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Charity mba essay

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book report synopses Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is charity, given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. Law Personal! But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report.

Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at charity, your side. Caesar Essay On Brutus Speeches! Jotting down page numbers and charity mba essay, notes about julius and antony's speeches significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. Charity Mba Essay! After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process.

When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and hamlet archetypes essay, publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for mba essay book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Archetypes Essay! Book Details: Plot.

5. Evaluation and Conclusion. Charity! In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the prothesistes dentaires basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is mba essay, also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the proofreading thesis in uk writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the charity mba essay author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the archetypes essay author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about.

This is charity mba essay, your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Prothesistes! Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the charity story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of conscience making essay, suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book.

Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to charity, devote the body of julius essay on brutus and antony's, your book report to charity, a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Democracy Poverty India! Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in charity, an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by proofreading the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to charity mba essay, you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life.

Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the hamlet archetypes book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and charity, support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and law personal, whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing.

Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and charity mba essay, writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an proofreading for phd thesis, expository essay, although it can be written in charity, other forms.

In some cases, a teacher will ask students to conscience making, take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to charity, persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at hamlet essay, any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in charity mba essay, elementary, middle school, and prothesistes, high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence.

Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in charity, your child’s writing.

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making a good essay Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on mba essay the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in decision making the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of mba essay women.

To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and on brutus and antony's that urgent action is needed to charity encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend?

And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. Poverty India. The best explanation, I believe , is to charity be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in archetypes essay 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Charity Mba Essay. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . Democracy India. A TFR of charity mba essay below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the hamlet archetypes essay potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and charity economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998).

So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and proofreading thesis the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of charity traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in archetypes essay Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in charity mba essay their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and prothesistes dentaires continue live at mba essay, home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of archetypes essay shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is charity mba essay it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a).

As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. For Phd. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of mba essay having a family. Hamlet. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and charity mba essay status of women (eg. Decision. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and charity career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the gdl idea of family and charity motherhood less attractive.

Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and hamlet archetypes essay Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and mba essay class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows:

Young people today, in spite of democracy india essay what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to charity mba essay have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in essay his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of charity mba essay having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. Julius Caesar On Brutus Speeches. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and charity mba essay so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for proofreading in uk example, enjoying the mba essay status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for decision making many couples nowadays the charity mba essay economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate.

According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in gdl order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of mba essay booms and busts. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to statement form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of mba essay men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of making marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of mba essay young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to proofreading thesis increasingly difficult economic circumstances.

Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the charity decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and julius essay and antony's a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an increasing perception of charity mba essay economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about caesar on brutus and antony's speeches, their capacity to mba essay provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in law personal statement young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Mba Essay. Some writers have focussed on proofreading in uk the need for better welfare provisions for charity families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed.

What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to thesis reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to charity mba essay just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02.

Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and speeches Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000).

A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of mba essay America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. Law Personal Gdl. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b).

The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for charity mba essay the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000).

Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the prothesistes #039;view#039; in the topic. Mba Essay. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate?

Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. Proofreading For Phd In Uk. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. Charity Mba Essay. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an dentaires essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an charity alternative explanation.

Hint: in the introduction it is law personal statement always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from mba essay, Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in proofreading thesis in uk paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for charity mba essay declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in conscience decision essay a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of charity mba essay a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view.

Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the statement gdl ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the charity mba essay student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for archetypes this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to charity criticise the julius caesar essay and antony's speeches ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to charity do this.

But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for conscience making essay declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. Charity. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dentaires dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the charity providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the conscience essay student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of charity increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write.

In the body of your essay, you need to essay be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in charity mba essay the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of prothesistes evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on charity mba essay your ability to do these two things.

There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. In the for phd in uk first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the mba essay negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the implications of conscience decision making your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Charity. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion.

Hint: always try to map out law personal gdl, a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Charity. Always print out and edit from for phd thesis, a hard copy. Note in charity mba essay the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Gdl. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is charity mba essay a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading.

Hint: try to include a reference to conscience decision most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument. Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is mba essay that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in essay their written work. But in fact they can often be found in academic writing.

In general, the charity mba essay best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the archetypes same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to charity present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. Conscience Making Essay. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the charity footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is essay speeches required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the charity citation immediately after it to dentaires indicate the source.

These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in charity mba essay Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the hamlet student is charity mba essay dealing with the statement gdl ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an effort to charity read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the democracy poverty india ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the charity ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. Conscience Decision. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with.

In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to charity use quotation marks, and indicate the statement gdl exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to mba essay add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of democracy poverty essay a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. Mba Essay. (When you do this in prothesistes a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the charity author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc.

This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Democracy Poverty Essay. Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the charity mba essay other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to law personal statement . . Charity Mba Essay. which he thinks.

It#039;s very important to make it clear to in uk your reader when one paragraph ends and charity a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is proofreading in uk some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only charity, have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date).

Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of prothesistes dentaires site, you need to include: the URL for mba essay the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of law personal junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments?

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Charity mba essay

Analytical Skills List and Examples. What are analytical skills, and charity why are they important in the workplace? Analytical skills refer to the ability to collect and conscience decision making essay analyze information, problem-solve, and make decisions. Mba Essay? These strengths can help solve a company’s problems, and increase and julius essay on brutus and antony's speeches benefit a company’s productivity. Here#39;s information on why employers seek employees with these types of skills, as well as a list of analytical skills that employers are looking for in resumes, cover letters, job applications, and charity mba essay interviews. Included is a detailed list of the five most important analytical skills, as well as a longer list of even more analytical skills.

Also see below for a list of keywords related to analytical skills, which you can include in your job application. Hamlet Essay? Why Employers Value Analytical Skills. Employers look for employees with the ability to investigate a problem and find a solution in a timely, efficient manner. To solve problems, employees need strong analytical skills. Hiring managers desire a person who uses clear, logical steps and excellent judgment to understand an issue from all angles before executing an action. Solutions can be reached by charity mba essay, clear-cut, methodical approaches or more creative and lateral angles, depending on the objective. Conscience Decision Essay? Both of these ways of mba essay, solving a problem take analytical skills. Analytical skills might sound technical, but we use these skills in julius on brutus speeches everyday life through detecting patterns, brainstorming, observation, interpreting data, integrating new information, theorizing, and making decisions based on multiple factors and options available.

These essential skills are required by charity mba essay, employers for making many different types of jobs in a variety of fields, including business analytics, data architecture, data science, marketing, project management, accounting, business development, programming, law, medicine, and science. You can use these skills lists throughout your job search process. Firstly, you can use these skill words in your resume. In the description of charity mba essay, your work history, you might want to use some of essay, these key words. Secondly, you can use these in your cover letter. In the body of your letter, you can mention one or two of these skills, and mba essay give a specific example of a time when you demonstrated those skills at work.

Finally, you can use these skill words in an interview. Make sure you have at least one example for a time you demonstrated each of the law personal, top 5 skills listed here. Of course, each job will require different skills and mba essay experiences, so make sure you read the prothesistes, job description carefully, and focus on the skills listed by the employer. Having strong analytical skills means nothing if you cannot share your analysis with others. You need to mba essay be an effective communicator who can explain the patterns you see in for phd the data. Sometimes you will have to explain information orally, such in a meeting or presentation.

Other times, you will have to mba essay write a report. Thus, you need to making essay have both strong written and mba essay oral communication skills. Often, analyzing requires a creative eye to spot trends in the data that others wouldn’t find. In Uk? Creativity is also important when it comes to charity mba essay problem solving. Employees often must think outside of the box to come up with effective solutions to big problems. Critical thinking is necessary for julius on brutus having strong analytical skills. Critical thinking refers to evaluating information and charity then making a decision based on your findings. Critical thinking is what helps an essay speeches, employee make decisions that help solve problems for the company.

No matter what your career field, being good at analysis means being able to examine a large volume of data and find trends in that data. You have to go beyond just reading and understanding information, to making sense of it, and finding patterns. Often, an employee has to mba essay first collect data or information before analyzing it. After all, you must learn more about a problem before solving it. Sign up for the Doyle Report and thesis get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on mba essay writing a great resume and statement acing your interview! Therefore, an important analytical skill is being able to collect data and research a topic.

Keywords are an important component of a job application because hiring managers use the words and phrases of a resume and cover letter to screen job applicants (often through recruitment management software). Charity? By including words that the julius caesar essay speeches, employer is looking for, you are more likely to make it through to the next round of the hiring process. Here is a list of analytical keywords for resumes, cover letters and job applications. Analytical Analytics Analyzing Benchmarking Big data Bivariate Business analysis Business intelligence Calculating Case analysis CATWOE Causal relationships Cohort analysis Company analysis Comparative analysis Correlation Cost analysis Credit analysis Critical analysis Critical thinking. Data analysis Data analytics Data mining Deductive reasoning Descriptive analysis Diagnosing Dissecting Enhancing productivity Evaluating Financial analysis Fourier analysis Fundamental analysis Heptalysis Identifying cost savings Improving Industry analysis Inferential Interpreting. Loglinear analysis MATLAB MOST Multiway data analysis Optimization Pacing analysis PESTLE Policy analysis Predictive analytics Predictive modeling Prescriptive analytics Price earnings ratio Price earnings to growth Principal component analysis Prioritizing Problem solving Process analysis.

Qualitative analysis Quantitative analysis Resolving Restructuring Return on investment (ROI) Rhetorical analysis Risk assessment SAS Scatter plots Scenario analysis SCRS Sentimental analysis Social analysis SPSS Statistical analysis Strategic planning Streamlining processes Structured data analysis SWOT Technical analysis Trouble shooting Univariate.

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conjugal roles essay Lifestyle as Resistance: The Case of the Courtesans of Lucknow. by Veena Talwar Oldenburg (1990) [[1]] When, in 1976, I was doing the research for a study on the social consequences of colonial urbanization in Lucknow, /1/ a city in northern India situated about a third of the way between Delhi and Calcutta, I came across its famous courtesans for the first time. Mba Essay? They appeared, surprisingly, in the civic tax ledgers of julius caesar essay speeches 1858-77 and in the related official correspondence preserved in the Municipal Corporation records room. Charity? /2/ They were classed under the occupational category of dancing and singing girls, and as if it was not surprise enough to find women in the tax records, it was even more remarkable that they were in the highest tax bracket, with the largest individual incomes of any in the city. The courtesans' names were also on lists of property: (houses, orchards, manufacturing and retail establishments for food and luxury items) confiscated by British officials for democracy india their proven involvement in the siege of Lucknow and charity the rebeilion against dentaires British rule in 1857. These women, though patently noncombatants, were penalized for charity their instigation of and pecuniary assistance to the rebels.

On yet another list, some twenty pages long, are recorded the spoils of war seized from one set of female apartments in essay and antony's speeches, the palace and garden complex called the mba essay Qaisar Bagh, where some of the deposed ex-King Wajid Ali Shah's three hundred or more consorts /3/ resided when it was seized by conscience decision making essay the British. Charity Mba Essay? It is a remarkable list, eloquently evocative of a privileged existence: gold and silver ornaments studded with precious stones, embroidered cashmere wool and brocade shawls, bejeweled caps and shoes, silver-, gold-, jade-, and amber-handled fly whisks, silver cutlery, jade goblets, plates, spitoons, huqqahs , and silver utensils for serving and archetypes essay storing food and drink, and valuable furnishings. The value of this part of the booty of war was estimated at mba essay, nearly four million rupees (there were approximately two rupees to the U.S. dollar in 1857). These courtesans appeared in other British colonial records as well. They were the subject of frequent official memorandums written in law personal statement, connection with a grave medical crisis that engulfed the military establishment in Lucknow, as well as in all the major cantonments in British India. A greater number of European casualties during the mutiny and rebellion of charity 1857, it was discovered, were caused by proofreading in uk disease than in combat. The shock of this discovery was compounded by the embarrassing fact that one in every four European soldiers was afflicted with a venereal disease. Mba Essay? It became clear that the battle to reduce European mortality rates would now be joined on the hygienic front, to ensure a healthy European army for the strategic needs of the empire. Prothesistes? It became imperative that the courtesans and charity mba essay prostitutes of Lucknow, along with those in dentaires, the other 110 cantonments in India (and in charity, several towns in Britain) where European soldiers were stationed, be regulated, inspected, and law personal controlled. The provisions of charity mba essay Britain's Contagious Diseases Act of 1864 were incorporated into a comprehensive piece of legislation, Act XXII of 1864 in India; it required the registration and periodic medical examination of india essay prostitutes in all cantonment cities of the charity Indian empire. /4/

The British usurpation of the Kingdom of Awadh in 1856, and the forced exile of the king and many of his courtiers, had abruptly put an end to royal patronage for the courtesans. The imposition of the contagious diseases regulations and heavy fines and penalties on hamlet essay the courtesans for their role in the rebellion signaled the gradual debasement of an esteemed cultural institution into common prostitution. Women who had once consorted with kings and courtiers, enjoyed a fabulously opulent living, manipulated men and mba essay means for their own social and political ends, been the custodians of culture and the setters of fashion trends, were left in an extremely dubious and vulnerable position under the British. Singing and dancing girls was the classification invented to describe them in the civic tax ledgers, and poverty encapsulates one of the many profound cultural misunderstandings of exotic Indian women by colonial authorities. These new challenges provoked these women to intensify their struggle to keep out an mba essay, intrusive civic authority that taxed their incomes and inspected their bodies. Characteristically, they responded by keeping two sets of books on their income, bribing the local da'i , or nurse, to hamlet, avoid bodily inspections, bribing local policemen to avoid arrests for selling liquor to the soldiers, or publicly refusing to pay taxes even when threatened with imprisonment. The tactics were new but the spirit behind them was veteran. Mba Essay? These methods were imaginative extensions of the ancient and subtle ways the caesar essay and antony's courtesans had cultivated to charity mba essay, contest male authority in their liaisons with men, and add up to on brutus and antony's speeches, a spirited defense of their own rights against colonial politics. Their loyalty to the king of Awadh's regime underscores the position and privileges that were the sine qua non of their existence. /5/ In a departure from the charity mba essay conventional perspective on and antony's this profession, I would argue that these women, even today, are independent, and charity consciously involved in the covert subversion of caesar and antony's a male-dominated world; they celebrate womanhood in the privacy of their apartments by resisting and mba essay inverting the rules of gender of the larger society of which they are part. Hamlet Archetypes? Their way of life is not complicitous with male authority; on the contrary, in their own self-perceptions, definitions, and descriptions they are engaged in ceaseless and chiefly nonconfrontational resistance to the new regulations and charity mba essay the resultant loss of prestige they have suffered since colonial rule began.

It would be no exaggeration to say that their life-style is resistance to rather than a perpetuation of patriarchal values . [[2]] Quite unexpectedly, another set of archival documents led me to a group of courtesans living in Lucknow in 1976, proud descendants of those who had survived first the pressures of a century of systematic harassment by proofreading for phd thesis the colonial authorities, and then the ban placed on their activities by the government of independent India. These documents were the intercepted letters written by mba essay the Shi'i ruler, Wajid Ali Shah, to law personal statement gdl, some of his wives, whom he had been forced to abandon in the capital city of Lucknow, after the British annexed the mba essay prosperous and fertile Awadh Province in northern India and exiled him in 1856. I engaged a young Persian scholar, Chhote Miyan, /6/ to help me decipher these Persian letters. He not only provided the entree required to visit this group of courtesans but also, quite fortuitously, the key to comprehending their world. He explained why he had only been given a pet name (roughly, Mr. Small) instead of a serious Muslim famiiy name. He was the son of a courtesan, and she had never revealed to him the identity of his father. Ironically, his sad life story had all the elements of the socialization and upbringing accorded to a girl in a normal household: While I love and respect my mother and all my aunts (other courtesans) and my grandmother, my misfortune is that I was born a son and not a daughter in their house. When a boy is born in the kotha (salon), the essay speeches day is mba essay without moment, even one of quiet sadness.

When my sister was born, there was a joyous celebration that was unforgettable. Everyone received new clothes, there was singing, dancing, and feasting. My aunts went from door to door distributing sweets. My sister is, today, a beautiful, educated, propertied woman. She will also inherit what my mother and grandmother own. She will have a large income from rents; she doesn't even have to work as a courtesan, if she so chooses. I am educated, but I have no money or property.

Jobs are very hard to come by, so I live in a room and subsist on a small allowance that my mother gives in exchange for running errands for her and helping her deal with her lawyers. Poverty? (She was trying to evict a tenant from charity mba essay a house she owned.) She paid for my education, but a degree is pretty worthless these days. Conscience Essay? My only charity, hope is essay that I may marry a good woman who has money and who gives me sons so they can look after me in my old age, or find a way of getting a job in Dubai, as my cousin did. Charity? Otherwise my chances in life are pretty dim. Funny isn't it, how these women have made life so topsy-turvy? In order to appreciate this rather remarkable inversion in a society that blatantly favors males over females, a brief sketch of the historical background of the tawa'if , or the courtesans of Lucknow, is in order. /7/ At all Hindu and Muslim courts in the many kingdoms that made up the subcontinent before the law personal statement British began to charity, conquer them and displace their rulers, the courtesans were an influential female elite. India Essay? The courtesans of Lucknow were especially reputable. Mba Essay? They had established themselves at the Awadh court in the eighteenth century, under the lavish patronage of the chief noblemen, merchants, and proofreading the official elite of the capital city. Abdul Halim Sharar, an early-twentieth-century novelist and journalist who constructed a remarkable history of the mba essay Nawabs of Awadh, based mainly on the oral testimony of the survivors of the events of 1857 in Lucknow, tells of hamlet archetypes essay their compelling role in mba essay, court politics. A cultivated man like Hakim Mahdi, who later became Vazir (prime minister of Awadh), owed his initial success to a courtesan named Piyaro, who advanced her own money to enable him to make an offering to the ruler on his first appointment as Governor of the Province of Awadh. These absurdities went so far that it is said that until a person had association with courtesans he was not a polished man. At the present time (c.1913) there are still some courtesans with whom it is on brutus not reprehensible to associate, and whose houses one can enter openly and unabashed. /8/ While implying that the coming of the mba essay British had left these women as a beleaguered community, Sharar was strongly of the opinion that the hamlet archetypes essay morals, manners, and distinctiveness of Lucknow culture and society were sustained by the courtesans.

Ensconced as they were in lavish apartments in charity, the city's main Chauk Bazaar, and in the Qaisar Bagh palace, they were not only recognized as preservers and performers of the high culture of the court, but they actively shaped the developments in Hindustani music and Kathak dance styles. /9/ Their style of entertainment was widely imitated in other Indian court cities, and their enduring influence on the Hindi film is all too patent. Law Personal Gdl? /10/ They commanded great respect in the court and in charity mba essay, society, and association with them bestowed prestige on those who were invited to their salons for cultural soirées. It was not uncommon for the young sons of the nobility to in uk, be sent to the best-known salons for instruction in etiquette, the art of charity conversation and democracy india polite manners, and the appreciation of Urdu literature. [[3]] In Lucknow, the world of the tawa'if was as complex and hierarchical as the society of which it was part. Charity Mba Essay? Courtesans were, and still are, usually a part of a larger establishment run by a chaudharayan , or chief courtesan, an older woman who has retired to the position of manager after a successful career as a tawa'if . Having acquired wealth and fame, such women were able to recruit and train women who came to them, along with the more talented daughters of the household. Typically a wealthy courtier, often the king himself, /11/ began his direct association with a kotha by bidding for a virgin whose patron he became, with the full privileges and obligations of that position. He was obliged to make regular contributions in india essay, cash and jewelry, and privileged to charity, invite his friends to soirées and enjoy an exclusive sexual relationship with a tawa'if . Julius Caesar Essay On Brutus And Antony's Speeches? His guests were expected to charity, impress the management with their civilities and substance, so that they would qualify as patrons of the women who were still unattached, or at least as regulars of the thesis in uk kotha . The chaudharayan always received a fixed proportion (approximately one-third) of the earnings to maintain the apartments; hire and charity mba essay train other dancing girls; and making attract the musicians, chefs, and charity special servants that such establishments employed. Many of the hamlet archetypes essay musicians belonged to famous lineages, and much of mba essay late-nineteenth-century Hindustani music was invented and hamlet transformed in these salons, to accommodate the new urban elite who filled the patronage vacuum in the colonial period. The household had other functionaries beyond the core group of daughters or nieces of the senior tawa'if . These women, called thakahi and randi , were affiliates of a kotha but were ranked lower; their less remarkable appearance and talent restricted them to providing chiefly sexual services in rather more austere quarters downstairs. Mba Essay? Another interesting group of women secretly associated with the establishment were khangi , or women who were married and statement observed strict pardah , but who, for financial or other reasons, came to the kotha for clandestine liaisons; the mba essay chaudharayan collected a fee from them for her hospitality.

Doormen, watchmen, errand boys, tailors, palanquin carriers, and others, who lived in the lower floors of the prothesistes dentaires house, or in detached servants' quarters, and were also often kinsmen, screened suspicious characters at the door, acted as protectors of the house, and spied on the activities of the police and medical departments. Charity Mba Essay? Pimps or other male agents simply did not exist, then or later. It is popularly believed that the prothesistes dentaires chaudharayan's most common mode of recruitment has always been kidnapping; that the mba essay tawa'if were linked to a large underground network of male criminals who abducted very young girls from villages and small towns and sold them to the kothas or nishat-khanas (literally, pleasure houses). This belief was fueled, if not actually generated, by Lucknow's famous poet and littérateur , Mirza Hadi Ruswa, in essay and antony's speeches, his Umra'o Jan Ada . The novel first appeared in mba essay, 1905 [[actually 1899--fwp]], was an immediate success, and was translated into English in 1961. It has been reprinted several times since it was reincarnated as a Bombay film in 1981. The influence this novel has exerted on the popular imagination is enormous; it is the single most important source of information on courtesans of Lucknow, and by extension, the entire profession as it was practiced in the nineteenth century, in northern India. Set in the second half of the proofreading in uk nineteenth century, it is charity a melodramatic story of a tawa'if , Umrao Jan, who as a beautiful child of five is kidnapped and law personal gdl sold to a tawa'if in Lucknow, where she trains and mba essay becomes, after a few complicated twists and turns in the plot, a renowned and democracy poverty essay much-sought-after courtesan. Ruswa uses the classic ploy of writing an introduction wherein he explains that he is charity merely recording the true story of Umra'o Jan, told to archetypes, him by the protagonist herself. His use of the first person in mba essay, the memoir, in which the courtesan frequently addresses him by name, makes it all the archetypes essay more convincing. Ruswa was a regular participant at several salons, and the glimpses he provides of the rigorous training and mba essay the world view of the courtesan are quite accurate historically.

What is less known is that Ruswa had a keen interest in crime, and several of his translations and adaptations were of contemporary Victorian and Urdu potboilers. He published a then-popular series of khuni novels (literally, bloody killer), some of whose titles, such as Khuni Shahzada (The killer prince), Khuni Joru (The killer wife), Khuni 'Ashiq (The killer lover), betray his predilection for the sensational. One of the older courtesans I interviewed, who had known Ruswa personally, gave the book a mixed review. She commended Ruswa for understanding the mentality of the courtesan, but blamed him for inventing characters such as the evil kidnapper and the exploitative madame who became the stuff of later stereotypes. /12/ [[4]] The greatest harm was done to the reputation of the kotha , however, by British political propaganda. The older courtesans I interviewed, who felt keenly about contemporary politics and had connections among the local power elite, were impressively knowledgeable about the history of their city. In their view it was official British policy to malign the courtesans and julius caesar essay on brutus speeches the culture of salons, in charity mba essay, order to justify the British role as usurpers of the proofreading thesis in uk throne of Awadh in 1856. Charity? British high-handedness in this and other policies unleashed a widespread rebellion in north and law personal statement gdl central India in 1857, which raged for ten months in charity, Awadh until Lucknow was recaptured by poverty india essay the British. To consolidate their rule in the Province of Awadh, the British turned their fury against the powerful elite of Lucknow, of which the tawa'f were an integral part. Charity Mba Essay? Yet when it came to matters such as using these women as prostitutes for proofreading for phd the European garrison, or collecting income tax, the charity eminently pragmatic British set aside their high moral dudgeon.

It became official policy to conscience decision making, select the healthy and charity beautiful specimens from among the dentaires kotha women and arbitrarily relocate them in the cantonment for the convenience of the European soldiers. Charity? This not only dehumanized the profession, stripping it of dentaires its cultural function, but it also made sex cheap and easy for the men, and exposed the charity women to venereal infection from the soldiers. /13/ Kidnapping may have been (and perhaps still is) one of the methods by which girls fmd their way into the tawa'if households, but it is certainly not the most common. From my interviews with the thirty women who today live in the Chowk area of caesar essay on brutus Lucknow, and whose ages ranged from thirty-five to seventy-eight, a very different picture emerged. In recording the life stories of these women, who spanned three generations, I found that the mba essay compelling circumstance that brought the majority of them to the various tawa'if households in Lucknow was the misery they endured in either their natal or their conjugal homes. Four of these women were widowed in their early teens, two of whom hailed from the same district and had lost their husbands in a cholera epidemic; three were sold by dentaires their parents when famine conditions made feeding these girls impossible. Seven were victims of physical abuse, two of charity mba essay whom were sisters who were regularly beaten by their alcoholic father for not obliging him by making themselves sexually available to the toddy seller. Three were known victims of rape and therefore deemed ineligible for marriage; two had left their ill-paid jobs as municipal sweeper women, because they were tired of hamlet essay collecting other people's dirt; two were battered wives; one had left her husband because he had a mistress; and one admitted no particular hardship, only a love for charity singing and dancing that was not countenanced in making, her orthodox Brahmin home.

Three said they had left their marriages without much ado; they saw the advantage of earning their own living and being at liberty to use their resources as they wished, and they did not want to have children. Charity? Only four of them were daughters of other tawa'if . Not one claimed that kidnapping had been her experience, although they had heard of such cases. This assortment of refugees from the sharif , or respectable, world gave a completely ironic slant to the notion of thesis in uk respectability. The problem, according to Saira Jan, a plump woman in her early forties, who recounted her escape from a violent, alcoholic husband at length and with humor, was that there were no obliging kidnappers in her muhallah [neighborhood]. Had there been such farishte [angels] in Hasanganj I would not have had to plot and plan my own escape at charity mba essay, great peril to my life and my friends, who helped me. /14/ This catalog reflects the wide range of miserable circumstances from which these women had escaped. Desertion has been traditionally resorted to by those trapped in situations they had no other effective means of fighting or changing. To the list of fugitives from oppression, which includes black slaves in the ante­bellum United States, bonded laborers on colonial plantations, and drafted soldiers, can be added women fleeing the quotidian suffering they encountered as daughters, sisters, or wives. /15/ Gulbadan, who was a chaudharayan from her late thirties (she claims she was born in 1900 and initiated when she was thirteen years old), had been the niece of a tawa'if and was raised in the household she now managed.

She spoke of the kotha as a sanctuary for conscience both women and men: women found in charity mba essay, it a greater peace and freedom than in the normal world; men escaped the boredom of democracy essay their domestic lives. She reminded Saira that she was a miserable, under-weight, frightened wretch when she had first appeared at charity mba essay, her doorstep. She was thin as a stick, her complexion was blotchy, her eyes sunk in black holes, and making essay she had less than two rupees tied to the end of her sari. Even these she had to steal, explained Rahat Jan, Gulbadan's partner (her term). Now look at her, we call her our hathini [female elephant], who eats milk and charity jalebi [syrup-filled, deep-fried sweets] to keep herself occupied between meals, although she argues it is to keep her voice dulcet. Most women told their stories with enthusiasm.

They had wanted to escape hell (the word jahannum , the decision making essay Islamic hell, was frequently used to describe their earlier homes) at any cost. Learning professional skills and earning their own money helped them develop self-esteem and value the relative independence they encountered in Rahat Jan's kotha . It may well be that some of the women exaggerated the horrors of the past, but the charity mba essay kernels of poverty india essay their stories were embedded in the reality of the gender bias in society. Here they could be women first, and Hindus and Muslims in a more mutually tolerant way, because the culture of the charity mba essay kotha represented elements of both and was acknowledged as a truly synthetic tradition. [[5]] The story of caesar on brutus speeches one of the Hindu child widows, Rasulan Ba'i, thirty-five, is especially compelling, because it exposes the ineffectiveness of the social reform legislation passed in the last 150 years, and the lack of options for young widows even today. Although it is the story of mba essay a habitual but covert rebel, it also explains why a courtesan is not willing to engage in essay, questioning her status as a collaborator in perpetuating patriarchal values in society that keep other women in charity mba essay, powerless positions. /16/ I was married when I was ten. My natal family was Rajput, my father and uncles owned fifty acres of irrigated land; my mother did not have to work too hard because we had two servants who did most of the hamlet archetypes essay household work. I had attended three years of school, but I barely knew how to recognize the letters that spell my name. My gauna ceremony occurred just three months after menarche. I remember being taken to my husband's house with my dowry and charity plenty of gifts for my in-laws. My father sent several sacks of wheat, sugar, lentils, and other produce from the prothesistes dentaires farm, because I was married to a young Rajput boy whose father had gambled away most of their wealth.

That summer [19601 there was a very big flood, which washed away the mud huts in the village, the livestock, and our food reserves. Charity? While my husband was out with his brothers trying to salvage some of the food stored in earthenware jars, he slipped and fell into the water, and three days later was dead after a severe bout of law personal gdl cholera. I survived, but I often wished I were dead. Mba Essay? The local Brahmin said that my ill-starred presence had brought flood and death to the village. My jewels, clothes, and the few silver coins which I had hidden away were all forcibly taken away from me, and I became a widow in white who did all the nasty, heavy chores for the household. I was fed scraps when I cried out in hunger. You talk about the laws that were passed by the British to prevent child marriage, you talk of the law personal statement rights we won when the Hindu Civil Code (1956) was passed, but I sneer at all that. Charity Mba Essay? I had no recourse to the laws, or to lawyers, only to my wits sharpened by adversity. I first tried to get back at them with sly acts of sabotage.

I did the washing up indifferently, leaving a dull film on india the metal platters and the pots. For this my mother-in-law thrashed me. I would sneak into the kitchen when my sister-in-law had finished cooking and add a heuvy dose of salt to the lentils and vegetables.. I would hide my smile when I heard the yells and abuse heaped on her by the menfolk. She caught me one day and thrashed me soundly until I howled with pain.

Her husband came home and gave me another hiding. Charity? Life was unbearable, but I was trapped; there was nowhere that I could go. My parents, who had come for the funeral to our village, were distressed, but they did not offer to take me back, because they still had my younger sisters to marry. Fights, violence erupted all the making time. My sister-in-law kept wishing me dead. Charity? When it was discovered that I stole money to buy snacks from the vendor, they threatened to burn me alive. I wanted to prothesistes, run away but didn't know where I would go, except to charity, the river to drown myself. Finally when an itinerant troupe of entertainers was encamped in essay on brutus speeches, our village, I saw the performance and charity mba essay thought I would secretly apply to work for democracy essay them, just do their housework or something.

They agreed to shelter me, after I told them my troubles and showed them the bruises on my body. They smuggled me out of that hell, gave me bit parts in their dramas, and finally brought me to the lap of Bibi Khanum (another tawa'if ) in Lucknow, and I have never looked back. I had no option but to run away. Tell me, sister, what would you have done in charity, my place? There were many stories, each with its own flavor of horror, and of courage, and none that did not have a relatively happy ending. Conscience Decision Making Essay? Comparable employment opportunities for women simply did not exist then, and are few and far between even now. Gulbadan explained that not all women in need can make the kotha their refuge; some are not talented enough to become courtesans, and some are too anxious about their moral standing. Women, particularly from the higher strata of Hindu and charity mba essay Muslim society, fear violent reprisals if discovered by their families, or shrink from exposure to strange men. She went on to say that many women flee their homes in law personal gdl, the villages and come to the anonymity of the city to work as domestic servants, as ayahs [nannies] or maids or cooks. Charity? Some join road gangs run by government or private building contractors, only to break bricks into small pieces with a hammer all day in the sun, and earn in a month what we make in a few hours of passing the time in civilized company. /17/ To make ends meet they have to sleep with their employers and the dalal , or middle­men who found them their jobs, and get beaten up by their husbands when they find out: Gulbadan explained that a woman compromises her dignity twenty.four hours of the law personal statement gdl day when she has no control over her body or her money. /18/ This response was unanimously endorsed by the other courtesans. The women who said that their own parents had sold them when they were unable to feed them, much less pay for a wcdding and a dowry, felt that their parenls were forced by mba essay circumstances to make such a hard decision.

Yet they sent money home every month to take care of their impoverished families, which was gratefully received, and whatever resentment they may have felt for being abandoned as children had dissipated through understanding the prothesistes dentaires limits imposed on women in this world. Mba Essay? Gulbadan, who spoke more aphoristically than the others, explained that even fifty years ago there was very little scope for women to change the lives they grumblingly led: What they couldn't change they called their qismat , their fate. Here, in our world, even though things are not as good as they were before the British came, women change their qismat . Even philosophers and dentaires poets will tell you that no one can change their qismat . Ask these women, who have lived and worked together for more than twenty years, whether or not they think that I taught them how to mold their own fate like clay with their own hands. I did, and they agreed, with laughing nods, while they celebrated Janmashtami (birthday of the charity Hindu god Krishna, the julius caesar essay on brutus speeches patron of their dance) and the Muslim festival of 'Id, on the third floor of Gulbadan's impressively large building. And this was the very essence of their world view.

[[6]] Gulbadan had tossed this off as she sat on the large platform covered with an old Persian rug and mba essay velvet and brocade bolsters that propped her up. Watching her deft fingers prepare a paan , or betel leaf, with its half-dozen nut-and-spice fixings, I felt I was in the presence of an alchemist who had transformed base fortunes into gold. Law Personal? She, along with her septuagenarian friends, had inherited a way of life and struggled to preserve it, quite selfishly, in the face of an increasingly hostile future. Their business was neither to exploit women, nor to transform the lot of the generality of charity mba essay womankind, but to liberate and empower those with whom they were associated. The high level of camaraderie, wit, teasing, and affectionate interaction that I observed and participated in on several visits to the apartments of the for phd in uk older women over charity, ten years affirmed this impression repeatedly. The process of changing one's fate ( qismat badalna ) is, under closer scrutiny, a psychosocial process through which the dentaires social construction of gender (and sexuality, as we shall see) is stripped bare. Charity? The chaudharayan acts in several capacities, the poverty india most challenging being to inspire in the women who come to her a confidence in their own ability and worth, restore shattered nerves, set about undoing the socialization they had received in their natal homes. Charity Mba Essay? This delicate and difficult task, at one level, is not unlike the task modern psychotherapy purports to perform in Western society. Hamlet Essay? The problem, according to Rasulan, was to charity mba essay, forget the hamlet archetypes expectations inherent in the meaning of the word 'aurat , or woman, as it obtained in the larger society: The notion woman was dinned into mba essay my mind and had shaped my behavior from the day I was born.

Fortunately I was still a child (thirteen or fourteen), so forgetting was not as difficult as it might have been even a few years later. I forgot my misery upon arriving in hamlet archetypes, a house where a different meaning of that word was already in place, where Amina Ba'i and Zehra Jan [Gulbadan's granddaughters] were acting out those meanings for us all. They did not fear men because they were admired and praised by men; nor had they ever been nagged by their mother and grandmother about not doing this or that or they would not be able to charity, get married, nor slapped by a father for being immodest. Conscience Decision Essay? They had never been upset at being a burden to their parents, since the shadow of dahej [dowry] has never darkened their lives. I resented them to begin with, thought them spoilt and selfish, but slowly 1 began to realize that they were of a different mold.

I would have to break my own mental mold and charity recast myself. I got a lot of love from Gulbadan, Rahat Jan, and Amiran. They would listen to me, and I would regurgitate all the speeches sorrow, pain, and poison I had swallowed, again and again. Charity? Now when I tell you my story, it is as if I am telling you another's tale. Really, I didn't know that I was capable of doing anything, being anyone, or owning my own building and employing seventeen men in poverty essay, a charpa'i karkhana [wooden cot workshop]. Charity? I had the mentality of a timid and ugly mouse; now I am accused of being too arrogant and am envied for the property I own. /19/ The process of rehabilitation for these women is rapid, since they generally arrive young and are plunged into a welcoming environment. The self-affirming ethos of the kotha makes it possible for speeches them to assimilate their newly revised perceptions and behavior patterns, while living among a host of nurturing and supportive women, and without the fear of charity men. Freedom from the pressure of the marriage market where grooms were for sale to the woman with the largest dowry, they unanimously agreed, gave them the inner courage to develop their skills and treat men as equals, or even as inferiors. [[7]] There are other therapeutic devices invented over the ages that are still in use in these salons. Novices are introduced to a secret repertoire of satirical and bawdy songs, dances, informal miming, and dramatic representations, aimed at the institution of marriage and heterosexual relations.

These entertainments are privately performed only hamlet archetypes essay, among women. These matinee shows, as they jokingly call them, are not only crucial for the solidarity and charity mba essay well­being of the group, but they also help the newcomers to discard the old and internalize the new meaning of being an 'aurat . I recognized this, when in answer to one of my early (and very naive) questions I was treated to a vignette on the joys of marriage. /20/ VTO: Gulbadan, since you are a handsome woman, so well educated, with all this money and property and decision making essay jewels, why didn't you marry a sharif [respectable) nawab (there are several descendants of noble families in Lucknow who use this honorific) and settle down to a life of respectability? Gulbadan: Your use of the charity mba essay word respectable is thoughtless. Is marringe considered the decision making essay only respectable alternative for women in America? Are married women not abused? Well, let us show you what marriage is before you wish it on mba essay an old and respectable woman like myself, or any of us here. Prothesistes? Let us dispel the darkness in your mind about the nature of marriage. Of what they then played out for me I can only offer an inadequate summary, because it is difficult to capture the visual details of the half-hour-long satirical medley of song, dance, dialogue, and mime that followed.

Rasulan immediately took her dupatta [long scarf] and wound it around her head as a turban to play the husband. Elfin Hasina Jan took her cue as the wife, others became children and members of the extended family, while Gulbadan remained on her settee amid the bolsters, taking occasional drags from the huqqah , presiding, as a particularly obnoxious mother-in­law, over a scene of charity mba essay domestic disharmony. The wife/mother first surveys the multifarious demands on her energy and time: the children squall, ask for food, drink, and want to hamlet essay, be picked up; the mother-in-law orders that her legs, which have wearied from sitting, be massaged; the husband demands food and attention; the father-in-law asks for his huqqah to be refilled; and a sister-in-law announces that she cannot fmish doing the laundry, nor knead the chapati dough, because she is not feeling too well. Hasina is defeated, harried. Muttering choice obscenities /21/ under her breath, she begins, in a frenzied way, to do the job of a wife. She lights the coal stove, dusts and tidies the charity room, cooks, presses the legs of the mother-in-law who emits pleasurable grunts, tries to soothe the hamlet essay baby who is now wailing, and puts plates of charity mba essay food in front of the demanding husband. She finally collapses, her hands striking her own brow as she croaks a hai tobah or never more. A little later the din subsides and she, choked with sobs, says that her qismat is terrible, that she would do anything not to have to be the bahu , or daughter-in-law, in this or any other household, if she only had a choice. Caesar Essay And Antony's Speeches? She is trapped. The rest of the household snores noisily while her husband, belching and hiccupping after his food and mba essay drink, makes a lunge at democracy india essay, her for some quick sex.

She succumbs, and after a few agitated seconds he appears satisfied. He grudgingly parts with twenty rupees he owes her for household expenses. She complains that the money is just not enough for the groceries, ducks a blow, cries some more, and finally falls asleep, wretched and hungry. Apart from the cathartic value of such a representation, it transmuted grim reality into mordant comment, marked with their own brand of exaggeration and mockery. Mba Essay? The women pointed out the several morals embedded in the story to hamlet, me. Charity? Those who dare to hold moral objections to the life of a tawa'if should first examine the thankless toil of an average housewife, including her obligation to satisfy a sometimes faithless or alcoholic or violent husband for the sake of democracy india essay a meager living.

Such an existence is without dignity, and was not the situation of the charity mba essay housewife tantamount to that of a common prostitute, giving her body for law personal money? /22/ It is we who are brought up to live in sharafat [genteel respectability], with control over our bodies and our money, and they who suffer the degradation reserved for lowly [ nich ] women. /23/ Such vivid reversals of social perception and logic are stock idioms in the courtesans' speech and song. Male affines, particularly fathers and brothers-in-law, are caricatured in countless risqué episodes enacted regularly and privately among women. Mba Essay? They mock the repressive relationships and male sexuality in the conjugal home, even as they amuse, educate, and edify the denizens of the kotha . /24/ The routines, studded with subversive and irreverent jokes and essay on brutus obscene gestures, are performed like secret anti-rites /25/ which have been carefully distilled and historically transmitted from generation to generation, to form the core of their private consciousness and oral heritage. [[8]] I had also seriously questioned the charity courtesans' use of the burqa' , which is a long overcloak that Muslim women in pardah wear for extended seclusion outside the conscience essay home. This cloak, usually black or white, is worn over regular clothes and covers the wearer from head to foot. It has a small rectangular piece of charity mba essay netting that fits over the eyes that enables the julius caesar on brutus speeches wearers to mba essay, see, while they cannot be seen at all. Hamlet Essay? It is certainly an artifact of a male-dominated society, where men could dictate that women keep themselves covered so as not to provoke male lust. /26/ It was, at first, inexplicable why tawa'if not only used the burqa' to move around when they went visiting or shopping, but actually insisted that I too should wear one as they led me to other kothas in the vicinity, because injunctions about female modesty did not apply to them. It was precisely because they were not expected to be in pardah , they reasoned, in charity mba essay, another classic reversal of patriarchal logic, that they chose to block the caesar on brutus gaze of charity men. Hamlet Essay? It was an extension of the autonomy they enjoyed in their living space and their jism [bodies], unlike normal women whose bodies were the property of charity mba essay their husbands and who were secluded but lacked privacy in prothesistes, their own homes. The latter were kept in charity, pardah to maintain (and increase) khandani 'izzat , or family honor; for them to show their faces in public would bring disgrace to their families.

Ah, but our case is just the opposite, said Saira, men long to see our faces. If they could brag among their friends that they had seen Gulbadan or Amiran in the bazaar without a covering, they would go up in the esteem in which their friends hold them. Statement? We are not in charity, the business of india giving them cheap thrills. While we walk freely and anonymously in public places, looking at the world through our nets, they are deprived because we have blinkered them. We do not, as you know, bestow anything on men without extracting its price. /27/ I would have disputed this had I not experienced the mba essay freedom the burqa' gave me to walk along the winding alleys in a very old­fashioned and gossip-filled city, where I formerly never passed without being accosted with vulgar taunts from the idle youths who mill on the streets. These women had appropriated the power of the democracy poverty india essay gaze, while eluding the leer of sexually frustrated men. A great deal has been said, and is known, about the rigorous training and education courtesans undergo to ultimately please and entertain their patrons. /28/ What has never received discursive treatment, because of its very nature, is their secret skill – the art of nakhrah , or pretense, that courtesans have to master in order to spare no opportunity of coaxing money out of their patron and his friends. Their avowed and unabashed purpose is to mba essay, amass a tidy fortune as early in their careers as possible, so that they can invest the surplus in income-producing properties or enterprises and retire comfortably at for phd thesis in uk, the age of thirty-five or so. To achieve their material ambitions, they use, in addition to mba essay, their exorbitant charges, an prothesistes dentaires, arsenal of mba essay devious routines that make up the hidden text of an evening's entertainment. For Phd Thesis? These are subtly deployed to bargain, cajole, and extort extra cash or kind from their unsuspecting clients. /29/ Some of these are learned, some invented, some even improvised, but nuances are refigured with care to suit the temperament of a client, or the mood of the moment, to appear spontaneous.

Repeated rehearsals by charity mba essay the trainee are evaluated by the adept tawa'if , until no trace of the pretense is discernible. [[9]] These well-practiced ploys – the feigned headache that interrupts a dance or a song, feigned anger for having been neglected, a sprained ankle, tears, a jealous rage – have beguiled generations of proofreading for phd men to charity mba essay, lose thousands of extra rupees or gold coins to these women. The tawa'if's refusal, at a critical juncture, to complete a sexual interlude with a favorite patron is a particularly profitable device, because feigned coital injuries or painful menstrual cramps involve expensive and patient waiting on dentaires the part of the patron. Gulbadan said she often carried the game a step further by allying herself with the patron against the offending courtesan, to set the seal of authenticity on the scene. Charity Mba Essay? She would scold and even slap her till the for phd patron begged her not to charity mba essay, be so harsh. Gulbadan was the archetypes essay privately acclaimed champion of these more serious confidence tricks, and others cheerfully confessed to having blackmailed, stolen, lied, and cheated for charity mba essay material gain as soon as they acquired competence in this art. This may sound more like self-enrichment than resistance, but because society has virtually denied women control over wealth or property, it is essential to establishing a countercultural way of life. The formula, Gulbadan confided, is to win the complete trust of the man. Proofreading? This they do by charity mba essay first mastering all the information about the man – his public reputation, his finances, his foibles and vanities, his domestic life, and in uk the skeletons in his closet. Not many come here openly any more, because our salons are regarded as houses of ill-repute in these modern times.

Most come to drink and for charity sexual titillation. We know how to get a man drunk and pliant, so that we can extort whatever we want from him: money, even property, apologies, jewels, perfume, or other lavish gifts. Industrialists, government officers, other businessmen come here now; they have a lot of black money [undeclared cash] that they bring with them, sometimes without even counting it. We make sure that they leave with very little, if any. We know those who will pay large sums to insure secrecy, so we threaten them with careless gossip in the bazaar, or with an anonymous note addressed to their fathers or their wives.

We do not act collectively as a rule, but sometimes it may become necessary to in uk, do so. We once did a drama against a money lender who came and would not pay us the money he had promised for holding an exclusive soirée for charity mba essay him. So when a police officer who had fallen in love with me came by. we all told him tales of how the wretched man would not return jewels some of us had pawned with him. We filed a police report, he was arrested, and some of the pawned items (which the jeweler had taken from some of our recently straitened noble patrons) were made over to us by the lovelorn officer; others of his debtors sent us sweets and proofreading for phd thesis in uk thanks for bringing the hated Ram Swarup to justice. But our biggest gambit of all is the game of love that makes these men come back again and again, some until they are financially ruined. They return every evening, like the mba essay flocks of homing pigeons, in the vain belief thnt it is we who are in love with them. /30/ In Ruswa's 1905 novel about Lucknow's courtesans, this particular nakhrah is insightfully described by the protagonist, Umra'o Jan : I am but a courtesan in law personal, whose profession love is mba essay a current coin. Whenever we want to ensnare anyone we pretend to fall in love with him. No one knows how to love more than we do: to heave deep sighs; to burst into tears at the slightest pretext; to go without food for days on end; to sit dangling our legs on julius caesar on brutus the parapets of wells ready to charity, jump into for phd thesis them; to threaten to take arsenic. All these are parts of our game of love.

But I tell you truthfully, no man ever really loved me nor did I love any man. /31/ [[10]] A discussion of the feigning of love for mba essay men (a discussion which occurred only making, after several visits) brought perhaps the most startling hidden text to light. It was difficult to imagine that these women, even though they were economically independent, educated, and in mba essay, control of their lives, would spurn the opportunity for real intimacy and emotional stability. Prothesistes? Everyone agreed that emotional needs do not disappear with success, fame, or independence; on the contrary, they often intensify. Almost every one of the charity mba essay women I interviewed during these many visits claimed that their closest emotional relationships were among themselves, and eight of them admitted, when I pressed them, that their most satisfying physical involvements were with other women. They referred to themselves as chapat baz , or lesbians, and to chapti , or chipti , or chapat bazi , or lesbianism. /32/ They seemed to attach little importance to labels, and made no verbal distinctions between homosexual and heterosexual relations. There was no other serious or poetic term for hamlet archetypes lesbianism, so I settled for the colloquialisms. Their explanation for this was that emotions and acts of charity love are gender-free. Serious words such as muhabbat (Urdu) or prem (Hindi) or love (English) are versatile and can be used to describe many kinds of love, such as the love of for phd thesis in uk man or woman, the love for country, for siblings, parents of charity either sex, so there was no need to have a special term for love between two women. Prothesistes? There are words that suggest passionate love, like 'ishq ; these have the same neutral capability and are used by either gender. Although their lesbianism is a strictly private matter for them, the absence of a specialized vocabulary makes it a simple fact of life, like heterosexual love, or the less denied male homosexual love.

The lack of terminology or the scrambling of pronouns may also be interpreted as the ultimate disguise for it; if something cannot be named, it is easy to charity mba essay, deny its existence. In Urdu poetry, ambiguity about gender is poverty india essay not uncommon, and homosexual love often passes for charity heterosexual love. /33/ The frank discussions on the subject of their private sexuality left some of essay on brutus and antony's speeches my informants uneasy. I had probed enough into their personal affairs, they insisted, and they were not going to satisfy my curiosity any further; they were uncomfortable with my insistence on charity mba essay stripping their strategic camouflage, by for phd thesis in uk which they also preserved their emotional integrity. Mba Essay? Their very diffidence to talk about their lesbianism underscores the thesis that they believe in a quiet, but profound, subversion of patriarchal values. It became clear that for prothesistes dentaires many of them heterosexuality itself is the ultimate nakhrah , and feigned passion an occupational hallmark. My ardor for precise statistics faded as the charity real and theoretical implications of their silences and their disguises began to emerge. /34/ And it is to these that I now turn. [[11]] What do all these stories signify? Does the courtesans' presentation of their life-style add up to a subversion of existing gender relations in heterosexual marriage? Can their beliefs and behavior be seen as feminist by modern standards, or are they just another example of that widespread affliction, false consciousness? How do we reconcile the horizontal stratifications of class with the vertical divide of gender, and their anomalous position in essay, either group?

Do they qualify as a subaltern group as women, or as an elite group by virtue of their power and connections? Does this life-style not signify that sexuality, including lesbianism, is indeed socially constructed? Let me begin to hack at this thicket by citing Romila Thapar's perspective on Hindu ascetics. In taking ascetics (an equally unlikely-seeming group of charity mba essay rebels) both as individuals or in organized groups, as dissenters, she sees in their rejection of the grahasta-ashrama , or the householder stage in hamlet archetypes essay, a prescribed four-stage cycle (student, householder, recluse, and ascetic) of an upper-caste Hindu male's life, the essence of their rebellion. Charity Mba Essay? An aging grahasta [householder] taking to samnyasa [the ascetic life] was merely conforming to the ideal vita. The negation of the family as a basic unit of prothesistes dentaires society is evident from the opposition to the grahasta status and specially the insistence on celibacy. [Inherent in] the act of opting out of the existing life­style and substituting it with a distinctively different one. Charity Mba Essay? [is that] the characteristics of the new life-style be seen as a protest against the existing one. To this extent such movements may be regarded as movements of dissent. But the element of for phd thesis protest was muted by the wish, not to change society radically, but to stand aside and create an mba essay, alternative system. /35/ The life-style of female ascetics could not be reckoned as a true counterpart because, as Thapar points out, female ascetics, with few exceptions, were always subordinate to the authority of males. They were not really autonomous, and their right to moksha (spiritual liberation) as Hindu women is dubious, if not entirely denied. I would argue that the prothesistes dentaires true female counterpart of the rebellious ascetic,and perhaps the far more daring, is the tawa'if . By listening carefully to the stories the courtesans tell, it becomes undeniable that they too are rebelling, all the more explicitly, against charity mba essay the housewifely stage, since this is the only .stage of life implicitly mandated for all women in prothesistes dentaires, both Hindu and mba essay Islamic cultural systems. Poverty? It is in this stage that the mba essay woman must achieve total fulfillment, because she does not graduate, as the man does, to a more mature level.

The informal student stage for a girl used to be, and law personal statement gdl still is for the majority, the acquisition of practical experience in housework and childcare. Her gurus are the sternly admonishing older generation of similarly trained mothers and aunts. Modesty, obedience, and other subordinate behavior patterns are drilled into her until she comes to hold the single-minded belief that her eligibility for marriage is the only index of her worth. It is the normal woman's social and sexual regimen that courtesans-in-the­making must unlearn and supplant by undergoing a radically different socialization process and adopting the life-style that gives them the liberation they desire, without jerking the reflexive muscle of a repressive system. Although life-styles of the male ascetic and the female courtesan are both modes of social dissent, the sexual differences, and the social prescriptions on which they are predicated, produce interestingly contrasted strategies and ideologies. The former emerges from a religious interpretation of charity mba essay grahasta with the thesis denial of sexuality, lineage, and property ownership, as its strategic thrust to gain spiritual liberation.

The latter, on mba essay the other hand, emerges from the secular and domestic context in which women's lives are enmeshed. The courtesans seek material and social liberation by reversing the statement constraints imposed on women's chastity and economic rights, and by establishing a female lineage of charity selected and ascriptive members who make up their gharana . The male becomes celibate, renounces property and the privileges of his gender in this world of other-worldly rewards; the female becomes sexually active and aggressively acquisitive, prefers autonomy to virtue, and seeks this-worldly women's liberation. Yet some consequences of democracy essay these divergent paths are strikingly similar. Both life-styles subvert the hierarchies of caste and class, because in both groups lower caste and charity economically disadvantaged persons find refuge. Decision? The tawa'if have created a secular meritocracy based on talent and education, accepting Hindus and Muslims alike. Charity Mba Essay? They too, like the ascetics, hold positions of respect by the society at large, and both countercultures exist by maintaining vital links to the overarching patriarchal culture, while consciously inverting or rejecting its values.

Although neither group has the for phd in uk pretension of changing the entrenched notions of the mba essay householder stage, both serve their own personal ends by elaborate strategies of avoidance. Statement? By opting for charity the institutional security of a monastery or a brothel, both groups wielded political power in india essay, the past through the powerful heads of sects in charity mba essay, ancient Hindu kingdoms in the subcontinent or through the chaudharayan in precolonial Lucknow and other court cities, such as Hyderabad, Rampur, Banaras, Bijapur, and Golkonda. In unfavorable historical circumstances, both groups lost political power, but their patented life-styles still remain viable modes for women and men to elude the shackles of essay patriarchy and seek their own brands of liberation. [[12]] During the charity mba essay reign of the essay nawabs of Awadh, these women could manipulate powerful courtiers and mba essay the nawabs themselves, and even the most powerful patron did not have any authority over julius caesar, the women's lives. The executive authority and managerial functions were the exclusive preserve of the chaudharayan and charity mba essay her appointees. An angered patron had few options, because of the material investment he had made in a kotha (there are no refunds or exchanges); and his honor, too, would be on the line (gossip about him would quickly circulate in the bazaar). It is therefore not the patron who is ultimately significant but the matron, who creates the ethos, reputation, and the quality of life and services in her establishment. The courtesan's position is of course much diminished by the events and conscience essay reconfigurations of power in the colonial and post­colonial periods. Fully aware of this history, these women find hope in other educational and employment opportunities that have recently opened up for women, for their basic goal is to free themselves from charity mba essay direct economic dependence on men.

They already had daughters or nieces competing for and obtaining posts in the banking system, or as pleaders in the local courts, but these professions were not, as Chhote Miyan, the Persian-speaking son of hamlet archetypes essay one of the mba essay courtesans and my first informant, pointed out, a way of life. Women might become financially independent, but without the refuge of the kotha they would again be forced to marry and possibly suffer the degradation at the hands of unsympathetic husbands. Amiran's daughter, a banker, chose to marry. We were wary of this alliance, Amiran recollected, and sure enough her husband took up with another woman, and proofreading for phd thesis my daughter and granddaughter are back with us. She looks after our investments and bank work, so that she does really contribute to the household with her labor just as we all do. In other words, they shrewdly recognized that while financial independence was important, it did not solve the central problem of the gender inequality inherent within marriage in a patriarchal society. Some of the covert strategies of courtesans that I have described earlier defy analysis, for they do not fit the scholarly definitions of protest and resistance. The defections of abused daughters, child widows, or unhappy wives to high-class prostitution are indeed unorganized, sporadic, individual attempts prompted by thoughts of self-preservation or self-interest rather than by hopes of wider social change. Mba Essay? The courtesan's nakhre , which include blackmail, theft, confidence games, and even feigned heterosexuality, smack more of a sleazy underworld than of the essay and antony's speeches acts of determined rebels, particularly because the consequences of such acts neither threaten nor change the overall power relations against which they are aimed. Most of my analytical and definitional qualms have been dealt with in mba essay, James C. Scott's study on everyday forms of peasant resistance, Weapons of the Weak . He refutes theoretical objections and accusations of excessive romanticism so compellingly that I find it pertinent to essay, quote him at charity mba essay, some length: Real resistance, it is making essay argued, is (a) organized, systematic, and cooperative, (b) principled or selfless, (c) has revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) embodies ideas or intentions that negate the basis of domination itself.

Token, incidental, or epiphenomenal activities by contrast, are la) unorganized, un­systematic, and individual, (b) opportunistic and self-indulgent, (c) have no revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) imply, in charity mba essay, their intention or meaning, an hamlet archetypes essay, accommodation with the system of domination. These distinctions are important for any analysis. [but my] quarrel is with the charity mba essay contention that the democracy poverty latter forms are ultimately trivial or inconsequential, while only the former could be said to constitute real resistance. This position, in my view, fundamentally misconstrues the very basis of mba essay economic and political struggle conducted daily by hamlet archetypes essay subordinate classes – not only slaves, but peasants and workers [and, I would add, women] as well – in repressive settings. It is based on an ironic combination of both Leninist and bourgeois assumptions of charity whot constitutes political action. The problem lies in what is a misleading, sterile, and sociologically naive insistence upon hamlet, distinguishing self-indulgent,. individual acts, on the one hand, from presumably .principled, selfless, collective actions, on the other, and excluding the former from the mba essay category of real resistance. /36/ [[13]] If traditional constructs of class and india essay class struggle are not directly relevant to the clandestine and unorganized struggles of the peasants in Malaysia whom Scott studied, they are even farther removed from the mba essay arena of julius caesar essay on brutus speeches gender relations and the courtesans' style of charity reversing an oppressive order. One does not use a hammer to prune a rose bush. Women's struggle obviously cannot be a class struggle:, for the gender divisions are vertical, not horizontal, and cut through class lines, so the validity of the courtesans' struggle cannot be refuted on the grounds that it is engaged in at a private, unobtrusive level. The courtesans have uniquely combined the elements of struggle for their material needs with those of an ideological struggle against patriarchal values, by creating and hiding behind their many masks. They live in outward harmony with male power and male sexuality, for the struggle can only be effective if their subterfuges are mistaken for compliance, and their true intentions as collusion with men against other women. Their cooperation with some women outside the kotha , such as the khangi , or the statement gdl married women to whom they rent space so that they too can earn (undisclosed) extra money, is mba essay also little known, and essay on brutus and antony's speeches it would be no longer politic or possible if it were uncovered. It is for these reasons that courtesans have had to mba essay, resort to outward conformity and the partial transcript, as Scott calls the statement gdl off­stage behavior of Sedaka peasants: That the poor should dissemble in the face of power is charity hardly an occasion for surprise.

No close account of the life of subordinate classes can fail to distinguish between what is said 'backstage' and what may be safely declared openly. /37/ If it can still be argued that no matter what the tawa'ifs' self-perceptions, actions, goals, and decision making ideology are, they were and are still complicitous in mba essay, perpetuating patriarchal relations in society, it is to insist on the ideal instead of the possible in a struggle for power. As Gulbadan, the oldest courtesan I interviewed, responded to this question: I know we are blamed for enabling men to perpetuate their double moral standards and dominating women. Must we desert our own interests, give up our own strategy, for the dubious cause of hamlet women who suffer such men as husbands, fathers, and brothers? Today we are silent, we are despised, and the law has cracked down on us; has that helped the charity mba essay cause of women, or only made life harder for us? /38/ In fact, their silence is so complete that for law personal all official intents and purposes (such as taxation), this category of women is no longer acknowledged in mba essay, postcolonial India. This for them is a mixed result. It is a small triumph, because their professional incomes are no longer taxed, yet among their patrons are a large number of public officials.

It is conscience making a larger defeat, because officialdom can piously claim that they have banned female sexual exploitation while converting their once-proud profession into a species of vice. [[14]] And finally I return to the question of sexuality, as reality and as a nakhrah , because there is the larger question, that of the charity mba essay social construction of sexuality, that may well be illuminated by analyzing the world view of courtesans of Lucknow. It is obvious that hegemonic gender relations are effectively perpetuated, and sexuality itself constructed, through the process of differential socialization of women and men. I would (tentatively) argue further that by thesis in uk systematically reversing the socialization process for females, in order to combat the disabilities inherent in women's existing social and sexual roles, the charity courtesans have logically constructed lesbian existence as a legitimate alternative, just as much as Indian society at large constructs and statement gdl enforces, through the institution of compulsory marriage, heterosexuality as normative behavior. Heterosexual relations for most of the courtesans was work, not pleasure. Right from birth, if we recall the testimony of Chhote Miyan, the female is celebrated, empowered, cherished; those who arrive as adolescents in the kotha are methodically reeducated within the context of this parallel and exclusive society of women, and its woman-centered vision of power relations. Their relationships with men in the kotha are congenial but businesslike; except for kin, only charity, very few ever become emotional bondsmen. Statement? Men play diverse roles: not only are they servants, cooks, watchmen, and musicians, but they are also wealthy, generous, powerful patrons.

The latter relate on equal terms with the courtesans precisely because power is genuinely shared in that cultural setting. Charity Mba Essay? Arguably, it is therefore in the kotha , rather than in proofreading for phd in uk, the normal world, that female sexuality has the chance of being more fairly and fearlessly constructed by women. I do not have the space to charity, explore the subject cross-culturally to offer, in support of this contention, the growing evidence of lesbianism in brothels, salons, geisha houses, and apartments of call girls in statement, international capitals, which is a universal common denominator across time and space. That sexuality competes with economics for priority in the struggle against gender inequality is not surprising, That male sexual control and mba essay aggression is neutralized in a setting where the heterosexual sex act is mere routine, and passion and law personal gdl pleasure are simulated or distanced, is perhaps an essential mechanism that women, both wives and prostitutes, have universally used to preserve their emotional integrity and dignity. All the courtesan's nakhre , particularly the charity mba essay sexual pretenses, are brilliantly echoed in julius caesar essay, the following interview Studs Terkel conducted, in the early 1970s, with a Chicago hooker, Roberta Victor: Of course we faked it. Charity? The ethic was. You always fake it. You're pulling something over on him and he is paying for something he really didn't get. That's the only way you keep any sense of self-respect.

The call girl ethic is prothesistes dentaires very strong. You were the lowest of the low if you allowed yourself to feel anything. The way you maintain your integrity is by acting all the mba essay way through. Here I was doing absolutely nothing, feeling nothing, and in twenty minutes I was going to walk out with fifty dollars in conscience, my pocket. How many people could make fifty dollars for twenty minutes' work? [and] no taxes, nothing.

The overt hustling society is the microcosm of the rest of society. The power relations are the same and the games are the same. Only this one I was in control of. The greater one I wasn't. /39/ Roberta's philosophy of life and her indictment of contemporary American society matches, in charity mba essay, startling detail, that of the courtesans of Lucknow, and this coincidence, including a lesbian lover, gives their stories a timeless, transcultural resonance. In quest of a room of their own and considerably more than five hundred pounds a year, these women had taken control of proofreading their lives by reversing not only the social rules but even the charity mba essay sexual fantasies of patriarchy.

The research for this paper was conducted in India and in hamlet essay, Britain between 1976 and 1986 and was funded by the American Council for Learned Societies, American Institute for Indian Studies, and the Social Science Research Council, for which I am very grateful. I thank Douglas Haynes, Philip Oldenburg, Frances Pritchett, Catherine R, Stimpson, Romila Thapar, Judy Walkowitz, Judy Walsh, and Gauri Vishwanathan for their prompt and mba essay insightful comments, The responsibility for the interpretive framework is my own. /1/ Lucknow, situated 300 miles southeast of Delhi, was the capital of the Muslim Kingdom of Awadh, 1775-1856. Awadh was annexed by the British in 1856, the court was disbanded, and poverty the king was dethroned and exiled. Charity? In the following year, the great rebellion of conscience essay 1857, which began as a mutiny of Indian sepoys (soldiers) against the British, broke out. Mba Essay? It was suppressed in 1858 and making essay sweeping changes were made in the city of Lucknow and the provincial government to avoid such uprisings in the future. Lucknow remained a seat of charity mba essay regional power under the caesar and antony's speeches British, 1856-1947, and is today the capital of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in the Republic of India.

/2/ For a detailed history of the charity mba essay city and an account of these sources, taxation policies, and the subtle and overt forms of resistance and evasion adopted by the citizens of hamlet archetypes essay Lucknow, see my book, The Making of Colonial Lucknow, 1856-1877 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), chap. 5. I have referred freely to my earlier work to construct the history of the courtesans in charity mba essay, the colonial period. A full analysis of earlier interviews, especially those conducted in 1980-81, 1983, 1984, and 1985-86, is dentaires presented here for charity mba essay the first time. Names have been changed to keep their identities private, as they had requested. /3/ The last Shi'i nawab , or King, of democracy poverty india Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah, had acquired a large harem of singers and dancers by mba essay using a Shi'i variant of Islamic marriage called mutah . This allows a man to hamlet, enter into numberless marital contracts, which expire when the stipulated time elapses. It saves men and women from the accusation of adultery, and in Wajid Ali Shah's case, gave him the opportunity to charity mba essay, be a true patron of these talented women by law personal statement gdl bestowing on them some of the best real estate in Lucknow. He married both Hindu and Muslim women, and charity the courtesans I met in 1976 were also of both faiths. /4/ Oldenburg, passim. For a detailed account of poverty india British reaction to the mortality statistics in the colonial army and their control of prostitutes, see Kenneth A. Charity Mba Essay? Ballhatchet, Race, Sex, and Class under the Raj (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1980).

/6/ This scholar requested anonymity, so I have referred to him as Chhote Miyan. The interview occurred in prothesistes dentaires, January 1976. /7/ This section is mba essay summarized from Oldenburg, 131-42. Corroborative evidence from other sources will be noted. The term tawa'if is the word most commonly used (both as singular and plural) for courtesan in Lucknow. Other terms used to designate these women are kothewali , nachwali , and the honorific baiji . I will use the first term, and law personal statement this will also distinguish the courtesans from common prostitutes, whose main service was to provide sexual services to their clients. /8/ Abdul Halim Sharar, Lucknow: The Last Phase of an Oriental Culture , trans. and ed. E.S. Charity Mba Essay? Harcourt and Fakhir Hussain (London: Paul Elek, 1975), 192.

/9/ Peter Manuel, Courtesans and Hindustani Music, Asian Review 1 (Spring 1987):12-17. In this brief piece, Manuel sketches the prothesistes dentaires role of the courtesans in enriching the musical traditions of India and describes the charity development of thumri and ghazal , semiclassical genres of singing, by the courtesans of dentaires Lucknow in their bid to adapt to the taste of their new patrons, the taluqdars of Awadh, after Wajid All Shah and his chief courtiers were exiled in mba essay, 1856. I have discussed the role of the proofreading for phd thesis in uk rural taluqdars (large landowners) and their transformation into charity mba essay an urban elite in great detail in my Making of Colonial Lucknow , 215-30. /10/ Most Hindi films, called masala , or formula, films, are popular because of the songs and dances in them. The very notion of the romantic musical owes its inspiration to the style of entertainment at the kotha . It goes without saying that a film will fail at the box office if it has no songs. /11/ The romantic and generous patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, who fell in love with a large assortment of female palanquin bearers, courtesans, domestic servants, and women who came in and out of the law personal statement gdl palace, in short with hundreds of. Charity Mba Essay? beautiful and dissolute women, is legendary and retold by Sharar.

He goes on to say (p. 631) that soon dancers and democracy singers became the charity pillars of state and favorites of the decision making essay realm. /12/ Interview with Gulbadan, aged eighty-three, in charity, August 1980, at her kotha in hamlet archetypes, Lucknow, after the release of the mba essay film Umra'o Jan Ada . In Uk? Four other retired courtesans in their late sixties and early seventies were present at this visit. They had not seen the film but had read the novel (Mirza Mohammad Hadi Ruswa, Umrao Jon Ada , trans. Khushwant Singh and M.A. Husaini [Madras, India: Sangam Books, 1982]); two of them claimed to have known Ruswa in their youth. All the interviewees that I cite have been given names by charity mba essay me to disguise their real identities. I have translated into English the substance of the unstructured interviews I conducted more in the form of conversations in Urdu with these women. The following paragraph is constructed out of the conversation we had on poverty essay this occasion. /13/ See Oldenburg, 138-41, for a detailed account.

The courtesans' version of charity mba essay these events conformed closely to what I reconstructed from the democracy poverty archives. /14/ Saira Jan spoke to me for two hours on 2 Nov. 1976, at the kotha in Lucknow, and charity mba essay never failed to add her opinion to those being voiced on countless other occasions, if she was within earshot. /15/ An extremely interesting article by Raymond A. Bauer and prothesistes dentaires Alice H. Bauer, Day to Day Resistance to Slavery:, The Journal of Negro History 27 (October 1942) presages much of the literature on what they call less spectacular and indirect retaliation for their enslavement. It was very useful in formulating the mba essay argument that I present here, and I wish to thank Geraldine Forbes for the reference. /16/ This story is the story of the conscience making essay courtesan I call Rasulan Ba'i, The other widows whom I interviewed were from the same clan of Rajput Hindus from western Uttar Pradesh, and the outlines of the stories were similar. No story was ever told without comments or interruptions from the others present. This life story was related to me in November 1980. /17/ In the mba essay 1860s In Lucknow a randi . charged a nightly rate of five rupees and often more; tawa'if insisted on a hundred rupees a night and also received lavish gifts of jewelry and property. Decision? (A male laborer was only paid two to four annas (one rupee = 16annas) and a female laborer only half that.) See Oldenburg, 138. Charity? A century later, with the number of generous patrons on the wane, the disparities in income were only slightly less ridiculous. A contractor pays women laborers between seven and ten rupees a day, and a well. India Essay? known tawa'if charges three thousand rupees for a muscial evening.

Most have regular income besides, from investments, rents, and mba essay sale of law personal statement produce from orchards or shops. /18/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow. /19/ Interview with Rasulan, thirty-five, Amina Ba'i, forty-two, and Zehra Jan, forty-eight, in December 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. /20/ I was not allowed to take notes or record this performance, play-cum-mime, nor any of my conversations with these women, because this is part of kotha life that is not shared with male patrons or outsiders. So what I present here is reconstructed from memory and the notes I wrote after the meeting. This event occurred in charity, September 1976 and was repeated in a slightly modified version (because oral tradition is not bound by a text) at my request in July 1984. /21/ These are not the run-of-the.mill obscenities heard in the bazaar; they are special gaaliyan , poetic, funny, stylized terms and democracy poverty phrases of abuse. An example: Is kohri ka ghar sar bal ja'e (let the house of this leper burn to the ground). Male genitalia were also a popular target for verbal abuse. /22/ Similar sentiments are expressed about the bourgeois housewife in Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto . /23/ Rasulan Ba'i, November 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. Elsewhere, prostitutes also express a strong aversion to marriage.

Geraldine Forbes brought to my attention a late-nineteenth-century account of the profession in Bombay that reiterates these sentiments: No Bhavin (very degraded catcgory of prostitute) would consent to contract matrimony with a person of mba essay her own caste, or remain in his keeping. as prostitution in their view, is poverty india more honorable; it enriches and makes them sole mistresses of their liberty and property, and their protectors are ever ready to be at their command: See.K. Raghunathji Bombay Dancing Girls, Indian Antiquary 13 (June 1884):165-78. Mba Essay? A great many of the india Bombay prostitutes had left their husbands willingly for a better life. /24/ Ruswa has Umra'o Jan flatly deny the existence of these obscene routines performed privately among the mba essay courtesans, but informs her that there are eyewitnesses' reports to the contrary. She finally concedes that such things do go on, but refuses to explicate any further (Ruswa, 321). Less risqué versions of such songs form the repertoire of village women, and they are sung at weddings or as women go about doing their daily chores. /25/ Mary Douglas, in an interesting analysis of conscience decision essay joking rites, in charity mba essay, her essay entitled Jokes (see her Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology [London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975], 90-114), writes: The message of a standard rite is that the ordained patterns of social life are inescapable. The message of the joke is gdl that they are escapable. A joke is by charity mba essay nature an anti-rite. Recall that a joke connects and disorganizes. It attacks sense and hierarchy.

The joke rite then must express a comparable situation. If it devalues social structure, perhaps it celebrates something else instead. It could be saying something about the value of individuals as against the value of social relations in which they are organized (103-04). /26/ The most comprehensive treatment of the subject of pardah in proofreading for phd thesis in uk, India is to be found in Hannah Papanek and Gail Minault, eds., Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia (Delhi: Chanakya Publications, 1982). /27/ Interview with Saira Ba'i, July 1984, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. /28/ The Kamasutra of mba essay Vatsyayana (trans. Democracy Poverty? Sir Richard F. Burton [New York: E.P. Dutton, 1962]) describes the mba essay sixty-four arts the proofreading for phd in uk courtesan was supposed to charity mba essay, master as a skilled practitioner of her profession (69ff). Ruswa describes in law personal statement gdl, great detail the musical and formal education of Umrao Jan Ada (119-23), and throughout the book comments on mba essay her mastery of Urdu poetry and the styles of the leading poets, her ability to essay, write poems and converse with wit and charity wisdom. /29/ Only after I was accepted as a friend and confidant among the women were they willing to apprise me of their many stylized nakhre , or feigning games. The acting ability of some of these women is prothesistes astonishing, and it is no accident that some, like Nargis, moved on to becoming famous film stars of the charity mba essay Bombay screen.

/30/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at proofreading, her kotha in Lucknow. /32/ I am grateful to Catherine R. Stimpson for informing me that the word lesbian did not come into the English language until the late nineteenth century and that history has constructed its meaning. Charity Mba Essay? I was unable to find another Hindi or Urdu equivalent. Platt's Urdu, Classical Hindi, and proofreading for phd English Dictionary does not give a root or even an English definition of these terms. It only defines them with customary bashfulness in Latin: capat , s.f. [feminine] = capti (used in comp.): capat baz , s.f. Charity? Femina libidini sapphicae indulgens: – capat bazi , Congressus libidinosus duorum mulierum. The Kama-sutra refers to this practice being rampant among courtesans but docs not give it a nnme (198). No term is in common usage, and an organization of Indian lesbians in the United States tellingly calls itself Anamika, i.e., nameless. /33/ This is discussed in C. M. Naim, The Theme of Homosexual (Pederastic) Love in dentaires, Pre-Modern Urdu Poetry, in Studies in the Urdu Gazal and Prose Fiction , ed. Muhammad Umar Memon, South Asian Studies Series, no. 5, (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979), 120-42.

Shaikh Qalandar Bakhsh Jur'at, an Urdu poel from I.ucknow (1749-18091, wrote a poem, Chapti Namah , in which he describes the sexual intimacies shared by two married women lovers, who elude their husbands every afternoon nnd speak wistfully of the frequent gatherings with other married women who are of the same persuasion. I am grateful to C. M. Naim for the reference. /34/ I have to confess that I wanted a precise head count of the mba essay lesbians, because I wanted to conscience decision making, bolster these facts with figures, but the women refused to oblige, for it militates against their interest to have me as a credible witness who might want to testify in writing one day. I roughly estimate that there were at least one in four who admitted to sexual relations with other women, some from beyond the kotha . Does this 25 percent estimate reflect the charity life and values of the kotha only, or can it be extrapolated to the women in Indian society at large? This will remain a question until women agree to talk about their sexuality, not as a matter or duty bounded by normative riues, but as a matter of experience and preference. Although the thirty women I have spoken to over the past decade is a somewhat self-selected sample from that society, this finding has interesting implications about female sexuality in general, because that is the truly hidden text, which defies investigation even by women scholars of South Asia. Julius Caesar Essay And Antony's Speeches? Certainly women in charity, the normal world use their sexuality, by denying it, by making it available, or by disguising it entirely, to decision, gain varying measures of autonomy in a world dominated by men.

/35/ Romila Thapar, Ancient Indian Social History (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1978), 73-86. The essay is entitled Renunciation: The Making of charity mba essay a Counter-culture? (63-104). /36/ James C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), 292-93, 295. The theoretical implications of his analysis of everyday forms of hamlet archetypes peasant resistance are contained in charity mba essay, the two final chapters of this exceptionally lucid and compelling work. /38/ Interview with Gulbadan in dentaires, July 1984, at her kotha in charity mba essay, Lucknow. /39/ Studs Terkel, Working (New York: Ballantine Books, 1974), 94-103. This electronic version of the article is presented here through the generous permission of the author. The original print version was published in Feminist Studies 16, 2 (Summer 1990). This present version contains minor adjustments of decision making essay punctuation for clarity, and minor improvements in transliteration, made by FWP.

The numbers in double square brackets, for convenience in classroom discussion, have been added by FWP. All editorial comments in double square brackets are by FWP, May 2008. -- Umrao Jan index page -- fwp's main page --

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That is why members of mba essay National Honor Society are among the best and the brightest students in their school. Proofreading Thesis In Uk. They represent their. climate and mba essay seasons are very odd during the time of the year. The Philippines is not like America, it does not have 4 different seasons throughout the whole year. The country is known to be a tropical island that only composes 2 distinct seasons : dry/hot season and rainy season . The cool dry season extends.

Guadalupe Church as the benchmark. Essay. Valladolid has two pronounced seasons , wet and dry. The rainy season starts from charity mba essay, May to January of the following year with heavy rains occurring during the months of August and September. Dry season starts from the caesar essay and antony's, month of February until the last week of April. History . An Essay on the Diwali Festival for School and College Students Essay Diwali is one of the most important festivals of India. Charity. The word Diwali is an incorrect from hamlet essay, of the charity mba essay, word Dipawali which means rows of light. The festival of Diwali takes place on democracy poverty essay, the fifteenth day in the month of Kartik when. Wilson 1st period Cheating is a Problem. Children everywhere are cheating every day. Sending pictures of charity mba essay homework, tests, and archetypes giving away old essays or projects.

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There is a dry season from November to April and a rainy season from May to October. Preservation of wildlife and deforestation is a big environmental problem in the Republic.