White’ and ‘Black’ and learning summary, ‘England’.

In the box marked ‘exact phrase’ enter ‘Seventeenth-century’. Press search and see what you get out. Try other, similar search terms. C) In the essay statement, box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the word ‘Royalist’. In the and cancer of the and prostate, box marked ‘at least one of these words’ enter the words ‘print culture’. Perhaps limit to articles by checking the relevant tick box. Press search and censorship essay, see if any of those are useful. [you will see that sometimes you have to do some considerable sifting to find good things.] 2) The Modern Language Association of America database direct access from the douglass learning to read essay, Warwick network at: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/library/electronicresources/databases/#m. The bibliographic databases are listed alphabetically so scroll down to ‘M’.

Select ‘MLA’. This will give you the reference only (although Warwick may provide a link to the on-line journal). You may find that some of the things that are listed you won’t be able to get because Warwick doesn’t subscribe to essay thesis that journal or perhaps the apa style in research paper, item is a doctoral dissertation from another institution. Don’t worry, you’re not expected to read everything under the sun. Leave those things that you can’t get. Try it out: put in thesis statement, the search terms ‘Aphra’, ‘Behn’ and ‘race’ into the keywords box. Press search and thesis funds in india, see what you get. 3) Historical abstracts: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/library/subjects/arts/elecresources/#databases_internet. Again, use this database to help you compile a list of articles or books that you could look at either on-line, if Warwick has a link, or in essay thesis statement, the library.

Ignore the things that you can’t get hold of. A) Put the search terms ‘restoration’, ‘race’ and ‘England’ into the keywords box. Press search. B) Put the search terms ‘early modern’ and ‘print culture’ into the keywords box. Press search. Again you will have to decide what’s useful / relevant. 4) Use the library catalogue, don’t limit yourself to books about English. Study Of Toenail And Cancer And Prostate! Put in essay, search terms that will give you books on the historical background that you’re looking for. Once you have found one book on be in letter, the shelf look around in that same area for censorship essay thesis others that will be related by subject.

5) Look on your reading list for general background books. CONSTRUCTING AN ARGUMENT. Producing a successful argument is a process that has a number of professions for women essay stages. Often you will understand your argument better after you have started writing. It is thesis important that you go back and re-plan your work, taking into account your new findings. You will need to develop a provisional thesis, however, so that you have somewhere to start: a focus for frederick learning essay your close reading and research.

You don’t need to argue that history is essay thesis important for the study of a case-control selenium and cancer breast and prostate literature. You can take that as a given and move on to say something a bit more sophisticated about how the essay statement, particular poem / play or prose piece you’re working on intersects with a particular set of events or ideas in apa style in research, a specific historical moment. A good argument should be fairly specific rather than general and comprehensive. In particular, when writing a historicist essay, do not list the ways in which one text is embedded in its period. Instead choose one of those ways and censorship essay, research it in more depth. So, rather than writing about, say, Ben Jonson’s interest in Anabaptists, Spanishness, alchemy, the plague, etc in The Alchemist, choose one of these themes and find out about it in the historiography of the frederick essay summary, seventeenth century and couple this research with a close reading of those sections of the play that treat that theme. Your readings of the text and censorship essay thesis statement, the history of the times should suggest your detailed argument. Don’t think of your argument first and then try to press it onto the play or poem you’re interested in; allow your idea to grow out of your reading.

Below is my best attempt at in india a LINE OF ARGUMENT for an essay on essay, Rochester and Milton. Again, I should stress that this is only by way of demonstration what I would do. This is very different from a cover letter, what you would do. There is no one way and your ideas will be as interesting / valid as mine. Don’t think that you have to produce something the same, or even necessarily similar I have done this just to give you an censorship, example of what I mean. I have tried to construct an frederick summary, argument which uses both close reading and historical context. Imagining the future in the restoration: a critical comparison of the poetry of John Wilmot, Earl of essay Rochester and John Milton. Line of Argument: This essay will argue that Rochester’s poetry is frederick to read essay not only everywhere fascinated by time, regularly exploring what it is and how it operates, but that this interest betrays his sophisticated engagement with contemporary political philosophy. It will closely interrogate the forms of several of Rochester’s time-related poems for their political sensibilities. It will then contrast those poetic forms and political sensibilities with those in the poetry of John Milton and especially Paradise Regained.

Milton as I shall show with the use of censorship essay thesis statement historical evidence is letter very differently socially and politically placed, indeed at the other end of the ideological spectrum from the censorship thesis, Earl of douglass Rochester. I shall show that the difference is one of dispossession (Rochester) and providence (Milton). Rochester’s narrators exist in fear of, and subject to censorship essay thesis statement an arbitrary and absolute future; Milton’s Paradise Regained, on the other hand, asks an imagined republican reader to wait in anticipation of an indian 39s plea essay a future in which God will deliver their political success. I shall explore the way in which Rochester’s pessimism the idea and tone of dispossession in his poetry and essay statement, Milton’s optimism the 39s plea, visionary quality of thesis his providential allegory stand in professions essay summary, contrast to the respective fortunes of the essay statement, political groups to which those poets actually belonged and at the particular times when the poems I’m discussing here were written and published: i.e. Rochester’s being part of the royal court and an indian 39s plea essay, Milton’s being displaced from his office at the restoration of Charles II. This will arrive at, by way of conclusion, the demonstrable sadness of censorship some of Rochester’s verse which indicates the complex circumspection with which he viewed his own aristocratic, political community and douglass essay, its limited expectations of monarchical authority. HELP FOR THIS PARTICULAR ASSESSMENT. Details of what you are expected to do are on the departmental website at: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/english/undergrad/modules/second/en228/assessedessay2/ There you will find a list of texts and details of essay how to find them on EEBO (Early English Books Online). Thesis Funds In India! Their website is at: http://eebo.chadwyck.com/home.

You need to download those texts, read them and then choose one to write about. You could also read the essays, published on essay thesis statement, the EEBO website, by previous Warwick students that have won prizes for their attempts at apa style paper this assignment. http://www.lib.umich.edu/tcp/eebo/edu/edu_win_03.html. You might also use EEBO in your essay research. Try the subject list in particular. If you get yourself to the search form at http://eebo.chadwyck.com/search you can click on censorship statement, the link marked ‘select from frederick douglass learning essay summary, a list’ next to censorship essay thesis the subject keyword box.

This has all sorts of interesting categories: look up, for example, ‘anti-catholicism’ or ‘restoration’, ‘credit’ or ‘murder’. I would like you to do what you can in terms of placing the text of your choice, and researching it. Then I’d like you to be in a cover letter come and essay thesis statement, see me at the end of term with a title and a line of argument. You could also, if you wish, bring a longer essay plan. This is Isabel talking to her group. We will all be available on email over the holidays--do ask.

Gabriel won't be here after the holidays--he lives in London--but do come and see me, his group, if you need a person to talk to. USING THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY. The OED can be found online (through the a case-control and cancer breast colon and prostate, Warwick network) at http://www.oed.com. When we read an edited text we often have a helpful gloss which an statement, editor has provided so that words and essay, phrases that we don’t understand are defined for us. In this assignment you will have to put together that gloss for yourself and the best way to start to do that is with the OED.

The OED is an extraordinary resource that will give you assistance in all sorts of ways. For example: a) it will obviously help you to understand words which you don’t understand or unusual applications. It will also help you to find obsolete and dialect words. b) it will help you to see how words have changed their meanings or emphases over time. c) it will help you to censorship essay statement identify puns. There may be sexual or religious connotations to a particular word that we may have lost. Some times our modern definitions will co-exist with old, and now obsolete meanings.

d) it will tell you the earliest use of a particular word. Professions For Women Essay! This is useful for thesis working out which of several definitions might apply to apa style the word you’re looking at. Look at the examples, that is the quotations that are given, and note their dates. Censorship Thesis Statement! It may be that you find that the word was new or recently borrowed from another language. Click the ‘date chart’ button to see the for women essay summary, uses represented on a time line. It may be that you will find that a word is used differently and in different contexts at essay thesis different points of the seventeenth century: what might the apa style in research, use of a particular word / phrase tell us about an author’s engagement with political, historical or sociological movements?

e) Look at the etymology: this might tell you about censorship statement, how the text you’re looking at engages with particular fashions or imperial encounters. Look up, for example, ‘chocolate’ where does the word come from? At what period does it come into the language? f) the examples given in the dictionary will also help you to see how other contemporaries used the word or phrase you’re interested in, and in what sort of contexts it came up. In this way it can operate as a concordance. You should investigate the on mutual funds in india, concordances available in the library, by the way.

Similarly they will give you a sense of how a particular word or phrase is used elsewhere. You should use the OED not just to look up words that you don’t understand but also other words, especially those that are used in an unfamiliar way. You will find more interesting things if you look up lexical, rather than grammatical words. Censorship Statement! That means verbs, adjectives, adverbs and nouns rather than prepositions, articles and pronouns. You need to remember that there was no standard spelling in the early modern period; the move to standardize spelling did not occur until the middle of the should a cover, eighteenth century. This means that when you have a word you don’t understand it you may not get an adequate definition by putting it in exactly as it is into the OED search box. Try that first but if it isn’t found, or you get a definition that is not right (i.e. the examples indicate that its earliest use was a lot later than your text) you should try different spellings. In particular the vowels are often interchangeable.

Try every vowel combination that you can think of. Try substituting ts and cs, us and vs and other related consonants. Try out the OED. Look up the following words: how have their meanings have changed? Where do the words come from? How were the essay thesis, words used at different points in history?

And in the seventeenth century in apa style paper, particular? Department of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Humanities Building, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL.