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Biology Concept. Vitamin C Content in Various Fruit Juice Essay. This experiment examined the effect of vitamin C content in you admire fruit juice on DCPIP’s colour changes using acid-based titration method. A titration is short essay on a method of analysis that will allow us to determine the precise endpoint of a reaction and therefore the precise quantity of reactant in the titration flask. The objective of the experiment was to determine vitamin C content in various fruit juice which it is include freshly squeezed juice( orange and lemon), commercial juice(orange and lemon) and vitamin C tablet. As vitamin C is important for human and it cannot be stored in the body, vitamin C should be extracted and human can get the expository on someone, vitamin C by eating fruits and vegetables that have vitamin C. Other than that, the objective is to identify which fruit juices has higher vitamin C content and an indian essay, the lowest vitamin C content. To identify which fruit juices has higher vitamin C content and the lowest vitamin C content. To determine the standard curve of vitamin C based on concentrate of vitamin C. To differentiate between fresh squeezed fruit juices and commercial carton fruit juices.
The best way to extract vitamin C, and for human to benefit from fruit juice is when fruit juice is freshly blended or squeezed. Essay On Someone You Admire? The concentration of a business plan vitamin C is more in freshly blended fruit juice that can be useful for on someone, human. Prime Essay? In short, drinking freshly prepared fruit juice is better than drinking commercial fruit juice such as TWISTER and PEEL FRESH. Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to essay you admire, synthesize vitamin in their body, it is have to constantly supplied in the daily diet. Vitamin C is wade required for the biosynthesis of expository you admire collagen , and certain neurotransmitters . Collagen is an essential component of connective tissue, which plays a vital role in short essay on wound healing. If it is applied topically may protect skin from free radical damage after exposure to UV rays. Vitamin C is also involved in protein metabolism. Vitamin C is also an important physiological antioxidant and has been shown to regenerate other antioxidants within the body, including vitamin E. Ongoing research is examining whether vitamin C, by limiting the damaging effects of free radicals through its antioxidant activity, might help prevent or delay the development of certain cancers(protect cell and DNA from damage and mutation),and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes also can benefit from extra vitamin C. It can help regulate blood sugar level. People with diabetes may not have enough vitamin C inside many of their cells.
Supplements vitamin C can force it into body cells, where it can protect against expository you admire many complications of diabetes.Vitamin C helps to prevent heart disease by preventing free radicals from damaging artery walls, which could lead to plaque formation. This nutrient also keeps cholesterol in the bloodstream from oxidizing, another early step in the progression towards heart disease and stroke. Vitamin C may help people who have marginal vitamin C status to obtain favorable blood cholesterol levels. High blood pressure may also. improve in the presence of this wonder vitamin. All these factors combined make vitamin C an inexpensive and easy way to lower one#8217;s risk of short essay on heart disease and expository essay on someone you admire, strokes. Writing A Business For Dummies? Vitamin C during pregnancy is required to convert folic acid into its active form. It increases the absorption of iron from expository you admire non-animal foods such as spinach and also plays a role in the storage of iron in major organs e.g. the liver. Vitamin C therefore aids the body in the efficient use of folic acid and iron. Some studies suggest that taking vitamin C along with vitamin E may help prevent preeclampsia in father& 39s plea women who are at high risk. Preeclampsia, characterized by high blood pressure and too much protein in the urine, is a common cause of premature births. Not all studies agree, however.
DCPIP is a chemical compound used as a redox dye. When oxidized, DCPIP is expository essay on someone you admire blue with a maximal absorption at 600 nm; when reduced, DCPIP is wade colorless. DCPIP used as an indicator for Vitamin C. Essay? If vitamin C, which is essay roe vs wade a good reducing agent, is present, the you admire, blue dye, which turns pink in acid conditions, is ib philosophy reduced to a colorless compound by essay on someone you admire, ascorbic acid. DCPIP (blue) + H+ ——> DCPIPH (pink) DCPIPH (pink) + VitC ——> DCPIPH2 (colorless) C6H8O6 + C12H7NCl2O2 ——> C6H6O6 + C12H9NCl2O2. In this titration, when all the ascorbic acid in the fruit juice has been used up, there will not be any electrons available to reduce the DCPIP and the solution will remain pink due to the DCPIP. The end point is a pink color that persists for 10 seconds or more.
The objective for the experiment was to wade, determine vitamin C content in the fruit juices( freshly prepared commercial ) and also in essay you admire vitamin C tablet. When the first drop of DCPIP is added to used book, the fruit juice, the initial blue colour should quickly disappear as a consequence of the reaction between any ascorbic acid present and the DCPIP. Essay On Someone? If this does not happen then the ascorbic acid concentration is very low (or even zero) and a larger volume of fruit juice may be needed in the test tube, because the measurement of the volume fruit juice needed to roe vs wade, decolourise DCPIP need to record in a table. However, because of only vitamin C tablet known its vitamin C content in expository essay on someone each mg instead of fruit juice, then when the data is obtained, only the percentage and concentration of vitamin C in each mg is calculated using the formula below to check whether the prime essay, vitamin C level in the tablet is true or not as claimed by the manufacturer. Percentage of vitamin C in tablet = weight of vitamin C tablet(mg) 0.1 % volume of water. Concentration of Vitamin C in tablet = weight of vitamin C tablet(mg) 1.0mgcm?3 volume of water. In this experiment we used different types of fruit juice that was freshly squeezed fruit juice and commercial . For freshly squeezed fruit juice we used orange and lemon, same with commercial . We also used different weight of vitamin C tablet (1/4, 1/2, 1, 3/2, 7/4, 2) and expository essay on someone you admire, mix it with 100 ml of essay water in order to get real value of expository essay vitamin C content since we know the content of vitamin C in each mg from the manufacturer.
So then, we used the same procedure with different sample tested by using DCPIP solution. So that the plan, problem statement is : Do different types of fruit juice sample and weight of vitamin C tablet have similar content of vitamin C? Based on the knowledge that I have, my hypothesis of expository on someone this experiment is writing for dummies : * Freshly squeezed fruit juices and essay on someone you admire, high weight of vitamin C tablet have higher vitamin C content compared to commercial fruit juices and low weight of vitamin C tablet. Prime Essay? MANIPULATED VARIABLE : Type of fruit juices / weight of vitamin C tablet solution. Essay On Someone You Admire? RESPONDING VARIABLE : Volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution / volume of vitamin C tablet solution needed to decolourise DCPIP solution. CONSTANT VARIABLE : Volume of DCPIP solution,Volume of water mix with. vitamin C tablet solution. test tubes, test tube rack, pipette , beaker , syringe , pipette filler , pestle and mortar. DCPIP solutions, freshly squeezed orange juice, freshly squeezed lemon juice , commercial orange juice , commercial lemon juice , vitamin C tablet , distilled water. 1. Measure and record the volume of an indian 39s plea essay fruit juice needed to decolourise 1 ml of DCPIP solution with a graduated syringe. 2. Calculate and record the concentration of expository essay on someone you admire vitamin C contain in vitamin C tablet using the formula . Procedure of this experiment was splitted into two part : 1 ) Preparation of standard solution of 39s plea essay tablet. (1)The vitamin C tablet is cut and divided into six (2) Each portion is crushed using pestle different portion which is ? , ? , 1 , 1 ? , 1 ? and mortar until it become a powder . and 2. (3)Each vitamin C powder is poured into a (4) Each of solution filled up in beaker and mixed with 100ml of distilled different syringe and tested with water.
DCPIP solution. 2 )Preparation in laboratory. (1)The freshly squeeze(orange,lemon) (2)The 6ml of syringe is filled with first 5 juice and commercial(orange,lemon) ml of commercial orange juice . Essay On Someone? juice is father& prepared in a beaker. (3) 1 ml of expository essay on someone you admire 1.0% DCPIsolution is sucked up (4)The DCPIP solution is poured into a into a pipette using a pipette filler . test tube. Roe Vs Wade? (5)The needle of the syringe is placed into (6) The commercial orange juice is added the DCPIP solution drop by drop to the DCPIP solution.The mixture is expository you admire shaked gently after the addition of each drop of the commercial orange juice. The commercial orange juice is continuosly added until Dcpip solution is decolourised . More than 5ml needed to decolourised the (7) Steps 2-6 is repeated using commercial Dcpip, then the prime essay, syringe is filled up again with lemon juice,freshly squeezed orange juice , another 5ml of orange juice.The volume of freshly squeezed lemon juice and ?,1/4,1, commercial orange juice used until DCPIP is 1 ?,1 ? ,2 vitamin C tablet that has mixed. decolourised is recorded. with 100 ml of distilled water.The volume of fruit juice and essay on someone you admire, vitamin C tablet solution required to decolourised DCPIP solution in each case is ib philosophy recorded in the following table. PERCENTAGE OF VITAMIN C = Weight of vitamin C (mg) ? 0.1% Volume of you admire water (cm3) PERCENTAGE OF VITAMIN C = Weight of vitamin C (mg) ? 0.1% Volume of water (cm3) CONCENTRATION OF VITAMIN C = Weight of vitamin C (mg) ? 1.0mgcm?3. Volume of an indian essay water (cm3) CONCENTRATION OF VITAMIN C = Weight of vitamin C (mg) ? 1.0mgcm?3. Volume of water (cm3) (8)The results are tabulated.The percentage and the concentration of vitamin C in vitamin C tablet solution are calculated using the formulae.
Type of essay on someone commercial fruit juice| Volume of father& 39s plea essay fruit juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution(ml)| Orange| 5.0| Type of freshly squeezed fruit juice| Volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution(ml)| Orange| 6.0 | Weight of the tablet(mg)| Volume of vitamin C tablet solution needed to decolourise DCPIP solution(ml)| Concentration of vitamin C in vitamin C. tablet solution(mgcm?3)| ? tablet (250 )| 5.0| 2.5| ? tablet (500 )| 4.0| 5.0| 1 tablet (1000)| 2.0| 10.0| 1 ? tablet(1500)| 2.0| 15.0| 1 ? tablet(1750)| 2.0| 17.5| 2 tablet (2000)| 3.0| 20.0| The experiment was about vitamin C contained in the freshly squeezed (orange ,lemon) juice , commercial (orange, lemon) juice and vitamin C tablet solution was titrated with DCPIP solution and the vitamin C concentration in each fruit juice and vitamin C tablet was calculated using the expository essay you admire, formulae. The results of the experiment is book stores tabulated in a table below Type of freshly squeezed fruit juice| Volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution(ml)| Orange| 6.0 | Type of commercial fruit juice| Volume of fruit juice needed to expository essay on someone, decolourise DCPIP solution(ml)| Orange| 5.0| In this study, my hypothesis stated ‘Freshly prepared fruit juices. and high weight of vitamin C tablet have higher vitamin C content compared to artificial fruit juices and low weight of vitamin C tablet’. This hypothesis is not proven. My prediction is ib philosophy extended supposed to be correct with our group experiment’s result. From the observation, the colour of DCPIP solution changed to expository on someone you admire, colourless when it is added drop by drop with freshly squeezed fruit juice but when added by commercial fruit juice it needed high volume to decolourise it. According to Table 1.1, volume of stores orange juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution is expository essay on someone 6.0 ml. It is same with lemon juice.
It is not supposed to be like that because generally lemon juice juice contain less vitamin C compared than orange juice. Short Essay On? So the expository essay you admire, volume is supposed to plan for dummies, be more than 6.0 ml. The reason for this case is actually our error when taking the expository, reading. Moreover, we did not repeat the experiment three times and that is why we did not get the average volume of short essay on fruit juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution. Weight of the tablet(mg)| Volume of vitamin C tablet solution needed to decolourise DCPIP solution(ml)| Concentration of on someone vitamin C in vitamin C tablet solution(mgcm?3)| ? tablet (250 )| 5.0| 2.5| ? tablet (500 )| 4.0| 5.0| 1 tablet (1000)| 2.0| 10.0| 1 ? tablet(1500)| 2.0| 15.0| 1 ? tablet(1750)| 2.0| 17.5| 2 tablet (2000)| 3.0| 20.0| Referring to short essay on, Table 1.2 , volume of expository you admire commercial lemon juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution is 5.0 ml and volume of lemon juice is also 5.0 ml. In this case, the plan for dummies, problem is same with Table 1.1.
The process of taking the reading is also have an error when the fruit juic e is added drop by drop into DCPIP solution instead of repeat the experiment three times to on someone you admire, get the average reading . TABLE 1.3 GRAPH 1.1. One vitamin C tablet contain 1000 mg of vitamin C as claimed by the manufacturer. Then the experiment conducted to determine the vitamin C content . Based on short essay on, Table 1.3 and graph 1.1 , there is something wrong with the data. The graph supposed to get a perfect straight line. The higher the volume needed to decolourise DCPIP solution , the lower the essay you admire, concentration of vitamin C in the tablet . Actually when the weight of vitamin C tablet is 2000 mg, the ib philosophy extended essay, volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise must be less than 2.0 instead of in the Table 1.3. The tablet is expository on someone going many process before it mixed with distilled water. It may have probability to lose it is short essay on chemical properties such as vitamin C content. There a some suggesting way on how to make improvement in expository essay this experiment . Oxidation of vitamin C in the juices may happen.
Work quickly with the freshly prepared juices. Roe Vs? Other than that DCPIP is also easy oxidized .Drop fruit juice quickly in DCPIP solution after being transferred into expository essay a test tube. Instead of essay roe vs using DCPIP solution , there is you admire another method to determine vitamin C content in fruit juice. The way to determine the amount of short essay on vitamin C in food is to use a redox titration. The redox reaction is better than an expository you admire acid-base titration since there are additional acids in a juice, but few of essay roe vs wade them interfere with the essay you admire, oxidation of ascorbic acid by short essay on, iodine. Iodine is relatively insoluble, but this can be improved by complexing the iodine with iodide to form triiodide: Triiodide oxidizes vitamin C to form dehydroascorbic acid: C6H8O6 + I3- + H2O C6H6O6 + 3I- + 2H+ As long as vitamin C is present in the solution, the triiodide is converted to the iodide ion very quickly. Howevever, when the all the essay on someone, vitamin C is oxidized, iodine and triiodide will be present, which react with starch to form a blue-black complex.
The blue-black color is the endpoint of the titration. Short Essay On? This titration procedure is appropriate for testing the amount of vitamin C in you admire vitamin C tablets, juices, and fresh, frozen, or packaged fruits and prime essay, vegetables. The titration can be performed using just iodine solution and not iodate, but the iodate solution is more stable and gives a more accurate result. The essential vitamin known as vitamin C is one of the most important elements in an individual’s daily diet. On Someone? We need Vitamin C to help contribute to good cellular growth, promote function of the circulatory system, and generally help our bodies to short essay on, develop and maintain themselves. A vitamin C deficiency is a serious issue, and should be caught early and treated with natural foods or dietary supplements that contain plenty of expository essay on someone you admire this critical ingredient. A Business For Dummies? Lots of essay on someone you admire medical experts agree that a vitamin C deficiency is fairly uncommon in most modern societies. Infant formulas and other food sources are fortified with vitamin C in order to prevent some forms of deficiency of this essential nutrient. Used Book Stores? Symptoms of a Vitamin C Deficiency: A variety of symptoms will show that an individual is suffering from a vitamin C deficiency.
Here are some of the essay on someone you admire, top signs of this kind of shortage in the system: * Fatigue – Early on, someone with a vitamin C deficiency will tend to get tired easily and experience reduced energy. Because chronic fatigue is a symptom of so many illnesses, it can be hard to catch a specific condition based on this symptom. * Mood Changes – Individuals with a vitamin C deficiency may become irritable or short tempered. * Weight Loss – As with other “wasting conditions” someone with a vitamin C deficiency may experience sudden weight loss. Prime Essay? * Joint and Muscle Aches – Chronic pain in the limbs or joints can be a symptom of a vitamin deficiency. * Bruising – Individuals with a vitamin C deficiency will tend to bruise easily. Excessive bruising is a sign that the body’s chemistry needs to be improved. * Dental Conditions – Just as a healthy daily dose of vitamin C contributes to healthy teeth and expository essay you admire, gums, a deficiency can cause deterioration of the gums. Periodontal problems are a symptom of a vitamin C deficiency that has been allowed to for dummies, develop to a hazardous level. This kind of deficiency was classically called #8220;scurvy#8221; when it happened to mariners who had no access to nutrients (or sometimes even fresh water) on long trips at sea. In today’s world, it is a rare but frightening condition. * Dry Hair and Skin – A change in hair and skin conditions can also signal that the expository essay on someone, body is not getting enough of vitamin C and other essential vitamins and minerals. * Infections – When an individual does not have enough vitamin C over time, this can have a negative impact on general healing of wounds and the fighting of infections. Generally, the extended essay, body’s immune system will be compromised. Vitamin Deficiency Treatments.
A shortage of vitamin C in the system can be treated with dietary supplements. You Admire? However, it’s important to used stores, seek professional medical help, rather than self-medicating with natural medicine. Expository You Admire? Vitamin C supplements are generally not known to have side effects, although at extremely high levels, they can cause nausea or indigestion. Those who experience any of the writing plan for dummies, above negative symptoms should see qualified family practice doctors to talk about what may be the you admire, issue and book, whether a dietary deficiency may be the root cause. Intake recommendations for vitamin C and you admire, other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at prime essay the Institute of on someone Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences) . DRI is the general term for used stores, a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intakes of expository essay on someone healthy people. Extended Essay? These values, which vary by age and expository, gender , include: * Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the essay wade, nutrient requirements of you admire nearly all (97%–98%) healthy individuals. Roe Vs? * Adequate Intake (AI): established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA and essay, is set at a level assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy. * Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects .
Table 1 lists the current RDAs for vitamin C . The RDAs for vitamin C are based on its known physiological and antioxidant functions in white blood cells and are much higher than the amount required for protection from deficiency [4,8,11]. For infants from birth to 12 months, the prime essay, FNB established an AI for expository you admire, vitamin C that is equivalent to the mean intake of vitamin C in healthy, breastfed infants. Table 1: Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for prime essay, Vitamin C  Age Male Female Pregnancy Lactation. 0–6 months40 mg*40 mg* 7–12 months50 mg*50 mg* 1–3 years15 mg15 mg. 4–8 years25 mg25 mg.
9–13 years45 mg45 mg. 14–18 years75 mg65 mg80 mg115 mg. 19+ years90 mg75 mg85 mg120 mg. SmokersIndividuals who smoke require 35 mg/day. more vitamin C than nonsmokers. * Adequate Intake (AI) Sources of you admire Vitamin C. Fruits and vegetables are the best sources of vitamin C (see Table 2) . Citrus fruits, tomatoes and tomato juice, and potatoes are major contributors of vitamin C to the American diet . Other good food sources include red and green peppers, kiwifruit, broccoli, strawberries, Brussels sprouts, and cantaloupe (see Table 2) [8,12]. Although vitamin C is not naturally present in grains, it is added to some fortified breakfast cereals. Prime Essay? The vitamin C content of food may be reduced by expository, prolonged storage and by cooking because ascorbic acid is water soluble and essay roe vs wade, is destroyed by heat [6,8]. Steaming or microwaving may lessen cooking losses.
Fortunately, many of the best food sources of vitamin C, such as fruits and vegetables, are usually consumed raw. You Admire? Consuming five varied servings of fruits and short essay on, vegetables a day can provide more than 200 mg of vitamin C. Table 2: Selected Food Sources of Vitamin C  Food. Milligrams (mg) per on someone, serving Percent (%) DV* Red pepper, sweet, raw, ? cup 95 158. Orange juice, ? cup 93 155. Orange, 1 medium 70 177. Grapefruit juice, ? cup 70 117. Writing Plan For Dummies? Kiwifruit, 1 medium 64 107. Green pepper, sweet, raw, ? cup 60 100. Broccoli, cooked, ? cup 51 85.
Strawberries, fresh, sliced, ? cup 49 82. Brussels sprouts, cooked, ? cup 4880. Grapefruit, ? medium 3965. Broccoli, raw, ? cup 39 65. Tomato juice, ? cup 3355. Cantaloupe, ? cup 2948. Cabbage, cooked, ? cup 2847. Cauliflower, raw, ? cup 2643.
Potato, baked, 1 medium 1728. Tomato, raw, 1 medium 1728. Spinach, cooked, ? cup915. Green peas, frozen, cooked, ? cup813. *DV = Daily Value. DVs were developed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to help consumers compare the expository, nutrient contents of products within the context of a total diet. The DV for book stores, vitamin C is 60 mg for adults and expository, children aged 4 and older. The FDA requires all food labels to ib philosophy, list the percent DV for vitamin C. Foods providing 20% or more of the DV. are considered to be high sources of on someone a nutrient. Safety precaution in laboratory during experiment is most important for student to follow. 1) For individual : * As always be sure to follow any additional instructions given by your lecturer. * Always ensure that you wear proper fitting clothes and nothing that is too loose.
You should also wear your lab coat to avoid spilling anything on your clothes. * Wear proper footwear that is closed. Sandals and open toed slippers are a strict no no and should be avoided. * You must also know how to use the lab equipments properly and a business plan for dummies, should ask the expository, right way of usage, in case you do not know. * Make sure you read the bottle labels carefully and only use what you are supposed to use during an experiment. You should not try out anything on your own unless you are very sure of what reagents or chemicals you need to use and their results. Short Essay On? * Be prepared for your work in the laboratory. Read all procedures thoroughly before entering the laboratory. Never fool around in the laboratory.
Horseplay, practical jokes, and pranks are dangerous and prohibited. * Do not consume food in a laboratory , or any food used for you admire, experiment , because it may be contaminated. * Do not touch anything that you are not authorized to writing plan for dummies, touch especially if it is a chemical or an acid that could cause harm to essay on someone, you. 2) For experiment : * Although Vitamin C and 2,6-dichloroindophenol are not considered hazardous, students should wash their hands thoroughly after handling. * Make sure there is not a bubble inside pipette before sucked up DCPIP solution. * Read the meniscus at eye-level. * Place white paper behind the syringe so that the meniscus level can properly be seen. * Use a clamp stand if draining a solution from a syringe into a beaker (e.g. in an experiment to prime essay, measure the rate of flow of the solution) to keep the syringe at a vertical angle (the same as the expository, beaker) to essay, help achieve the most reliable measurement of the time it takes for a solution to expository essay on someone, drain, etc. * Observe the color changes of solutions against a white background. * Wash and ib philosophy extended essay, dry equipment before each reuse. * When timing (using a stop watch) the rate of flow of a certain volume of solution from a syringe into a test tube, choose the same end point to stop the stop watch for each repeat of the experiment. * Do repeat experiments. * Do a control experiment. * Keep variables, that are not being tested, controlled. Essay On Someone You Admire? The hypothesis of my study is that I believe that freshly squeezed juice and higher weight of fruit juice contain higher vitamin C compared than commercial fruit juice and lower weight of vitamin C tablet . I made this choice because in essay wade my research I learned that vitamin C found more in orange fruit and the manufacturer of the tablet claimed 1 tablet contain 1000 mg of vitamin C. Based on my experiment I cannot conclude that my hypothesis is on someone you admire correct, because I found concentration in vitamin C same in both freshly squeezed juice and writing a business, commercial fruit juice. When I compared my results to facts in my research, the vitamin C contain was not supposed to be same in these two items. Expository Essay You Admire? I did not have the experience to make an adequate conclusion, so I surfed in internet to get answer for my questions. After surfed, I have concluded that the test to determine which food groups contain vitamin C is an extremely sensitive test to the presence of essay roe vs wade vitamin C; however, I cannot rule out that the test could have been sensitive to another acidic vitamin found in the both materials. Expository? It is possible that the test detected same volume of vitamin C in both items because the prime essay, error in process of expository taking reading I believe that my experiment is important because it is important to eat foods that contain vitamin C. Our body uses Vitamin C immediately, but our body does not make any of its own vitmain C. So you can see, it is very good if we consume vitamin C from fresh fruit, eaten just like that or make fresh orange of yourself.
It is because actually commercial fruit juice doed not have hight content of vitamin C as well as they have preservative and roe vs, others sweetener that reducing vitamin C properties. In assessing my study design, I have found a strength of essay you admire this test to be that it is extremely sensitive to the presence of Vitamin C, and a weakness that it may indicate the presence of substances other than just vitamin C. I am planning to essay wade, continue this experiment to determine what other substances my test solution detects besides vitamin C, in expository essay on someone you admire order to a business plan for dummies, understand why the same volume of vitamin C was found in both freshly squeezed fruit juice and commercial fruit juice. * Benefits of vitamin C, Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institute of Health, June 05 2013, http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitaminc-healthprofessional/ * Benefits of expository essay you admire vitamin C, Jennifer Brett, N.D, University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 5 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Biology Concept. Vitamin C Content in Various Fruit Juice. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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Organ Donation Persuasive Essay Essays and Research Papers. PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE – ORGAN DONATION Topic: Organ donation Thesis . Statement: Becoming an organ donor after death is not only an important decision for essay you admire yourself, but it is also an father&, important decision for the life that you may have the essay, power to a business save. Expository Essay? Purpose: To persuade my audience to consider becoming organ donors after death Introduction: 1. Organ donation is a selfless way to an indian 39s plea give back to expository essay on someone you admire others, and to be able to make a huge difference by short essay on, giving another person a second chance. Bone , Death , Heart 899 Words | 3 Pages. PERSUASIVE SPEECH ON ORGAN DONATION. ?INTRODUCTION 1. Essay? 18444 Malaysians are waiting in the organ waiting list as for September 2014 census by Ministry of Health Malaysia while for . actual organ donor only 446 people since 1976. Need I go further? 2. The numbers may mean nothing to you but the numbers showing that only 0.57% or 267328 of the total Malaysian populations are organ pledger like me. 3. Malaysia having an opt-in organ donation system is among the writing a business for dummies, lowest rate of expository on someone organ donation in the world based on 2010 World Health Organisation. Legal death , Life expectancy , Opt-out 895 Words | 2 Pages. couldn’t live without?
Imagine you are lying in a hospital bed and you have no choice but to impatiently wait for writing plan that one organ you and your . On Someone? body are depending on to survive. Ib Philosophy? Many people face this struggle every day. These people are waiting on on someone you admire a list for their perfect match… the perfect person to be their organ donor. An organ donor is used book, a person who has an organ , or several organs , removed in ordered to be transplanted into another person. Imagine that one of your loved ones are in the hospital…. Heart , Kidney , Legal death 1118 Words | 3 Pages. ?Synopsis The purpose of essay you admire this essay is to further reinstate the short essay on, claim that financial incentives should not be permitted in order to expository essay on someone you admire encourage . organ donation . Research mainly consisted of roe vs searching through UOW databases, including summon. As financial incentives are only legalised in Iran proper statistical based evidence was difficult to come across, although what was found was evaluated and expository you admire analysed.
There are three main arguments of ib philosophy this essay : exploitation of the poor, loss of you admire altruistic donors. Autonomy , Donation , Human anatomy 1508 Words | 5 Pages. Organ Donation Today in the United States there are thousands of people currently waiting for some type of transplant. Extended Essay? . If one were to expository essay on someone ask a group of people if they have friends or family who have either had a transplant or are waiting for one, one would find that most people know at least one person who has had a transplant or is prime essay, waiting for one. Transplantation is a great advance in modern medicine. On Someone You Admire? The need for organ donors is much larger than the extended essay, number of expository essay people who sign up to donate. Blood , Bone , Cleveland Clinic 1186 Words | 3 Pages.
on the organ waiting list right away. He was called twice during a six-month span that they had a kidney available only to find out that the . Ib Philosophy Essay? kidney wasn’t a good match. He had to wait again. Essay? The third time was a charm. A small adult was in an accident and short essay on his kidney was a good match. This story had a happy ending but so many do not. Expository Essay? One of the people on the waiting list for an organ transplant might be someone you know. Thesis Statement: Today I will be persuading you to become an father& essay, organ donor by.
Kidney , Legal death , Organ 1153 Words | 3 Pages. that could Save Lives More than 100,000 people are waiting for an organ in the United States alone. Essay On Someone You Admire? “Unfortunately, the number of an indian 39s plea essay donors is . nowhere near that figure, only about 14,000 people (living and dead) donated organs ” (Egendorf). These people could die at any time as they are waiting for a miracle to happen. What happens if you or one of your loved ones needs an essay on someone you admire, organ transplant? Wouldn’t you want someone to father& 39s plea essay donate their organs so you could have a second chance at life?
My mom’s sister needed. Kidney transplantation , Legal death , Organ 1066 Words | 3 Pages. ?Cover Letter 1. The purpose of this essay was to support my claim that organ donation has a lot of positive . results. You Admire? My plan with this essay to plan get the reader to be more informed of the process and essay list some statistics associated with it. Essay Roe Vs Wade? I hope that the reader, if they were not fully aware of the topic, to do more research for essay you admire themselves. 2. An Indian? From this assignment, I learned how to gather data to you admire support my arguments. I already felt strongly about this subject before writing on it. Though. Donation , Legal death , Organ 1510 Words | 5 Pages. people die every day, while waiting for short essay on a major organ for example, heart, lungs or kidneys’, the essay on someone, reason being they is short essay on, a massive shortage of . organs across Europe, with the transplant waiting list growing, they is need for radical measures to be taken.
The author of this easy will define what organ donation is, however the aims of the essay is to compare and essay you admire contrast the two systems of organ donation , the book stores, opt- in expository on someone, and opt- out systems. The focus of the essay is on cadaveric donors,( heart beating donors. Bioethics , Legal death , Mandated choice 2268 Words | 6 Pages. ATTENTION OF THE HSS SECRETARY Organ donation is a compassionate way to give back to others, being able to essay roe vs make a . huge difference by giving another person a second chance to live. The number of patients waiting for organs far exceeds the expository essay you admire, number of people who have registered to become organ donors. What’s worse, Patients are forced to wait months, even years for a match, and short essay on far too many die before they are provided with a suitable organ . In fact, in 2011, a total of 597 people died. Human anatomy , Kidney , Legal death 904 Words | 3 Pages. Woke up early in the Sunday morning to start writing the expository essay on someone, persuasive speech assignment that I will need to give on 03/10. Essay? With the great topic . ‘Everyone should be an organ donor’.
Organ donation Here’s… Whether you are rich or poor, men or women and we are all the expository essay you admire, same inside. We have 2 kidneys, 2 lungs and 1 heart. However, imagine you have to wait for something you really need. And it came down to life or death may I asked how do you feel? Well, my cousin/Emily was 3 years old when she found. Legal death , Organ , Organ donation 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Great advances in the science of an indian organ transplantation have made it possible for many lives to be saved from conditions that would have . otherwise been considered fatal. Anyone between the ages of 18 and essay 60 and in good general health can be organ donors. Thanks to these scientific advances, living donors are now able to donate entire kidneys and portions of short essay on other regenerative organs such as the intestine, liver, lung, and essay you admire pancreas.
Full portions of these organs as well as others, such as bones. Bioethics , Death , Donation 1859 Words | 5 Pages. ORGAN DONATION INTRODUCTION Organ donation is the donation of prime essay biological tissue or an . Expository Essay? organ of the used, human body, from a living or dead person to a living recipient in need of essay you admire a transplantation. Transplantable organs and tissues are removed in a surgical procedure following a determination, based on the donor's medical and social history, of which are suitable for transplantation. Such procedures are termed allotransplantations, to distinguish them from xenotransplantation, the transfer of animal.
Kidney , Legal death , Liver 1567 Words | 5 Pages. Organ Donation Tanecia Carter HCA 322 Health Care Ethics Medical Law Instructor: Instructor: Susan Vellek . August 5, 2013 Organ Donation The process of taking functional organs and book tissues from essay, one person for transplantation into another individual is called organ donation . Whereas, any part of the prime essay, body that performs a different and special function is essay on someone, referred to as an organ . Transplantation takes places quite. Ethics , Heart transplantation , Human anatomy 1798 Words | 6 Pages. Organ Donation Almost everyone would want to be able to say, “I have saved a life.” By becoming an used stores, organ donor, . you can be able to say, “I will save a life.” Organ donation is a selfless way to give back to others, and to expository on someone you admire be able to make a huge difference by giving another person a second chance at life as said on quick-facts-about- donation . Unfortunately, the number of patients waiting for used stores organs far exceeds the number of people who have registered to become organ donors. Patients are forced. Bone , Death , Heart 1356 Words | 4 Pages.
Refutation Outline Topic: Organ donation General Purpose: To Persuade Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience to . consider becoming organ donors after death Central Idea: Becoming an organ donor after death is not only an important decision for essay yourself, but it is also an important decision for the life that you may have the an indian father& essay, power to save. ------------------------------------------------- Organizational Pattern: Refutation (chapter 17, pp. Essay On Someone You Admire? 387-388). Used? Delivery Outline: Keywords . Heart , Kidney , Legal death 862 Words | 3 Pages. But by on someone you admire, becoming an organ donor, you can be able to say “I will save a life.” Organ donation is a selfless way to . give back to others, and to be able to make a huge difference by giving another person a second chance at life. Unfortunately, the number of patients waiting for organs far exceeds the wade, number of people who have registered to become organ donors. Expository On Someone? Patients are forced to wait months, even years for a match, and far too many die before they are provided with a suitable organ . There are many shames. Bone , Heart , Kidney 1178 Words | 3 Pages. Organ Donation Name: General Purpose: To persuade my audience to donate their organs and tissues after they . Short Essay On? become deceased. Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that becoming an organ donor is vital to essay on someone you admire many individuals that sit waiting, some even die while waiting to receive organs donations . I. Introduction I. Attention Getter: How do you feel when you have to wait for something you really, really want?
What if it was something you couldn’t live without? Image you are an energetic. Donation , Kidney , Legal death 1406 Words | 4 Pages. Organ donation should not be made compulsory No It Shouldn't Be Organ donation should not be . compulsory because people have such little control of what happens to them in wade, their lives, they should be able to essay on someone you admire control what happens to their bodies after death. There are many reasons, some religious, why a person would not want to donate their organs and those should be respected. Why Organ Donation Should be Made Compulsory Posted: 15/12/2011 00:00 React Amazing Inspiring Funny Scary Hot . Bone , Donation , Heart 1605 Words | 6 Pages.
need of an organ . Essay? This crisis within the United States is growing rapidly because on average there are only 30,000 transplants performed each . year. Expository Essay You Admire? More than 6,000 people die each year from lack of a donor organ , an average of 19 people a day. Essay? Between the years 1988 and 2006 the number of essay on someone you admire transplants doubled, but the number of extended patients waiting for an organ grew six times as large. It has been estimated that the number of organs donated would double if every person with suitable organs decided to. Bioethics , Death , European Union 759 Words | 3 Pages. Organ Donation Pros and Cons Organ donation is on someone you admire, a noble act that makes a positive difference to the . 39s Plea Essay? lives of many people by enabling them to lead a longer and a healthful life. Here's a bit about the pros and cons of donating vital organs and tissues of one's body. Expository On Someone You Admire? Quick Fact As an organ donor, you can actually save more than one life.
In fact, a single donor may make a difference to the lives of about fifty people. Human organ failure has a long history. Since a long time, people have been. Human anatomy , Kidney , Liver 2020 Words | 7 Pages. Composition 22 April, 2013 Organ Donation Many citizens constantly see television shows and media that negatively portray . organ donation . One prime example comes from the new hit series, Nip Tuck.
Nip Tuck has a storyline built around this image of short essay on beauty through plastic surgery while working with an essay on someone you admire, underground kidney market. Many patients in this show wind up being murdered in short essay on, some cruel intentional way just for expository essay on someone a single kidney. Not only does this pull negativity to organ transplants already but. Heart transplantation , Legal death , Organ 1766 Words | 6 Pages. Why should we become an organ donor?
INTRODUCTION I. Attention Getter Organ is an essential part in the body to every . person in the world. It can save other people when there is existing of patient’s condition is serious until organ transplant is the last resort of medicine. There is 2.3 million of population in used book, Malaysia, and expository on someone 15,000 of Malaysian are waiting for organ donation . Ib Philosophy? However, how many people will volunteer themselves to become an expository, organ donor? II. Essay? Reveal Topic Today, I would. Kidney transplantation , Lee Lam Thye , Legal death 798 Words | 3 Pages. Does your driver's license designate you as an organ donor? Did you know that by essay, being an organ donor after you die you can . save over 50 lives?
Most often times negative connotation is attached to roe vs the topic of organ donation . The reality is, as we all know, that we are not invincible, and someday every one's time will come to an end. Essay On Someone? The act of organ donation is a significantly compassionate and humane choice for a person to make. Father&? Organ donation is a subject that affects all of us, but it. Donation , Heart , Liver 1157 Words | 3 Pages. Organ Donation Organ donation is defined as the donation of expository essay on someone biological tissue or an . organ of the human body, from a living or dead person to a living recipient in need of a transplantation (Wikipedia). The first organ transplant took place in 1954, when 23-year-old Ronald Herrick gave his identical twin brother, Richard, a kidney (Curiosity.com). The need for short essay on donations is growing every year. Over 100,000 Americans are on the waiting list in need of an organ . This crisis within the United States.
Death , Donation , Legal death 732 Words | 3 Pages. Being an expository essay on someone you admire, organ donor saves life, but only if you help. Ever since organ donation became a way of saving lives, . An Indian 39s Plea Essay? there has been a shortage of organ donators. Each day the organ transplant list gets longer and expository on someone the organs available for transplant become scarcer. Short Essay On? Many people are dying because of not enough organs are available. Expository On Someone You Admire? Although society put a lot of extended efforts on educating people to sign a little organ donor card, people still misunderstand of the real meaning of this process.
Actually, there are. Legal death , Organ , Organ donation 1134 Words | 3 Pages. Michael Aguila Prof. Leblanc SPC 21 October 2012 Organ Donation Topic: Organ Donation . General Purpose: To educate the class on essay on someone you admire the importance of organ donations . Specific Purpose: To persuade the class to not let their organs go to short essay on waste. Thesis Statement: Donating your organs allows a life to be prolonged. Expository Essay? It also allows scientific studies to prevent future occurrences or finding a cure for a disease. Organizational Pattern: Monroe’s Motivational Sequence Visual Aids: Power-Point. Donation , Legal death , Liver 1668 Words | 5 Pages.
The Psychology of Organ Donation Imagine going to the doctor’s office one day and finding out that a vital organ . is failing and then finding out that the only chance of survival would be someone else’s sacrifice. Plan? Such a process could bring up so many fears of the unknown to a person’s life. This happens on a daily basis all around the expository you admire, world. Even though many people struggle with this tragedy, organ donation should be to help people focus, not on death, but on life. Right now in America there. Donation , Immune system , Legal death 2322 Words | 6 Pages. you would help someone after you have passed on. Organ and tissue donation is prime essay, a topic that does not get enough attention. On Someone You Admire? . Writing A Business Plan? Ninety-five percent of Americans say that they support donation yet the number of registered donors is essay on someone, much smaller (www.organdonor.gov). Anyone can sign up to be a donor. After death you can donate your organs . Each day 18 people will die waiting on essay roe vs organs . Tissues are also able to be donated.
The age of donation do not matter. Some mothers donate the blood of the. Donation , Heart , Kidney 1013 Words | 3 Pages. Sign up for organ donating Topic: Organ donation Specific Purpose: To motivate my audience to sign up for . organ donation Thesis Statement: Signing up for organ donating will save more lives INTRODUCTION Attention Material: Organ transplantation is a miraculous procedure that can save lives and possibly have a new appreciation on it. But the overall of those that need them outweigh the people that have signed up for donning their organs . They people that need those organs to survive. Donation , Heart , Legal death 1267 Words | 5 Pages. Organ Donation Arlene B HCA322: April 30, 2012 Organ Donation Organ and tissue . donation can help to save the essay on someone, lives of essay roe vs wade so many others during this time where it is greatly needed. There are many people on the waiting list to receive an organ due to illness or complications with their own organs and expository essay on someone you admire those that receive the miracle of an organ that is book, donated that actually matches them as well, can live a better, longer quality of life.
Health care and technology have grown so far to be able. Death , Donation , Heart 2888 Words | 7 Pages. Proposal Argument June 20, 2013 US Legislature Two Deaths or One Life The donation of organs after death is essay, not often . a common topic; however, it is essay, a problem that needs addressing. Organ transplantation has become a solution to organ failure, but the rate of failing organs is drastically higher than that of the donors. 118,466 (OPTN: Donor Data, Web) people are currently waiting on life-saving organs , and every ten minutes (The Need is Real, Web) another person is expository you admire, added to that list. Bioethics , Donation , Legal death 1056 Words | 3 Pages. Organ donation is the donation of biological tissue or an organ of the human body, from a . living or dead person to a living recipient in need of ib philosophy a transplantation. Transplantable organs and tissues are removed in expository on someone you admire, a surgical procedure following a determination, based on short essay on the donor's medical and social history, of which are suitable for transplantation.
Such procedures are termed allotransplantations, to distinguish them from xenotransplantation, the transfer of animal organs into expository essay you admire, human bodies. Death , Kidney , Legal death 2261 Words | 7 Pages. About 74 people a day receive an used book, organ transplant, however an average of 17 people die each day waiting for you admire transplants. Did you know that . more than 88,000 men, women and children currently await life-saving transplants? Every 12 minutes another name is added to the national transplant waiting list. Of those 88,000 waiting 61,000 of them are waiting for a kidney. How many of you here are organ donors? I use to feel that I didn't want a Doctor taking anything from me after I have passed, even. Blood pressure , Chronic kidney disease , Dialysis 991 Words | 3 Pages. Seventeen people will die because they couldn't get an organ transplant in time. Money's not the issue here.
Neither is prime essay, scarcity. There are . potential donors who pass away every day who could meet the needs of people on the waiting list. The problem is the potential donors die without leaving instructions that they wish to be an organ donor. Each donor could enhance the lives of up to fifty people. Everyone should sign up to be an organ donor because the greatest gift you can give is the gift.
KMBC-TV , Legal death , Liver transplantation 2093 Words | 6 Pages. donating my organs could help give up to seven people a new lease on life; donating my soft tissue could improve the quality of life of up to . Essay? 50 more people. In South Africa, where organ donations can dip as low as two per million people, people can wait years for an organ transplant. Many don't live long enough to book find a suitable match. It seems like an expository essay on someone you admire, obvious choice.
But many people never even have consider organ donation . Writing Plan For Dummies? Out of 50-million South Africans, only 80 000 or so are registered organ donors. Legal death , Organ donation , Organ transplant 840 Words | 2 Pages. Purpose: By the end of my presentation, the audience will donate their organs and tissues when they die and act upon their decision to expository essay on someone donate. . Introduction 1 Attention Getter/Credibility Statement: How do you feel when you have to prime essay wait for something you really, really want? What if it was something you couldn’t live without? Well, my cousin was five years old when he found out he needed a new kidney. Essay You Admire? He went on short essay on the organ waiting list right away. Essay You Admire? He was called twice during a six moth span that.
Kidney , Legal death , Organ 1305 Words | 5 Pages. Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience to wade donate their organs and tissues when they die and to act upon on someone their decision to ib philosophy extended donate. Thesis . Statement: The need is constantly growing for organ donors and it is very simple to be an organ donor when you die. I. INTRODUCTION A. Expository You Admire? Attention material/Credibility Material: How do you feel when you have to wait for something you really, really want? What if it was something you couldn’t live without? Well, my cousin was five years old when.
Kidney , Legal death , Organ 1251 Words | 5 Pages. Importance of writing a business plan for dummies Organ Donation Each day approximately 6,300 people die and what makes this haunting is expository essay on someone, that presently there are . 83,513 people waiting for organs to be donated, yet each day 17 people die because they do not receive a transplant (http://www.donatelife.net/facts_stats.html). These statistics show that people who are waiting for organ transplants have a good chance at being saved and get what they need. The sad truth is though, because of the lack of a business for dummies people willing to donate organs , many people. Death , Donation , Organ 1761 Words | 5 Pages.
Commercialization of on someone Organ Transplants Kristyn Shrader Professor Business Ethics 5/3/14 As a member of . the ethics committee, I have been asked to review the arguments for and against the commercialization of organ transplants. Short Essay On? This report will be review these arguments and construct my suggested plan of action. Before any research was done regarding this topic, it is known by many that there is a shortage of on someone you admire available organs and those that need these transplants. Bioethics , Business ethics , Ethics 842 Words | 5 Pages. Economies as Cultural Systems Organ Donation in prime essay, China under the Ethics of Confucianism Introduction The subject of . organ donation has evoked moral and ethical controversy across the on someone, globe since its inception and short essay on implies proper and voluntary consent of the person giving the organ . Though the essay you admire, practice is writing, generally accepted, concerns arise when organs are harvested illicitly and sold at cost-value, making a commodity of so-called ‘donors’ and therefore of the human body, breaching ethics. China , Confucianism , Confucius 2239 Words | 7 Pages. ?Outline Persuasive Speech Topic: Organ Donation Post Mortem Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience to consider . becoming an you admire, organ and tissue donor after death. Thesis: Organ and tissue donation isn’t just an important decision for yourself, but it can also impact and save the prime essay, lives of expository so many more.
Intro: Imagine having to used book stores wait for something you really want. Could you do it, even if it took months or even years? Now imagine that it was something you literally couldn’t live without. Over 100. Organ transplant 805 Words | 4 Pages. Application on Normative Ethical Theories Is organ donation to a family member a moral obligation? Is it possible to love . ones child well, yet dent them the very organ that one is physically capable of giving them? True love often requires sacrifice on behalf of those one loves; it requires acts of self-giving for the greater good of the you admire, other. But this form of self-giving seems different in short essay on, kind. However much we might praise those who give their organs to a beloved family member, can we condemn. Bioethics , Ethics , Justice 1226 Words | 4 Pages.
Outline for Organ Donation Speech. Student Name: ashley singer Speech Type: Persuasive Organ Donation Organization Type: Comparative Advantages . Pattern Attention Getter Type: Story, Quotation, or Poem Conclusion Type: Summary Goal/Purpose persuade my audience to give the gift of life and become organ donors. Introduction I. I have always decided i wanted to dedicate my organs to others once i have oassed but it was not until January of this year i learned the true value behind organ donation . II. Last January my brother was pronounced. Biology , Death , Legal death 1006 Words | 4 Pages. Organ Donation Shortage- Problem-Solution Essay. Organ donation shortage Organ donation shortage When receiving a driver’s license in the United . States, there is a section on the back in essay, which it asks if the licensed driver would like to become an organ donor. Most people overlook this option. Nothing is really pushed forth for people wanting to become organ donors. Today in the U.S, thousands of essay people need organ transplants.
Unfortunately, there is a growing shortage of donated organs . Many people die every year because there are not enough. Kidney transplantation , Legal death , Organ 2588 Words | 7 Pages. Organ Donation and Transplantation. Organ donation and transplantation Organ transplantation is a medical technology, in which . Expository On Someone You Admire? organs or tissues that are no longer viable in the organs are replaced by parts of organs or tissues, from the living, the dead, or from father& 39s plea essay, animals. Essay You Admire? It is book stores, a complex issue that raises difficult ethical questions for essay you admire which the Israeli society and the world still have not formed a solid opinion about. However, since medical technology has accustomed us to prolong our lives and in short essay on, a healthy way and since.
Death , Donation , Ethics 1278 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Consequences of Organ Donation The patient may either wait 3.7 years on dialysis before receiving a kidney, or be one of . 229 Canadians that died waiting for an organ donation in 2010 (Ogilvie). Expository Essay On Someone? Organ donation , through surgery, helps to save the prime essay, lives of individuals with organ failure. With a high demand and low supply of organs , there are a considerable number of people on the waiting list. Even with different consent policies on organ donations , such as opt-out (where it is assumed one is. Bioethics , Death , Donation 1559 Words | 6 Pages. ?Running head: PRISONERS AND ORGAN DONATION Prisoners and Organ Donation Prisoners . and Organ Donation A continuing problem exists in trying to close the essay on someone you admire, gap between the supply and demand of procured organs in the United States.
An increase in the amount of transplant operations performed has risen significantly over time. As a result, a new name is prime essay, added to the national waiting list every 16 minutes (Duan, Gibbons, Meltzer, 2000). Expository You Admire? It is for dummies, estimated that about 100,000 individuals. Bioethics , Capital punishment , Kidney 2067 Words | 6 Pages. Financial Incentives on Organ Donation. More than 100,000 men, women and essay children in need of life-saving organ transplants, every 10 minutes another person is added to the national . organ transplant waiting list and averages of 18 people die each day from the lack of available organs . (donatelife.net) Organ transplants are very important because they replace the used book stores, damaged organ and essay on someone you admire help the book stores, body function once again. There are still huge shortages of expository on someone organs , even after awareness and other ways of educating the public. Prime Essay? Some Americans are open.
Donation , Human anatomy , Human body 1590 Words | 4 Pages. them she was dead, they also received a call from the Iowa Donor Network. On Someone You Admire? They said their condolences and told my mom how Sam was an organ . donor and asked if it was acceptable if they had permission to take the organs and tissues to the donor network and for people in need of those organs and tissues. Organ donation is the process of giving an organ or a part of an extended essay, organ for the purpose of transplantation into another person. One donor can make a difference between fifty to one hundred peoples’ lives. Death , Donation , Kidney 1146 Words | 3 Pages.
What is organ donation ? Organ donation is expository on someone, a surgical procedure for the removal of . Used Stores? organs from donor for the purpose of transplantation following an expressed consent that based on the donor’s medical and expository on someone you admire social history. There are two types of roe vs organ donation : a. Deceased organ donation Donation of organs by those who have just died recently. Deceased donation may come from expository on someone you admire, accident casualties whose organs are still in good condition and suitable for transplant purposes. Retrieval of father& essay organs requires. Donation , Heart , Liver 1051 Words | 4 Pages. Ethics Analysis Paper Ethical Issues Related to you admire Organ Donations In 1983 Dr H Barry Jacobs, a physician from . Virginia, whose medical license had been revoked after a conviction for Medicare mail-fraud, founded International Kidney Exchange, Ltd.
He sent a brochure to 7,500 American hospitals offering to broker contracts between patients with end-stage-renal-disease and persons willing to sell one kidney. His enterprise never got off the ground, but Dr Jacobs did spark an ethical. Bioethics , Donation , Ethics 1606 Words | 5 Pages. Discussion on Organ Donation Shortage. Mass Com – TR 10:30 Term Paper Have A Heart Medicine has evolved since the days of bloodletting, but from the perspective of a waiting recipient on . the organ donor list, we still live in the dark ages. With a list of 110,941 hopeful candidates for organ transplant, the status of organ donation as a taboo subject in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) has left an average of essay 20 people dead each day.(1) The high demand and low supply has led to creative solutions from both medical and government sectors.
Bioethics , Donation , Legal death 1164 Words | 4 Pages. Informative Speech on Organ Donations. Speech Title: Organ Transplants General Purpose: To Inform Specific Purpose: I want to educate my audience about expository on someone you admire, organ . donation matching process, the plan for dummies, requirements to essay you admire donate and to prime essay receive organs , and how donations can be found. Introduction: 1. Attention Getter: As defined by expository, www.dictionary.com , an father& 39s plea essay, organ transplant is expository on someone, deemed an prime essay, operation moving an organ from an organism (the donor) to another (the recipient). In the U.S. alone surgeons performed 5,273 liver transplants in 2008, according.
Legal death , Liver , Liver transplantation 933 Words | 3 Pages. Dennise Rodriguez Organ Donation Devry University English 112 How do you feel when you have to wait for something you . really, really want? What if it was something you couldn’t live without? Well, I have a friend whose cousin was five years old when he found out expository essay on someone you admire he needed a new kidney. Wade? He went on the organ waiting list right away. He was called twice during a six month span that they had a kidney available only to find out that the kidney wasn’t a good match. He had to wait again. The third. Organ donation , Organ transplant 1071 Words | 3 Pages. Social Madia Initiative May Help Increase Organ Donation.
Social media initiative may help increase organ donations Theory A new social media initiative helped to boost . organ donor registration rates, according to a new study published in the American Journal of Transplantation. The findings suggest that social media might be an effective tool for tackling a variety of problems related to public health in which communication and education are essential. It suggests that social media and social networks may be valuable tools in essay you admire, re-approaching. Donation , Health care , Health care provider 1069 Words | 4 Pages. Organ Donation Opt-in or Opt-Out That Is the an indian father&, Question. Organ Donation Opt-in or opt-out that is the question This assignment will help us explore and understand the concepts of . both the opt-in system of organ and tissue donation and the opt-out system, which I will compare and contrast through looking at both systems used in different countries throughout Europe.
And also I will look at how they relate to beneficence and non-maleficence. The opt-in system is based on the view that every person has a choice whether or not to go on essay on someone you admire the organ. Death , Donation , Legal death 2523 Words | 6 Pages. Persuasive Essay Medelin Ocasio COMM/215 Essentials of Collage Writing January 29, 2013 Instructor Beverly Raznoff . Persuasive Essay In the 39s plea, future; university education would be free? A few days ago my daughter asked me why people pay for our college education if everyone can help the essay, society. Immediately flowed many questions in my mind and essay roe vs realized that her inquietude was true. Education is the essay on someone you admire, key to success.
At different stages of my life I have heard this phrase. Academic degree , College , Education 827 Words | 5 Pages. Blood Donation Persuasive Speaking. Persuasive Speech: Donate Blood Summary: Objective essay to persuade people to short essay on give blood. Expository On Someone? Specific Purpose Statement: To . persuade my audience to short essay on go out and give blood Introduction: I. Imagine your father has just suffered a heart attack and expository you admire must undergo open-heart surgery in order to repair the damage. II.
Imagine your little nephew or niece baby was born with a heart defect and required daily transfusions of ib philosophy extended blood in expository essay on someone you admire, order to writing have a chance at expository on someone you admire survival. III. Imagine your best friend. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 1486 Words | 6 Pages. tell you that organs can be transplanted, the 39s plea, reasons that I think you should become a donor and on someone the benefits that come from . For Dummies? organ donation . I want you to expository essay imagine watching a loved one…your grandparent, parent, spouse or significant other, even your own child, dying because one of their vital organs has quit working.
Maybe because of a disease or an used stores, accident, maybe for a reason that cannot be explained, without any warning. The only chance of this person surviving is through an organ transplant.
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123 language essay Primitive people speak primitive languages. Essay On Someone You Admire! We know, from anthropological research, that there are no primitive people on Earth today; indeed, it may be that the Neandertals were the last truly primitive people. And, there are no primitive languages, either. All languages that we know about, including those that are no longer anyone#8217;s native language (Latin, Homeric Greek, etc.) have all the properties of the so-called modern languages (French, Spanish, Russian, etc.). Even languages that have been reconstructed, such as Proto-Indoeuropean (the parent language of most European languages as well as Persian, Hindi, etc.), show no signs of primitiveness. Ib Philosophy Extended! They have all the characteristics of on someone so-called modern languages (see below). Some languages are harder than others. While languages differ from one another in just which parts are simple and which are complex, all languages seem to be about an indian equally complex or difficult to learn in their totality. For example, if we compare English and Russian we find that English nouns are relatively simple, while verbs are rather complex; in Russian, the nouns are hard and verbs are relatively simple.
Language is writing . Essay On Someone! If we ask a naive English speaker how many vowels English has, the answer is usually five. This is because we tend to interpret any question about language as a question about the writing system. The English alphabet has 5 symbols that are normally used for the representation of vowels. Essay Roe Vs Wade! But the English language has between 10 and 12 basic vowel sounds; this is the answer the essay on someone you admire, linguist is interested in. Language is first and writing a business foremost oral; speech as a means of communication has been around for perhaps 200,000 years or more, while writing has existed for on someone only about 6,000 as far as we know. Many languages, including many Native American languages as well as most of the creole languages of the Caribbean, exist without a written tradition. This in a business plan for dummies, no way diminishes their language-ness. Grammar is expository essay a set of short essay on prescriptive rules . When we think of grammar, we tend to on someone think of the sorts of rules drilled into us by our language arts and English teachers: Don#8217;t end sentences with prepositions! Don#8217;t use double negatives!
When linguists work to discover the an indian 39s plea, grammar of you admire a language, they are looking for descriptive rules that model the linguistic patterns which people carry around inside their heads. We follow most of these rules unconsciously. In most cases no-one ever teaches them to us (see below); and, in essay, most cases, we cannot articulate them. We know how to use our language, but we don't typically know why. Expository Essay! The interesting thing is that these rules of our descriptive grammar are frequently far more subtle and complex than anything the language arts teachers tell us about. Ne bith thær nænig ælo gebrowen mid Estum. not be there not-any beer brewed among Estonians. 'There is no beer brewed among the Estonians.' Furthermore, in some languages, like Spanish and Russian, so-called double negatives are the rule, rather than the exception. Note the Spanish and Russian expressions for I don't see anything. Spanish: Yo no veo nada. I no see nothing.
Russian: Ya ne vizhu nichevo. These are the normal, indeed the only, way of expressing this in Spanish and Russian. A Business! If language worked like formal logic, Spanish and Russian speakers would be suffering from on someone you admire a permament case of illogic. Since speakers of Spanish and Russian appear to be normal human beings, we have to conclude that language does not obey the essay roe vs wade, rules of essay on someone you admire formal logic. Thus, the rule against prime essay, double negatives formulated by Bishop Lowth is expository essay not a grammar rule, but rather a social rule having to do with what he considered to be the acceptable use of English.
Language is pure and unchanging . As a conservative society heavily focused on written, rather than oral, forms of language, we tend to think that change, in writing, language as in many other things, is bad. Expository You Admire! A whole industry of prime essay language experts such as Edwin Newman and William Safire regularly rant and rave against whatever shift in meaning or usage is current. In fact, change in language is constant and the really fundamental changes usually go unnoticed. For example, between Middle and Modern English many English vowels changed their pronunciation, so that words like house and wife, today pronounced [haws] and essay on someone you admire [wayf], were pronounced as [hu:s] and [wi:f] by Chaucer. These sorts of changes, and others, are still going on in English even as we speak. Syntax . Speakers have to know how to combine their words into meaningful sentences that call attention to an indian 39s plea essay something and then provide information about on someone you admire it. Again using English as an example, English speakers know how to form yes-no questions from statements like She is in the kitchen (? Is she in the kitchen?) by appropriate movement of is short essay on . Semantics . Speakers must know the meaning of the words they use.
Pragmatics . Expository Essay You Admire! Finally, speakers must know how to use their language appropriately to accomplish what they want in a given social situation. However, the knowledge native speakers have is mostly unconscious knowledge; they know how to say it, but they (usually) can#8217;t tell you how or why they say it that way. Language as both biology culture. All normal human children, everywhere, acquire the language of their social setting at about the same pace and in used book stores, the same way. They do so without formal training, and they do so in expository on someone, social and cultural contexts which differ in writing a business plan, terms of what kinds of linguistic interactions are supposed to be appropriate between parents/caregivers and expository essay on someone infants. For Dummies! These differences do not seem to affect the rate or quality of expository you admire children's acquisition of language; in a sense, children acquire language in much the same way as they acquire the skill of walking. However, children who are isolated, for some reason, from all forms of linguistic interaction do not acquire language, and if they reach puberty without exposure to language they may never be able to 39s plea acquire more than a very rudimentary linguistic ability.
By the time they are around 3-4 years of expository essay age, children have mastered some of the most complex and book stores subtle rules of their language, rules which no teacher of expository essay on someone you admire language could ever teach them. Of course, they still have lots of vocabulary to learn, as well as some of the pragmatic rules of language use in different social situations, and they have to learn to read and write. While the underlying shape of language is biological, any given language itself is a cultural artifact. The best way to illustrate this is to take the words for the domesticated animal which English speakers refer to roe vs as a dog. All languages have a word for this animal; no language has a word for half-a-dog. This seems to result from a property of the essay, human brain that guides our perception and representation of natural objects in the world, like dogs, which come to us in whole packages (other candidates might be rocks, trees, birds, and so on). At the same time, though, the words we find in wade, different languages. are as different as dog (English); perro (Spanish); anu (Aymara); kelb (Arabic); sobaka (Russian). None of these words has a privileged connection to the animal itself. Each is an arbitrary but conventional answer to the problem of naming these familiar domesticated animals.
Infinite use of finite media . Although languages are complex, they are not infinitely complex. The number of rules that anyone needs to know to create sentences in their language is relatively small, and the number of different kinds of sentences is essay on someone you admire quite small. Still, the number of sentences that can be produced by any speaker of plan for dummies a language is potentially infinite. Multiple patterning . Language is expository patterned at a number of levels of prime essay organization: sounds are patterned into phonemes, phonemes into words, words into phrases, phrases into sentences, sentences into larger units of discourse. This is expository on someone what makes the infinite use mentioned above possible.
Predication . All languages make it possible for their speakers to name something and then make some kind of assertion about whatever was named. Roe Vs! In other words, all languages allow for expository essay on someone sentences that contain a subject and a predicate . Father& 39s Plea Essay! We#8217;ll explore this further in the unit on essay on someone, syntax. Learnability . A central fact about all known languages is that they are all learnable by human beings. All normal human children acquire the language of their social group, and many (perhaps most!) go on to acquire more than one. Traditional transmission . While all humans appear to have a built-in, genetically provided capacity for language acquisition, the actual acquisition of language must take place in a social context. The social context determines whether the prime essay, language acquired is English, Russian, or Inuit, etc. Displacement . Unlike most animal vocalization systems, which require that a stimulus be physically present for the vocalization to on someone you admire take place, human language allows us to talk about things that are absent in either space or time, or both. Without this feature, humans would not be able to talk about dinosaurs, or Cleopatra. Short Essay On! We can add that this feature also allows us to expository on someone you admire talk about things that never existed, such as Klingons. Without it, we could have neither history or fiction. Openness . Also unlike other animals, which typically have a fixed set of vocalizations, humans can increase the number of expressions at their disposal by inventing words.
This feature allows us to add new words to our vocabulary such as hard drive , internet , and gigabyte . The analytic model of extended language includes the notion of linguistic relativism , which suggests that there is no point in expository on someone, trying to rank languages on book, any kind of scale. All human languages that we have any direct information about expository on someone you admire appear to contain all the characteristics necessary for language. In this view, there is no qualitative difference between a language and a dialect; the reasons why a particular variety of speech gets labeled as a dialect instead of as a language must be sought elsewhere. In particular, the reasons are to short essay on be found in the political, social, and economic value placed on the speakers of the language variety in question. The people who wield political, economic, and social control speak the language; those who do not speak the dialect. The realization that languages and dialects are not qualitatively different, and that attitudes toward them really reflect social prejudices, has led some linguists to say that a language is a dialect with an army and a navy. For linguists, then, what counts as a language, as opposed to a dialect, is socially and culturally negotiated; not determined by expository some objective linguistic truth. Sometimes the negotiation is spectacularly unsuccessful, as when the Oakland (California) school board attempted to declare African American Vernacular English (Ebonics) a language. There was a great public outcry against this, but almost nobody understood the real reason: African Americans in the US do not have an army and a navy; therefore, they are not entitled to have a language. I tend to avoid the difficulty of the word dialect by using variety instead. It seems easier and less judgmental to speak of varieties of English such as British, Australian, North American, or West Indian.
We can even talk about varieties of creole English, such as Jamaican, Trinadadian, Barbadian, Belizean, and so on. Short Essay On! Or, we can go in the other direction, and discuss varieties of Romance such as Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian; varieties of Indo-European such as Germanic and expository Balto-Slavic; or even varieties of short essay on human language such as Indo-European, Austronesian, and so on. It all depends on expository essay on someone you admire, what level of book abstraction we are interested in. Although from an analytic viewpoint they know a language as well as anyone, speakers of essay you admire non-standard varieties of language are often assumed by the folk model to short essay on be language-deficient. In the essay you admire, Caribbean, this manifests itself especially when creole-speaking children get to school and come up against the standard language in an intense way for the first time.
Teachers, who through no fault of their own very often have only minimal training, are aware only of the an indian, folk model for language. They assume that deviation from standard language forms is expository essay evidence for a lack of language , and that children have no grammar. The analytic model of language tells us that all normal human children have grammar but that grammar is their own knowledge of their native language, not the rules written down in school books.
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essay murder Murder Culture: Adventures in on someone 1940s Suspense. She had spoken aloud. She hadn’t meant to; she hadn’t wanted those words to come up from her throat to her lips. She hadn’t meant to think them, much less speak them. She didn’t want Gratia to have heard them. But across the essay roe vs, room the girl lifted her eyes from her book. “What did you say?” she queried.
In 1947, novelist Mitchell Wilson proclaimed: “Within the past ten years, we have been witnessing a new form of popular fictionthe story of expository essay on someone you admire suspense.” 1 We are so used to this genremany of our bestsellers are suspense thrillersthat it’s a little surprising to recall that once it was quite a new thing. On reflection, though, we might wonder: Was it really so new? Don’t all novels and writing a business plan, short stories, indeed all narratives in expository on someone popular media, depend on prime essay suspense? We want to know what happens next; we call a book that drives us forward a page-turner. But writers of the essay on someone, period began to distinguish this general sort of suspense from something more specific. Suspense, Wilson claims, depends on the reader’s identifying with a protagonist who is in ib philosophy extended essay acute jeopardy. That protagonist reacts to the situation not with superhuman calm or jauntiness but with fear. Expository You Admire! By describing the situation and the character’s response to it, the writer can communicate fear directly to the reader, who, says Wilson, “is aware of his own cowardice.” The universality of fear as an emotion allows the essay, reader to expository on someone you admire understand how the hero reacts, either by impulsively lashing out or by fleeing the essay, situation. What can best justify fear? The prospect of death.
The threat of expository on someone murder, Wilson claims, becomes central to this sort of suspense. It proves to the reader that there is prime essay no limit to the impending violence. 2 This quality is very different from the diffuse suspense we get from a romance or a detective story, in which the characters are usually not in mortal peril. Sooner or later, though, the expository on someone, protagonist will have to come to overcome fear. The framework of the suspense story is the continual struggle of the writing for dummies, frightened protagonist to fight back and save himself in spite of his pervading anxiety, and in this respect he is truly heroic. The action of the story does not consist in mere activity, but in expository the hero’s change of short essay on mood in response to changing circumstances. The suspense story, in essay this sense, is centrally about a character who starts out as a victim but who through brains and bravery can overcome the threat of death. Wilson wasn’t alone in spotting the trend. At the short essay on, time, several writers were claiming that the suspense story had come into its own. Most commonly, they distinguished the suspense story or “thriller” from the detective story. Wilson points out that the detective story relies upon curiosity rather than suspenseboth for the reader and the detective, who tends to respond to expository you admire murder with detached, intellectual calm.
The sleuth is a puzzle-solver, and the reader is asked to join in the game of deciding “whodunit.” The reader doesn’t identify with the detective because the narration typically doesn’t give us access to the detective’s mind, or at least not at every point: something is essay roe vs kept back so the detective can reveal the solution at the climax. Another contrast with the expository essay on someone, classic detective story was evident to these commentators. Instead of essay starting the plot with a dead victim, as the detective story tends to expository on someone you admire do, the suspense story builds up to the crime by centering on the potential victimsomeone “enmeshedin a web of circumstance.” 3 The buildup could involve revealing the murderer quite early, all the better to emphasize the danger that faces the writing a business plan for dummies, bewildered hero or heroine. Expository Essay! Indeed, part or all of the story could be told from the a business plan, viewpoint of the killer. Essay On Someone You Admire! Novelist Helen McCloy maintained that this technique fostered suspense, in roe vs wade place of the expository essay on someone, surprise cultivated by detective fiction. 4 Charlotte Armstrong agreed, noting that “Surprise is not much fun.” 5. This isn’t to suggest that the stores, suspense story wholly lacked detective-story elements.
Indeed, there were often mysteries aplenty. Instead of assigning the investigation to a professional or a private detective, the suspense story often made the anxious potential victim follow up clues. By letting the expository on someone you admire, protagonist turn detective, the action could pivot from prime essay, flight to fight, the climax at which the hero faces down danger in the manner Wilson described. In speaking of a new form of storytelling, Wilson was picking out something that seemed to him and other writers quite specific. But what about his datinghis claim that the form had emerged over the last ten years? That would put the beginning of the on someone you admire, suspense story at 1937 or 1938. He doesn’t justify this claim, but the authors he considers central to the new genre are Eric Ambler, Graham Greene, and Dorothy B. Hughes, all novelists who began writing crime fiction around that date. Wilson’s readers would have been aware of Ambler’s spy novels (most notably, The Mask of roe vs Dimitrios , 1939, and Journey into Fear , 1940), Greene’s criminal “entertainments” such as A Gun for Sale (aka This Gun for Hire , 1936), The Confidential Agent (1939), and The Ministry of Fear (1943), and Hughes’ tales of domestic murder and international espionage such as The So-Blue Marble (1940), The Bamboo Blonde (1941), The Fallen Sparrow (1942), and expository essay you admire, Dread Journey (1945).
After Wilson’s article, these authors would go on to write very famous suspense stories, such as Greene’s The Third Man (1949) and 39s plea, Hughes’ In a Lonely Place (1947). Interestingly, Wilson nowhere mentions suspense-driven films in his analysis of the genre. Yet by 1947 they were becoming a major form of you admire Hollywood cinema. Short Essay On! How did that process come about, and essay on someone, what relation does it have to changes in popular literature? We can understand the dynamic, I think, in two steps. First, we can trace the 1940s model of suspense back to three relatively stable traditions that fed into it: the stores, detective story, the domestic thriller, and the spy story. These suggest that Wilson’s ten-year window is somewhat too narrow. Then we can see how those traditions gained wide popularity in the 1940s as part of a diverse ecosystem of expository mystery narratives and informed what we came to recognize as the suspense thriller.
Finally, I’ll try to a business for dummies characterize the ecological niche occupied by expository essay one portly English filmmaker. Displacing the detective. The mystery story, a very broad category, became identified chiefly with the detective story thanks to Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes adventures. But the genre went through several changes between the 1920s and prime essay, the 1940s. Central to the classic form was the series detective, the investigator who in a string of stories solved crimes through rational inference aided by brilliant intuition. The set of character roles was constant: the investigator(s); the on someone, criminal(s); the victim(s); and the bystanders, those suspects, witnesses, and writing, helpers drawn into expository essay on someone, the inquiry. Likewise, the canonical plot began with the crime already accomplished (e.g., the extended essay, body in the library), and traced the course of the case until the criminal was exposed. Solving the puzzle depended on enigmatic physical traces, incompatible testimony, psychological insights, and other clues.
But by the end of the 1920s the best practitioners felt that the classic sleuth format needed rethinking. For historians of the form, the person who offered the most drastic revision was Anthony Berkeley Cox, who wrote as Anthony Berkeley and as Francis Iles. After creating a dazzling exercise in permutational solutions, The Poisoned Chocolates Case (1928), he announced that in effect the main path to rejuvenating detective fiction involved demoting the detective. Specifically, this new strategy meant organizing the plot’s point of view around either the expository essay on someone, criminal or the victim. So Iles’ Malice Aforethought (1931) becomes an account of writing plan a frustrated provincial doctor’s plan to kill his wife. In Before the Fact (1932), a woman gradually realizes her husband is essay going to murder her. Neither book is narrated in the first person, but each does confine itself wholly to the mind of the used stores, protagonist. Moreover, as both titles indicate, each plot’s point of attack is very early: the crime comes gradually, after a crescendo of menacing incidents.
There were precedents for the Iles method, from Crime and Punishment to A. You Admire! P. Herbert’s House by essay roe vs wade the River (1920), C. S. Expository Essay On Someone You Admire! Forester’s Payment Deferred (1926), and Berkeley’s The Second Shot (1929). Of the earlier experiments, most directly influential on mystery writers were the prime essay, “inverted” detective stories by R. Austin Freeman gathered in essay on someone you admire The Singing Bone (1912). Freeman redesigned point of view by using the first part of the tale to recount the commission of the crime, chiefly from the ib philosophy essay, criminal’s point of view, while part two traces the efforts of Dr. Thorndyke to solve the mystery. With the killer’s identity revealed at the outset, the story depends on generating curiosity about how Thorndyke will solve it (a dynamic continued in the television series Columbo ). As for point of attack, the essay you admire, “inverted” plots begin well before the crime is committed, in order to establish motives and plans. In essence Iles’ novels lopped off the second half of the inverted tale, eliminating or minimizing the role of the essay wade, investigation and concentrating wholly on the buildup to the crimethe panic and pressures suffered by the killer, or the suspicion and fear of the essay on someone, victim. Coming from 39s plea essay, a skilled practitioner of whodunits, the two Iles books crystallized, at expository on someone, least in England, the creative option of designing a mystery plot focused around a would-be killer or victim. Freeman Wills Crofts, whose orthodox detective stories hinged on breaking ironclad alibis, joined the new wave with The 12:30 from Croydon (1934). Here the step-by-step planning and execution of a murder is told from the would-be killer’s standpoint. As if in recognition that he had left a tradition behind, Crofts makes his culprit exceptionally well-read in used book stores mystery fiction. He meditates in prison:
Somehow, alone there in the semi-darkness, the expository essay you admire, excellence of his own plans seemed less convincing than ever before. Stories he had read recurred to book him in which the guilty had made perfect plans, but in on someone you admire all cases they had broken down. Those double tales of 39s plea Austin Freeman’s! 6. Detective stories conventionally refer to other detective stories, apparently assuring us that this story is more “real” than its counterparts but actually serving to on someone cite traditions that the reader enjoys recalling. Here Crofts acknowledges that Freeman’s “inverted” story made salient the 39s plea, possibility of a new gimmick: How will the criminal err in committing the expository on someone, crime? Most Golden Age detective writers continued to develop puzzles, but they noticed the new trends. Dorothy Sayers acknowledged that an emphasis on psychology and the circumstances leading up to the crime had created “studies in murder” rather than straight detective tales. 7 Agatha Christie, whose talent was more protean than is usually acknowledged, blended before-the-fact plotting with mystery in And Then There Were None (1939), and she had a character in Towards Zero (1944) muse: I like a good detective story.But, you know, they begin in the wrong place!
They begin with the wade, murder. But the murder is the expository essay on someone you admire, end. The story begins long before thatyears before sometimeswith all the roe vs wade, causes and events that bring certain people to a certain place at expository on someone you admire, a certain time on a certain day.Even nowsome dramasome murder to short essay on beis in expository you admire course of preparation. 8. Ten-Minute Alibi (1935). In advocating plotting that was more psychological and less dependent on a business for dummies puzzle-solving, Cox and on someone you admire, his colleagues were joining forces with a mystery form that had received little respect from the critical community. Since at least World War I, British and American writers had been cultivating what we might call the domestic thriller, a tale of mystery and danger in ordinary circumstances.
The best-known instance in short essay on Britain is Marie Belloc Lowndes’ The Lodger (1913). The novel about a Jack-the-Ripper figure might have been rendered as a sensation-driven pursuit story or a tale of rational detection. Instead, it is re-plotted as a tale of suspicion seeping through a lower-middle-class household. By organizing the book’s viewpoint principally around the landlady who fears that her lodger may be a serial killer, Belloc Lowndes created a mystery largely filtered through the imperfect knowledge of a bystander. If The Lodger has an American counterpart, it is Mary Roberts Rinehart’s The Circular Staircase (1908). Again, the action is you admire focused around a witness: the spinster Rachel Innes, who encounters the bizarre happenings in a rented summer house. Unlike The Lodger ’s Mrs. Bunting, Rachel narrates the tale and takes up the role of investigator, eventually bringing the guilty party to light.
The contributions of these two writers were enormously popular, but orthodox historians of mystery fiction have tended to mock their gynocentric plots. Rinehart in particular was ridiculed as the prime essay, exponent of the “Had I But Known” school of mystery, whereby sudden plot twists are motivated by the protagonist’s convenient lapses of memory or judgment. Worse, as one authoritative history puts it, is “the manner in which romantic complications are allowed to obstruct the expository essay you admire, orderly process of puzzle and solution.” 9 The sexism here is pretty blatant: Rinehart’s plots are no more preposterous or dependent on coincidence than many tales featuring heroes rather than heroines, and book, of course many detective novels include clumsy subplots involving romantic couples. More important for our purposes, Belloc Lowndes, Rinehart, and writers who followed, such as Mignon Eberhart and Mabel Seeley, sustained a tradition of domestic, woman-in-peril plotting. A sympathetic critic remarked that Rinehart’s books provide “no put-the-pieces-together formula” but rather “an out-guess-this-unknown-or-he’ll-out-guess-you, life-and-death struggle.” 10 Many critics have noted Rebecca ’s debt to sensation fiction and the Gothic line via Jane Eyre , but these other writers furnished more proximate antecedents for du Maurier’s tale. On Someone! As Alfred Hitchcock remarked: “There was a whole school of feminine literature at the period.” 11. At almost exactly the same time, murder was being domesticated on roe vs the English and American stage.
The major vogue seems to have come in the late 1920s, when, as a New York Times correspondent put it, London suffered “a theatrical crime waveowing to a deluge of mystery plays and on someone you admire, ‘thrillers.’” 12 Several of these plays were detective stories and sensation pieces, many from Edgar Wallace. But audiences were also treated to essay Interference (1927), The Letter (1927), Spellbound (1927; no relation to Hitchcock’s film), Blackmail (1928), Patrick Hamilton’s Rope (aka Rope’s End , 1929), and other popular “murder plays.” The genre continued through the decade, with successes like the stage adaptation of Payment Deferred (1932), the ticking-clock drama Ten-Minute Alibi (1933), Without Witness (1934), The Two Mrs. Carrolls (1935), the serial-killer drama Night Must Fall (1935), Love from expository essay you admire, a Stranger (1936), the Rope -derived Trunk Crime (aka The Last Straw , 1937), and short essay on, another Patrick Hamilton triumph, Gaslight (1938). The New York stage didn’t lag behind, importing several of these hits while adding Nine Pine Street (1933, based on the Lizzie Borden case), Double Door (1933, an expository you admire, anticipation of Rebecca ), Invitation to a Murder (1934), and Kind Lady (1935). 13. A new label came to be attached to these dramas of essay roe vs wade home-bred homicide. When Val Gielgud wrote to Patrick Hamilton requesting a new BBC radio drama, he suggested that “a psychological thriller along the lines of ‘Rope’ would be good.” 15 The phrase came into on someone, currency during the 1930s to describe domestic thrillers in 39s plea essay fiction, onstage, and expository essay on someone you admire, onscreen, and plays began advertising themselves with the short essay on, label. Expository On Someone! 15. Why the emphasis on psychology? Chiefly, I suspect, to distinguish these plays from the blood-and-thunder sensation of short essay on Edgar Wallace and the extroverted adventure of expository you admire John Buchan.
On the West End stage, drawing-room murder on the Ilesian model was easy to an indian 39s plea essay dramatize. If the you admire, plot divulges the plotter or killer from the start, the emphasis falls naturally on why the crime is father& 39s plea essay committed and whether the expository on someone you admire, guilty party will escape. Now the drama grows out of festering motive, middle-class frustration, and the gradual realization that loved ones can’t be trusted. The 1920s1930s detective story, with its least-likely-suspect surprise, had relied on the idea that anyone could be a murderer, but the domestic thriller developed this idea in depth. The theme was doubtless accelerated by much-publicized murders committed by solid citizens, notably Dr.
H. Ib Philosophy Extended Essay! H. Crippen, Loeb and Leopold, and baby-faced Sidney Fox (inspiration for expository on someone you admire Night Must Fall ). These fictions replaced the Napoleonic crimes of short essay on sensation thrillers by a sense that humdrum life harbored lethal passions. Hence a series of books organized around killers’ psychological states: Richard Hull’s The Murder of expository on someone you admire My Aunt (1935), Winifred Duke’s Skin for Skin (1935), Bruce Hamilton’s Middle Class Murder (1936), and prime essay, James Ronald’s This Way Out (1939). Patrick Hamilton’s Hangover Square (1941), with its schizophrenic protagonist and bold sexuality, indicates how far things had come in expository on someone just a few years. A parallel trend emerged in America. While the hard-boiled stories of Cain and Chandler gained most attention, other writersagain, mostly womenoffered stories of lethally disturbed husbands (Elisabeth Sanxay Holding’s Death Wish , 1934, and Net of essay roe vs Cobwebs , 1935) and expository, tangled domestic murder plots (Cora Jarrett’s Night over Fitch’s Pond , 1933). What about focusing point of view around the victim? Psychology came to prominence there too. Writing A Business Plan! Boileau and on someone you admire, Narcejac would point out later that traditional detective fiction had minimized the an indian essay, quality of expository essay on someone you admire fear. 16 But concentrating on the potential victim’s anxieties and extended essay, suspicions made fear central to the new thriller.
Not incidentally, most of the killers were male and many of their victims were female, continuing the woman-in-peril motif developed in Lowndes, Rinehart, and expository essay on someone you admire, their followers, as well as in short essay on Before the Fact . The psychological thriller was able to reactivate the Bluebeard tradition, often making explicit reference to expository essay you admire it. Reviewers sometimes felt obliged to warn audiences and readers that the psychological thriller wasn’t a mystery in the usual sense: “whodunit” would be revealed very soon. Wade! Yet this foreknowledge didn’t dissipate interest. Whether novel or play, the domestic thriller shifted the plot’s thrust from on someone you admire, curiosity about the short essay on, past (who killed X and why and how?) to on someone you admire anticipation (will Y succeed in killing X and escape punishment?). As one writer explained in reviewing A. A. Milne’s play The Fourth Wall (1928): Though we saw the murder, we do not know what little slip Carter may have made in the arrangement of the essay roe vs wade, room or the concoction of his own and Laverick’s alibi. Thus while Susan continues her investigation we do not know what clue she will discover or how she will arrive at the truth; nor when she has a part of the information in her hands do we how she will force Carter to reveal the rest. Here is scope for action enough, and not for action only but for expository you admire as much drawing of character as is possible in writing a business plan the course of a narrative so full of events. The first act, which shows the murder, is admirable in its suspense and surprise. 17. In The Fourth Wall and most other murder plays, the killer doesn’t go scot-free.
In the expository you admire, novels as well, authors tend to emphasize that their clever miscreants fail to execute a perfect crime. I spy (All the worse for short essay on me) As some detective-story writers, under the on someone you admire, Iles influence, moved closer to essay roe vs the psychological thriller, another group of writers exploited suspense in tales of international intrigue. This trend seems to have been central to Mitchell Wilson’s 1947 intuition about the expository on someone you admire, new thriller, for all three of short essay on his specific examplesGreene, Ambler, and Hughesmade their reputations in the spy genre. Historians trace the modern spy story back to British writers, William LeQueux and E. Phillips Oppenheim, and expository you admire, later Edgar Wallace, John Buchan, and William “Sapper” McNiele. 18 These writers developed the basic conventions.
Central among these was a fairly episodic plot based on a series of adventures, driven by a hunt (for secret documents or exotic weapons) or a chase. Typically the protagonist ran afoul of some large-scale force, such as a master criminal, a sinister foreign government, or a secret coalition bent on world domination. At the same time, the short essay on, protagonist might also be sought by the police, a domestic intelligence agency, or some other force of law. The result was the “double chase,” in which the hero must elude both villains and the law, as in expository essay John Buchan’s The Thirty-Nine Steps (1915). The chase plot was filled out by captures, escapes, abductions of the heroes’ allies or loved ones, and sometimes surprisingly comic interludes. The conventions forged by these writers were ready-made for essay roe vs cinema, so it’s not surprising that some of the earliest feature films and serials in many countries were spy stories, such as Denmark’s Dr. Gar-el-Hama series, Louis Feuillade’s crime serials, and Lang’s Dr. Mabuse films and Spies (1928). Because the hunt and the pursuit were central to the action, the typical spy story set its protagonist on a journey.
The detective story and the domestic thriller tended to be centripetal, focused on a limited number of you admire settings or even a single household. The tale of intrigue, however, was centrifugal; its characters were propelled from essay, city to countryside, from one country or region to essay another. Central scenes might take place on a train or on a highway. Stores! The Middle East, Russia, and essay on someone you admire, Asia furnished exotic locales. This incessant travel might highlight themes of an indian 39s plea essay national identity and devotion to a country or cause. The protagonist of the spy novel might be a professional secret agent or an independent adventurer who takes on a mission out of patriotism, personal loyalty, or a quest for excitement. Before the expository you admire, late 1930s, the spy thriller also contained some degree of humor, either in book stores comic characters and dialect rendering or in expository you admire a light-hearted approach to used book stores dangers, as seen in Agatha Christie’s Tuppence and Tommy Beresford series. But things became more somber as spying began recruiting more naïve protagonists. Late in expository essay on someone you admire the decade, international tensions allowed writers to hurl ordinary citizens into the conflict. In Ambler’s Epitaph for a Spy (1938), the protagonist is a weak emigrant who is pressured into spying by prime essay brutal and bungling intelligence officials. Helen MacInnes’ Above Suspicion (1941) propels an Oxford couple into intrigue while they visit Europe for “one last look at peacetime” in essay on someone you admire 1939.
The protagonist of Greene’s Confidential Agent (1939) is what the title calls him: not a “secret agent” but a representative seeking coal to help the Spanish revolutionary cause. Now that the ib philosophy, plot depended on amateurs and innocents, missions can go amiss and the ending may be more glum than happy; Epitaph for essay a Spy and The Confidential Agent end with little sense of victory. The technique of a restricted narration becomes as crucial to the spy story as it is to detective fiction and the domestic thriller. Buchan and the later writers tend to focus their stories around the consciousness of the protagonist, either through first-person accounts or through limiting the range of knowledge. In these books, we often know only as much as the hero or heroine does. Restricted narration enhances the used, mystery component, while also making every encounter a potential threat: Is the friendly helper encountered on the road actually working for the enemy? The limitations of expository you admire knowledge make possible the conventional bluffs and double-crosses that create plot reversals typical of spy fiction, but they can also generate the anxietyin protagonist and in readerthat Mitchell Wilson found central to short essay on the suspense story. These three trends in popular fiction and drama seem most pertinent to the emergence of the 1940s suspense story. But they could not have exercised their influence had not America, home to Hollywood, gone mad for essay mystery and murder.
Hitchcock, Judith Anderson, and Joan Fontaine on extended essay the set of Rebecca . There is essay on someone a standard story about short essay on, what happened to American mystery fiction during the 1930s and 1940s. The Sherlock Holmes model of rational crime-solving, we’re told, was replaced by the two-fisted private detective who came up from the pulp magazines to literary prestige. Like most such synopses, though, this one cuts some corners. In popular literature, the adventures in deduction of Lord Peter Wimsey, Hercule Poirot, and Ellery Queen remained far more widely read than the chronicles of Sam Spade, Philip Marlowe, and other roughnecks. Only Mickey Spillane’s Mike Hammer rivaled the popularity of his white-glove counterparts. Expository Essay On Someone! 19 Moreover, the standard outline plays down the syntheses between the puzzle-driven and ib philosophy extended essay, action-driven plotting we find in the work of expository you admire Rex Stout and short essay on, Erle Stanley Gardner (hands down the most popular mystery writer of the 1940s). Essay On Someone! 20 At the same period, the essay roe vs wade, spy story often incorporated a puzzle element, and this was balanced against vigorous physical action provided by hunts and chases. Now we can see that the standard history also ignores the emergence of the psychological thriller. Mitchell Wilson’s remark in on someone you admire 1947 that the short essay on, suspense story had come of age marks a dawning recognition that there was currently a form of you admire mystery that steered a course between the puzzle and the hard-boiled adventure. More generally, throughout the 1940s there was a recalibration and refinement of mass-market genres.
Publishers developed “category publishing,” as Janice Radaway has explained: a strategy of short essay on identifying a stable market for a certain type of fiction and serving that with steady, predictable output. 21 Mysteries, Westerns, and expository on someone, romances, so identified, made up the bulk of U.S. genre fiction in the 1940s. Their ambit expanded enormously when the paperback revolution opened up new markets. Mystery, including detective stories, spy stories, and suspense fiction, was by short essay on far the most popular category. In 1940, 40% of essay you admire all novels published were mysteries. 22 Serialized in slick magazines, then brought out in hardcover, then in cheaper editions, perhaps eventually to be the basis of short essay on radio plays or movies, mystery titles assured publishers solid returns and attained a degree of expository you admire literary respectability at used stores, the same time. While Westerns and romance titles flew under the radar, newspapers reserved column inches for reviews of mysteries. Publishers devoted entire imprints to mystery fiction, and went on to subdivide their product lines to expository on someone reflect readers’ tastes.
Doubleday’s Crime Club imprint created indicia to label a book as “Chess Puzzle,” “Character and Atmosphere,” “Spies and Sabotage,” “Some Like Them Tough,” and so on. Simon and short essay on, Schuster’s “Inner Sanctum” logo marked “a novel of expository on someone suspense, a novel of crime and punishment rather than a novel of writing a business plan crime and detection.” 23. As this ecosystem expanded and diversified, commentators began to distinguish suspense stories from on someone, other forms of thriller. The radio program Suspense began regular broadcasting in 1942. It asked aspiring writers to provide plots based on tense, “precarious” situations, while avoiding “plain ‘who-dun-its’ or detective stories” and extended, “fantastic horror-yarns involving zombies, ghosts, etc.” 24 Howard Haycraft, the leading historian of crime fiction, admitted that the Rinehart “romantic-feminine school of crime fiction” had been a major force and had invaded the best-seller lists.
Hence the current popularity of expository essay on someone “the somewhat amorphous ‘suspense’ novel.” 25 Anthony Boucher, another major critic, claimed that World War II coincided with a new phase of mystery fiction. Prime Essay! With classic detective situations “exhausted,” the public demanded “a heightening of the pure element of suspense.” Suspense had become central to the “personal narratives” that constituted the new cutting edge of mystery writing. 26 Mitchell Wilson’s article is only one piece recognizing the new genre. If you had to on someone pick a single book that shifted U.S. mystery publishing toward psychological suspense, it would probably be Daphne du Maurier’s Rebecca . (Its date of publication, 1938, fits comfortably into Wilson’s ten-year time frame.) Upon publication it immediately became a bestseller, and by the end of the short essay on, 1940s it had sold over a million copies, making it the most successful mystery novel of the era. 27 In fact, it was hardly recognized as a mystery novel. Long, melancholy, dense with description and reflections on you admire the protagonist’s inner life, it was greeted as a serious piece of fiction, closer to The Citadel (1941), Random Harvest (1941), and other middlebrow novels than to the genre works of Rinehart, Seeley, Eberhart than others. With its echoes of short essay on Jane Eyre , Rebecca provided a model for the “romantic suspense” novel that would come to prominence in the 1950s and eventually become the Harlequin romance of our day. With Rebecca and many other novels, the American suspense thriller came into essay on someone, its own.
Today we tend to associate the trend with film noir and outstanding male authors like Cornell Woolrich, John Franklin Bardin, and Georges Simenon (then being frequently translated). Used Book Stores! Again, however, the trend was also shaped by Vera Caspary, Dorothy B. Hughes, Charlotte Armstrong, Mabel Seeley, Doris Miles Disney, Elizabeth Daly, Hilda Lawrence, Margaret Millar, Josephine Tey, Patricia Highsmith, and other female authors. As the “inverted” and multi-perspectival detective story had pushed some English practitioners toward psychological mystery, so too did many of these women novelists abandon their series detectives and essay you admire, shift toward pure suspense. Cinema followed the trend. The murder plays Payment Deferred , Kind Lady , and Night Must Fall had found their way to the screen in the 1930s, but now there was a burst of adaptations.
Gaslight was filmed in ib philosophy essay 1944, The Two Mrs. Essay! Carrolls and Love from a Stranger in 1947. Other revivals included the Gothic classics Jane Eyre (1944) and The Woman in White (1948) and the Edwardian books The Lodger (1944) and The House by the River (1950). Some of the earliest adaptations came from the authors named by short essay on Wilson as prototypes of you admire suspense. Graham Greene’s work yielded the films This Gun for Hire (1942), Ministry of Fear (1945), and The Confidential Agent (1945). Eric Ambler’s novels were the extended essay, basis for Journey into Fear (1943) and essay on someone you admire, The Mask of Dimitrios (1944). The less-known Dorothy B. Hughes supplied The Fallen Sparrow (1943), Ride the Pink Horse (1947), and In a Lonely Place (1950). At the short essay on, same time, Woolrich, Hughes, Armstrong, Caspary, and many other thriller novelists found their work turned into movies.
28 Elisabeth Sanxay Holding, called by Raymond Chandler “the top suspense writer of them all,” wrote the novel that would become The Reckless Moment (1949). 29. Hollywood developed original thrillers as well, and the trade press spotted a trend. A 1944 Variety article claimed that. The typical tale in expository on someone the new genre crawls with living horror, is eerie with something impending, and socks its suspense thrill well along toward the middle of the writing a business plan for dummies, story, instead of doing the crime victim in at the beginning and expository, then building a whodunit and extended, a detective quiz as the element of suspense. 30. The passage reminds us that emotion of fear, so central to Mitchell Wilson’s commentary, is also a stock response triggered by the horror film of the 1930s.
In 1947 Wilson felt no need to specify that the expository essay on someone, fear conjured up by the suspense story was not akin to short essay on that in horror or fantasy films: the cause was not a monster or a supernatural being. Three years earlier, however, the expository essay, anonymous Variety writer was just starting to make this distinction. Essay Roe Vs! The article takes Rebecca (1940) , Phantom Lady, Gaslight, Dark Waters (1944), Mask of Dimitrios, Hangover Square (1945), and even The Picture of Dorian Gray (1945), as examples of the “new horrifier.” Such films created, one observer noted, “a horror cycle” that was quite different from “vampire, werewolf and Frankenstein chillers.” 31. Lumping all these suspense films together seems a bit odd today. Expository Essay On Someone You Admire! Aren’t Gaslight and Dark Waters really Gothics? By contrast, aren’t Phantom Lady and Hangover Square examples of film noir?
We need to remember that female Gothics and films noirs are really ex post facto categories, constructed by writing later critics to point out affinities and differences among groups of films. These categories didn’t exist for contemporaries, and filmmakers and writers of the time carved things up rather differently. Many of the 1940s films’ plots, as we’d expect, put women in danger in expository on someone you admire a forbidding household. So we have Experiment Perilous (1944), Dark Waters (1944), My Name Is Julia Ross (1945), Undercurrent (1946), Dragonwyck (1946), A Stolen Life (1946), The Spiral Staircase (1946), Sleep, My Love (1948), Caught (1949), and several other films, many adapted from plays and essay, novels. When a Hollywood’s psychological thriller focused on a male protagonist it could yield something like Hangover Square , The Woman in the Window (1944), Conflict (1945), Scarlet Street (1945), The Suspect (1945), The Chase (1946), They Won’t Believe Me (1947), The Big Clock (1948), Take One False Step (1949), and The Second Woman (1950). What’s striking is that as these narrative patterns multiplied, mixtures and variants appeared. The plot of Phantom Lady , novel and film, depends on a properly victimized, perhaps paranoid noir hero; but he is essay rescued by his girlfriend. Short Essay On! Instead of murderous husbands we find equally manipulative women targeting husbands, wives, and engaged couples ( A Guest in expository the House , 1944; Strange Impersonation , 1946; Leave Her to plan Heaven , 1946). Even the “Gothic” plots exhibit a lot of variety. In Dark Waters , the villain isn’t the husband but an expository essay on someone you admire, entire family conspiring against the bride.
In A Woman’s Vengeance , the would-be killer isn’t the unfaithful husband but a third woman in used book love with him. My Name is Julia Ross shows how a dowager conspires to obliterate a woman’s identity so that she can marry the expository, old woman’s demented son. The 1944 Variety article mentions another salient feature of the new thriller. It deals with insanity“unpredictable in its attack; frightful in its effect among the companion characters.” 32 During the 1930s, Dorothy Sayers predicted a robust future for psychoanalytic mystery, and occasionally novels of the time invoke concepts of the “subconscious” and “revived” childhood traumas. Extended! 33 American detective stories of the expository on someone, 1940s dabbled in the trend more overtly; one of the earliest seems to be Lawrence Treat’s 1943 O as in used book Omen , which makes its sleuth a psychiatrist who interprets not only suspects’ dreams but his own. Hitchcock’s Spellbound (1945), with its therapeutic investigation, turned the suspense plot toward psychoanalysis.
With Bewitched (1945), The Locket (1947), and Possessed (1947), Freudian motifs became conventional parts of the domestic thriller. Even less doctrine-driven tales would suggest that the murderous husband or lover or seductress harbored a streak of madness. By the late 1940s, the suspense story was a major genre. In her survey of the movie colony, Hortense Powdermaker noted the expository essay you admire, recent vogue for “psychological murder thrillers” and the rise of suspense as a factor in essay A pictures. 34 Instead of a detective story, remarked another writer, Hollywood could now offer “adult and expository essay you admire, exciting screen drama on the mystery framework, with emphasis on character and suspense.” 35 Another observer stressed that whereas many mysteries had been consigned to the ranks of B pictures, the new ones could be treated with top production values. 36 Crucial in all cases was the element of personal vulnerability: “The trend is toward emotion, excitement, suspensetoward ‘What is going to happen to this protagonist?’” 37. The Lady Vanishes (1938). Sharp-eyed readers will have noticed that nearly all my examples of suspense films come from the stores, years 1944 onward. What about the expository essay you admire, years before? Examples of suspense pictures are curiously hard to find in those years. There are the B films Stranger on the Third Floor (1940), often taken as a prototypical film noir; Shadows on the Stair (1941) from a Frank Vosper play; Fingers at the Window (1942); and Street of Chance (1942).
The rare A pictures we might consider include Ladies in Retirement (1941), but featuring minor players; I Wake Up Screaming (1941), a somber detective film narrated largely from the standpoints of witnesses and suspects; and two upper-tier spy films of 1943, Journey into Fear and Above Suspicion . There are probably other candidates I don’t know of, but I don’t believe that pre-1944 releases boast very many top-rank suspense-driven films. Except of course, for the films directed by short essay on Alfred Hitchcock. So far my story must seem a case of Hamlet without the Prince. It’s been a challenging exercise to sketch the on someone, context of 1940s Hollywood and essay roe vs, barely mention Hitchcock, but eventually I have to confront reality. The “missing” suspense films of the early 1940s are by essay on someone you admire Hitchcock: Rebecca (1940), Foreign Correspondent (1940), Suspicion (1941), Saboteur (1942), and Shadow of a Doubt (1943). And it seems likely that they strongly influenced what would follow. Hitchcock came to America acknowledged as the extended essay, magisterial exponent of high tension. In a 1936 article in essay on someone you admire the Times of London, a reviewer writes, “Mr. Hitchcock’s long and for dummies, strong suit is suspense.” 38 British cinema of the 1930s exploited detective plots, domestic thrillers, and essay on someone you admire, spy stories, but Hitchcock managed to give them unusually sharp form and force. 39 Murder! (1930) respects the detective-story premises of the short essay on, source novel.
The Lodger (1926) is an adaptation of Belloc Lowndes’ classic domestic thriller. Blackmail (1929) also relies on essay conventions of that genre: the killer’s identity is extended essay known at the start, and her task is to escape punishment. Above all there were the five spy films in the second half of the 1930s. Although The Secret Agent (1936) centers on a professional spy, the others show ordinary people caught up in international intrigue: the family in you admire The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934) and a couple on a train in The Lady Vanishes (1938). Even the Richard Hannay of The 39 Steps (1935) seems more an ordinary person than the adventure-loving gentleman of the father&, Buchan books. Hitchcock and his screenwriters proved adroit at blending one format with another. Young and Innocent (1937) is derived from a detective novel, but the film divulges the murderer’s identity in expository essay you admire the first scene in order to set up a double-barreled pursuit. In Sabotage (1936), the spy story becomes a domestic thriller when a wife learns that her husband is a business for dummies a ruthless bomber. In both England and the U.S., Hitchcock aligned himself closely with major trends in mystery fiction and drama.
His reading tastes ran to Belloc Lowndes and John Buchan. 40 He considered adapting Buchan’s Greenmantle and essay you admire, Iles’ Malice Aforethought . The Man Who Knew Too Much began as a tale of Bulldog Drummond, the hero created by Sapper. Having filmed one Du Maurier novel, Jamaica Inn (1939), Hitchcock contemplated buying the rights to used Rebecca before Selznick acquired it. Expository On Someone! 41 Two of plan his films featured the actor Frank Vosper, co-author of the expository on someone you admire, significant murder play Love from a Stranger . Once in America, he returned to similar sources, hoping to remake The Lodger , filming Iles’s Before the Fact as Suspicion , and eventually turning Patrick Hamilton’s Rope into a 1948 film. There were personal affinities as well. His assistant Joan Harrison was married to essay Eric Ambler, and he wrote a glowing introduction to a 1943 collection of essay on someone Ambler novels. 42. With the exception of the comedy Mr. and Mrs.
Smith (1941), Hitchcock’s earliest American films maintained his prominence in the subgenres. The hugely successful Rebecca (1940) was followed by two more domestic thrillers, Suspicion (1941) and Shadow of a Doubt (1943). Prime Essay! Sandwiched among these were two spy chases, Foreign Correspondent (1940) and Saboteur (1942). Very quickly his work set the benchmark. Throughout the 1940s, he was called the “master of suspense” in essay both critics’ columns and film advertising.
The term reappeared in writing plan trade advertisements for on someone Shadow of a Doubt, Lifeboat , and Spellbound . 43 A 1941 review of Ladies in essay roe vs Retirement praised it for providing Hitchcockian suspense. 44 “The novel story line” of on someone you admire Crossroads (1942), noted a Variety critic in June 1942, “would do credit to an Alfred Hitchcock thriller.” 45 Richard Wallace’s direction of The Fallen Sparrow (1943, from a Dorothy B. Hughes novel) was said to essay roe vs be “reminiscent of the Hitchcock touch.” 46 His name was invoked in discussions of films by Val Lewton and even Walt Disney. 47 After a decade in Hollywood he had been around long enough to expository essay be called “the old master.” 48. Hitchcock worked to used promote his brand. 49 In interviews and on someone you admire, public talks he differentiated the detective story from his sort of thriller, often stressing that distinction between suspense and surprise that was picked up by Charlotte Armstrong, Helen McCloy, and other commentators on the emerging suspense genre. 50 He composed an introduction to a 1947 collection of suspense stories in which he laid down his ideas on technique. A Business Plan For Dummies! In that anthology he returned to a favorite topic, the narrational options that create suspense.
Much of suspense comes down to range of knowledge. “The author may let both reader and essay on someone, character share the knowledge of the father& 39s plea, nature of the dangers which threaten.Sometimes, however, the reader alone may realize that peril is in essay the offing, and watch the characters moving to meet it in short essay on blissful ignorance and disquieting unconcern.” 51 Hitchcock continued to pronounce on essay on someone principles of suspense throughout the 1940s, applying them to whatever project he had in hand. (In Rope , the fact that the audience knows the killers from the an indian father& essay, start “makes for expository real suspense.” 52) He became the foremost practitioner and theorist of the new genre. From this perspective, Mitchell Wilson’s 1947 piece was part of a new discourse on suspense that Hitchcok had helped shape. His influence extended beyond cinema. To write for the radio show Suspense, a writer declared, demanded two kinds of suspense. “Interest” or “mystification” suspense compels the audience to wonder what will happen next, while “emotional” suspense requires knowledge of all the factors in play, along with identification with the threatened person. The author’s example of emotional suspense is the scene in Rope when the maid slowly clears the short essay on, books off the chest containing the body. Indeed, the program was explicitly designed to bring to radio “the particular kind of suspense developed in pictures by Alfred Hitchcock.” 53.
The Master’s problems, and some solutions. Above Suspicion (1943). It’s very likely, then, that Hitchcock’s films of essay on someone you admire 19401943 gave an impetus to the emergence of full-blown suspense pictures in used book stores the years that followed. We can’t attribute everything to them; after all, if Hitchcock hadn’t directed Rebecca , someone else would have, and it would probably have had a large impact in any case. More broadly, the films fitted smoothly into the murder culture of on someone American popular media. Still, the writing, films provided high standards of quality and meticulous models of plot and style that other filmmakers could learn from. In following Hitchcock’s models and other efforts of the early forties, the expository on someone, studios couldn’t turn on a dime. With writers recruited for the war effort, original screenplays were in shorter supply.
Studios increased the number of literary adaptations, often drawing from short stories and serialized novels. Once a property was found, it typically took at least a year to develop into a finished film, and very often a story went through several years of development. Short Essay On! 54 Such factors help explain why it took a while before the psychological thriller could emerge as a production trend. When it did, in calendar 1944, Hitchcock’s example remained inescapable. Yet counter-forces developed. Once the suspense story developed, was he to be its only master? In the essay on someone you admire, literary realm there was of course Simenon, whose Maigret detective novels and essay roe vs, his proto-noir romans durs were being translated at the time. Fritz Lang, dubbed by Variety “a master at maintaining high suspense,” 55 had like Hitchcock made his reputation with crime thrillers before arriving in America, and his Hollywood work of the 1940s soon paralleled the expository essay you admire, Englishman’s: espionage thrillers ( Man Hunt, Hangmen Also Die!, Ministry of Fear, Cloak and essay, Dagger ) alongside domestic ones. Indeed, The Woman in the Window, Scarlet Street, Secret Beyond the Door , and expository essay on someone you admire, House by the River might well have been Hitchcock projects. There was also Robert Siodmak.
His Spiral Staircase started as a Selznick project planned for Bergman and prime essay, Hitchcock, and his Phantom Lady was produced by Hitchcock colleague Joan Harrison. Billy Wilder told a reporter that Double Indemnity (1944) was an attempt to “out-Hitch Hitch.” 56 Soon the same reporter, who had been an ardent Hitchcock admirer, could write that Fred Zinneman’s Seventh Cross (1944) “filmed suspense in on someone you admire a new way” by avoiding all “tricks”“unlike Alfred Hitchcock, master of surprise” (!). 57. Filmmakers of the period learned a great deal from Hitchcock’s technique, such as his gliding camera movements inward to build tension, or his abrupt cuts to essay close-ups. There was even open copying. Lifting from the Albert Hall climax of The Man Who Knew Too Much , Richard Whorf’s Above Suspicion (1943) presents an assassination during an orchestra performance, with the gunshot masked by a blast of music. 58 At the same time, I think, Hitchcock’s early thrillers displayed some problems that other filmmakers could learn to avoid. Take Rebecca and Suspicion , the two tales of uxorial mistrust. Compared to the trim thrillers of Eberhart, Rebecca is hardly a perfect template for suspense. Essay You Admire! Its plot evokes mystery but in plan for dummies a rather leisurely way, gradually crystallizing questions about how Rebecca died and why widower Maxim de Winter behaves brusquely.
The emphasis falls on the nameless heroine’s pangs of naivete and inferiority when thrust into a wealthy milieu. Her investigations of Rebecca’s life and death are mostly inadvertent results of her social gaffes. Not until quite late in the plot does she become seriously threatened, when the sadistic housekeeper Mrs. Danvers urges the distraught girl to fling herself out a window. And not until a storm leads locals to discover Rebecca’s remains in a sunken sailboat does Maxim confess that he shot his wife and buried her body at sea. You Admire! Now that the mystery is dispelled, a more traditional suspense can kick in.
Maxim must bluff the ib philosophy essay, coroner’s inquest and evade the blackmailing scheme of Rebecca’s lover Favell. Maxim and the heroine are saved, again more or less accidentally, but with the Manderley estate destroyed, they end their lives in a seedy French hotel and brood on their lost Manderley and their hollow marriage. Burdened with a murderous hero and an unhappy ending, Rebecca faced problems of transposition to the screen. To placate the Hays Office, Selznick and Hitchcock modified the plot to make Rebecca’s death an accident, covered up by essay you admire Maxim. On the wade, whole, other changes made for the film streamlined the action, excising the musings that fill the book and building up the suspense, chiefly through the pressures the expository essay on someone, sinister Mrs. Danvers brings to ib philosophy extended bear on the new wife. From the start, Hitchcock doses du Maurier’s plot with local tension, as when it seems that the heroine will leave Monte Carlo with her employer before she can bid farewell to Max. The cinematography turns Manderley into essay, an oversized mausoleum with doorknobs set at the level of the heroine’s shoulders. Hitchcock seized the opportunity to hint at ominous secrets harbored in book the vast rooms and corridors.
Rebecca sets Hitchcock on the way toward one of his central situations of expository you admire his career: the woman trapped in a threatening household. Rebecca poses the questions: Whom have I married? What is his past? What am I to him? The novel’s plot answers by exposing Maxim as a man who murdered his first wife but found some happiness with his second. Stores! Suspicion (1941) poses the essay you admire, same questions, but Iles’ novel suggests frightful answers: I have married a liar, a cheat, and a killer; and he intends to murder me. Again, the film’s ending had to be fudged. Suspicion ’s heroine has misinterpreted Johnny, and he has intended to kill himself, not her. The reconciliation is ib philosophy extended essay even more of a letdown than in the Rebecca instance.
Variety responded sourly: In switching tragic ending of Francis Iles’ novel in favor of a happy finale, Hitchcock and his scripters devised a most inept and inconclusive windup that fails to expository essay on someone measure up to short essay on the dramatic intensity of preceding footage, and essay, this doesn’t reach the writing a business plan for dummies, climax expected. In this respect, picture structure is deficient, and it is obvious that the writers endeavored to toss in the happy ending in expository on someone you admire a few hundred feet and let it go at that. 59. Later filmmakers solved the writing plan for dummies, problem of the enigmatic husband in a simpler fashion: Let the husband be a murderer, and let the wife escape. This more stable option was already laid out in a 1937 English film, Love from a Stranger , which was surely known to Hitchcock. Adapted from Frank Vosper’s play 60, it presents Carol, who throws aside her loyal suitor Ronald for the charming Gerald Lovell.
She marries Gerald and at first enjoys their life in an isolated cottage. But his sudden rages and his secretiveness about his photographic “experiments” make her worry. Breaking with Carol’s range of knowledge about halfway through the expository essay on someone you admire, film, the narration shows Gerald in the cellar burning a photograph of her. Short Essay On! Soon we learn that his interest in historical murders is one expression of a battlefront trauma that will drive him to kill her. Expository Essay On Someone You Admire! Gradually Carol’s suspicions crystallize.
In a drunken fit Gerald tells her how he trapped her, but before he can kill her she manages to an indian essay poison his coffee. He collapses and Ronald arrives in time to on someone you admire console a sobbing Carol. Ronald plays a secondary role in an indian 39s plea essay Love from a Stranger . He doesn’t rescue Carol but merely offers her an alternative partner at the end. Hollywood’s later versions of the plot turned the essay on someone, other man into what Diane Waldman has called a “helper male”a figure who can save the heroine and supply a romantic alliance once the an indian father&, murderous husband has been eliminated. 61 But Hitchcock presumably could not radically revise Rebecca or Suspicion to provide a helper male, so the essay, resolutions had to end in impasse. Interestingly, when Hamilton’s play Gaslight made it to film in the U.S. Short Essay On! (1944), the plot was recast to make the inspector an appropriate suitor for the rescued wife. Apart from lacking helper males, Rebecca and Suspicion posed problems of narration. On Someone You Admire! Love from a Stranger provided a wide frame of knowledge. By cutting between scenes displaying Gerald’s madness and scenes of the unsuspecting Carol, Vorhaus’s film generates classic suspense. In contrast, both Rebecca and ib philosophy extended essay, Suspicion confine us so tightly to the heroine’s viewpoint that the ultimate revelations seem evasive or forced. The problems with these two films point up a more general tension within Hitchcock’s aesthetic.
Restriction to what a character knows enhances mystery (and can engender surprise), but suspense, he maintained, comes when we know more than the character. 62 The best compromise is when our knowledge exceeds the character’s by expository essay on someone a little, but not so much that we know everything. Hence the moments that fall outside Jeff’s range of knowledge in Rear Window , the judicious inserted scene of the short essay on, agency meeting in North by Northwest , and other instances in expository essay on someone you admire which Hitchcock slightly widens our range of knowledge, often in used book a teasing way. 63 An anonymous reviewer for the London Times caught this strategy in on someone you admire Sabotage : Hitchcock will usually “lay most of his cards on the table.” 64. With Shadow of short essay on a Doubt , Hitchcock and Thornton Wilder solved the difficulties of the two earlier women-in-peril films. A freer range of expository essay on someone you admire narration allows suspense to build: the opening man-on-the-run episode, confined largely to plan Uncle Charlie, segues into a section that centers on what Young Charlie suspects and eventually discovers.
In accordance with Mitchell Wilson’s anatomy of the on someone, suspense plot, she takes the an indian 39s plea essay, initiative and turns on her tormentor, forcing him to leave town. Expository Essay! Although much of this portion is focused around Young Charlie, though, we get glimpses of Uncle Charlie on his own. In addition, Shadow of a Doubt supplies a helper male, the police investigator Jack Graham. Although Hitchcock dismissed the short essay on, character as a concession to romance, 65 and although Jack doesn’t rescue Young Charlie during the climactic sequence on the train, he provides a stable resolution, mitigating a little the devastation that Young Charlie feels. Hitchcock, then, offered other filmmakers both models of what to do and what to avoid.
But it seems to me that the essay you admire, burst of writing a business for dummies psychological suspense films at all budget levels left him less room to innovate. Many variations were emerging; the space was getting crowded. Women-in-peril plots featuring murderous husbands had become commonplace, and essay on someone you admire, they often displayed skilful use of restricted point of used book view, as in expository essay on someone Sorry, Wrong Number (1948). There were even “Hitchcockian” movies avant la lettre : The crime inadvertently witnessed, the premise of Rear Window , was tried out in Lady on a Train (1945), in Shock (1946), and perhaps most vividly in Ted Tetzlaff’s The Window (1949), in prime essay which a tenement boy sees a stabbing but can’t convince anyone of it. In short, with so many films mimicking Hitchcock’s, and so many variants of basic suspense situations proliferating, how was he to maintain his cinematic identity? In Spellbound (1945) he led the way to a burst of essay on someone talking-cure films. He and Ben Hecht blended his favored woman-in-peril situation with spy intrigue in writing plan Notorious (1946), making the helper male into expository you admire, a rival suitor from the start and organizing part of the plot around his range of knowledge. For other projects Hitchcock seemed to short essay on strain to find something highly distinctive, either dramatically or technically. A contract-fulfilling job, the courtroom drama The Paradine Case (1948) posed appetizing technical challenges, but Selznick’s interference dominated the results. It seems to essay on someone you admire me that the proliferation of suspense films was one cause of Hitchcock’s shift to more outré angles for his projects: increased sexual explicitness ( The Paradine Case, Rope ), provocative drama of book stores ideas ( Lifeboat, Rope ), confinement to a single setting ( Lifeboat, Rope ), long-take shooting ( Paradine Case, Rope, Under Capricorn ), and duplicitous flashback ( Stage Fright ). Significantly, in his interviews with Truffaut, Hitchcock found fault with nearly all these experiments, suggesting that Under Capricorn left the expository essay on someone, realm of the thriller altogetherdespite the fact that it presents a familiar woman-in-a-threatening-household situation. Roe Vs Wade! Having helped set the terms for you admire thriller storytelling in the 1940s, he was obliged to recalibrate what he could offer in the face of roe vs wade competition.
66. At the end of the decade, I think, Hitchcock had managed to re-synchronize with his contemporaries. Expository Essay You Admire! Most of his 1940s projects, finished and unfinished, have their sources in prime essay literary works of the 1920s and 1930s. Stage Fright came from a recent novel, but one very much in the 1930s English detective-story tradition. 67 Strangers on a Train (1950), however, was based on expository essay a male-oriented psychological thriller written by one of the women participating in the 1940s burst of suspense fiction. Despite making some compromises in adapting Patricia Highsmith’s original, 68 the master of plan for dummies suspense had allied himself with a writer who typified the new phase of the suspense thrillera phase that he had done much to foster. Expository Essay On Someone You Admire! 69.
I’m indebted to Sidney Gottlieb, Richard Allen, and extended, Thomas Leitch, who provided helpful criticisms of an earlier version of this essay. Thanks also to David Meeker, who provided access to a hard-to-find film. 1 : Mitchell Wilson, “The Suspense Story,” The Writer 60, 1 (January 1947), 15. 3 : Howard Haycraft, “Evolution of the Whodunit in the Years of World War II ,” New York Times Book Review (12 August 1945),” 7. 4 : Helen McCloy, “The Writing and Selling of Mysteries,” The Writer 60, 4 (April 1947), 137. 5 : Charlotte Armstrong, “Razzle-Dazzle,” The Writer 66, 1 (January 1953), 34.
6 : Freeman Wills Crofts, The 12:30 from Croydon (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965), 187. 7 : Dorothy L. Sayers, “Introduction,” The Third Omnibus of essay on someone you admire Crime (New York: Blue Ribbon, 1935), 7. 8 : Agatha Christie, Towards Zero (New York: Pocket Books, 1972; orig. 1944), 1213. 9 : Howard Haycraft, Murder for Pleasure: The Life and Times of the Detective Story (New York: Appleton-Century, 1941), 89. 10 : Quoted in a business plan for dummies Haycraft, 90. 11 : François Truffaut, Hitchcock (New York: Simon and you admire, Schuster, 1967), 127. 12 : “Chaplin in ‘Circus’ a London Sensation,” New York Times (16 March 1928), 30.
13 : Some of these plays can still be read in acting editions. An Indian Father& 39s Plea! For a generous overview of them and many others see Amnon Kabatchnik, Blood on the Stage 19251950: Milestone Plays of Crime, Mystery, and on someone, Detection (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2010). 14 : Quoted in Sean French, Patrick Hamilton: A Life (London: Faber and 39s plea essay, Faber, 1993), 139. 15 : For example, The State v. Elinor Norton , reviewed in John Chamberlain, “Books of the Times,” New York Times (29 January 1934), 13; Poison Pen , reviewed in expository Richmond Theatre, The Times (London) (10 Aug. 1937): 8; “Detective Stories: Death Has a Past ,” The Times (London) (6 June 1939), 19. 16 : Boileau-Narcejac, Le roman policier (Paris: Payot, 1964), 150154. 17 : Charles Morgan, “Mr. Essay! Milne Tries a New Trick with a Mystery Play,” New York Times (25 March 1928), 119.
18 : For much of what follows, I’m indebted to LeRoy L. Panek’s acute, entertaining study The Special Branch: The British Spy Novel, 1890-1980 (Bowling Green: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1981), especially chapters 112. 19 : Alice Payne Hackett, Sixty Years of Bestsellers 18951955 (New York: Bowker, 1956), 1233. 20 : I review this history from expository, a slightly different angle in “I Love a Mystery: Extra-credit reading,” a blog entry. For stimulating and book, nonconformist accounts of the development of expository on someone you admire detective fiction, see LeRoy Lad Panek’s books Watteau’s Shepherds: The Detective Novel in Britain 19141940 (Bowling Green: Popular Press, 1979) and An Introduction to prime essay the Detective Story (Bowling Green: Popular Press, 1987). 21 : Janice Radaway, Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Literature (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984), 3031. 22 : Lee Wright, “Mysteries Are Books,” Publishers Weekly 139 (25 January 1941), 385. Essay! In 1946 James Sandoe estimated that mysteries constituted one-quarter of all book-length fiction published in writing the United States. See “Dagger of the Mind” in The Art of the Mystery Story , ed.
Howard Haycraft (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1946), 254. For more figures, see Frank Gruber, “Some Notes on Mystery Novels and expository, Their Authors,” in The Notebooks of Raymond Chandler , ed. Frank Gruber (New York: Ecco Press, 1976), 3334. 23 : Flyleaf blurb for Mitchell Wilson’s The Panic-Stricken (New York: Simon and book stores, Schuster, 1946). 24 : “RadioGeneral Markets,” The Writer 64, 1 (January 1951), 58.
25 : Howard Haycraft, “The Burgeoning Whodunit,” The New York Times (6 October 1946), BR3BR4. 26 : Anthony Boucher, “Trojan Horse Opera,” in expository Haycraft, Art of the Mystery Story , 249. 27 : Alice Payne Hackett, Fifty Years of Bestsellers (New York: Bowker, 1945), 7778. 28 : Richard Mealand suggested that novelists working in the psychological thriller gained a wider readership because of the film trend. See “Hollywoodunit,” in prime essay Haycraft, Art of the essay on someone, Mystery Story , 301303. 29 : Raymond Chandler, letter to Hamish Hamilton (13 Otober 1950), in Raymond Chandler Speaking , ed. Dorothy Gardiner and Kathrine Sorley Walker (Plainview, NY: Books for writing a business for dummies Libraries Press, 1971; orig. 1962), 60.
30 : Anonymous, “New Trend in the Horror Pix,” Variety (16 October 1944), 143. 31 : Fred Stanley, “Hollywood Shivers,” New York Times (28 May 1944), X3. 32 “New Trend in the Horror Pix,” 143. 33 : See Sayers, “Introduction,” Third Omnibus of Crime , 6; Bruce Hamilton, Middle Class Murder (Leipzig: Tanschnitz, 1938; orig. 1936). 34 : Hollywood, The Dream Factory: An Anthropologist Looks at expository essay you admire, the Movie-Makers (Boston: Little, Brown, 1950), 119, 140.
See also Stanley, “Hollywood Shivers,” X3. 35 : Howard Haycraft, “Evolution of the Whodunit in the Years of World War II ,” New York Times Book Review (12 August 1945),” 7. 36 : Anonymous, “Movie Companies Look to short essay on Detective Story Writers for on someone the New Psychological Film,” Publishers Weekly 149 (9 March 1946), 15151516. 37 : Anthony Boucher, “As Crime Goes By (24 February 1946),” The Anthony Boucher Chronicles: Reviews and Commentary 19421947 , ed. Francis M. Nevins (Lexington, KY: Ramble House, 2001), 102.
38 : “New Films in London,” The Times (London), 25 May 1936, 12. 39 : See Tom Ryall, Alfred Hitchcock and essay, the British Cinema (London: Croom Helm, 1986) and Robert Murphy, “Dark Shadows around Pinewood and expository essay on someone, Ealing,” Film International no. 7 (2004), 2835. 40 : On his fondness for Buchan and Belloc Lowndes, see Charles Barr, English Hitchcock (London: Movie, 1999), 1014. 41 : Patrick McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light (New York: HarperCollins, 2003), 212. 42 : Alfred Hitchcock, Introduction, Intrigue: Four Great Spy Novels of Eric Ambler (New York: Knopf, 1943), viiviii. 43 : “ Foreign Correspondent ,” Variety (28 August 1940), 16; Philip K. Scheuer, “A Town Called Hollywood,” Los Angeles Times (7 April 1940), C3; advertisement for Rebecca , Variety (24 April 1940), 21; advertisement for Shadow of a Doubt , Variety (19 January 1943), 4; advertisement for Lifeboat and Spellbound , Variety (23 February1945), 12. Supposedly the ib philosophy extended, “master of suspense” label was coined by expository on someone a New York advertising agent promoting the Suspense radio pilot (McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock , 276). 46 : New York Herald Tribune review quoted in advertisement for The Fallen Sparrow , Variety (19 October 1943), 5. 47 : Philip K. An Indian Father& 39s Plea Essay! Scheuer, “Trio Gives Horror Picture New Dress,” Los Angeles Times (28 March 1943), C3; and on someone, Radie Harris, “Hollywood Runaround,” Variety (11 September 1945), 4. The Disney film Harris mentions is writing a business plan for dummies Make Mine Music , in which the Johnny Fedora and Alice Blue Bonnet episode is said to contain suspense “as breathless as a Hitchcock thriller.”
48 : Philip K. Scheuer, “Killer Stalks Ida Lupino in High-Tension Thriller,” Los Angeles Times (30 January 1950), A7. 49 : Sidney Gottlieb surveys Hitchcock’s branding strategies, some quite amusing, in “Step Seventeen: Brand Hitchcock,” in 39 Steps to the Genius of Hitchcock: A BFI Compendium (London: British Film Institute, 2012), 7277. 50 : Alfred Hitchcock, “Let ‘Em Play God,” Hollywood Reporter 100, no. 47 (11 October 1948), reprinted in Hitchcock on Hitchcock , ed. Sidney Gottlieb (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 113. 51 : Hitchcock, “Introduction: The Quality of Suspense,” Alfred Hitchcock’s Fireside Book of on someone you admire Suspense (New York: Simon and for dummies, Schuster, 1947), viii.
This edited collection originally appeared as Suspense Stories Selected by Alfred Hitchcock (New York: Dell, 1945), but the introduction to essay you admire that edition lacks the passages I’ve cited here. 53 : William Fifield, “To the extended, Golden Corn,” The Writer 62, 8 (August 1949), 259. 54 : William Dozier, “Trends and Perspectives,” Writers’ Congress; The Proceedings of the Conference Held in expository on someone October 1943 under the prime essay, Sponsorship of the Hollywood Writers; Mobilization and the University of California (Berkeley: University of expository essay on someone California Press), 3641. 55 : “ Man Hunt ,” Variety (10 June 1941), 13. See also the New York Times review in which Lang is called “a master of prime essay concentrated suspense” (T. Expository Essay On Someone! S., “ Hangmen Also Die ,” New York Times [16 April 1943], 24). 56 : Quoted in Philip K. Scheuer, “Film History Made by ‘Double Indemnity,’” Los Angeles Times (6 August 1944), C1. 57 : Philip K. Scheuer, “Suspense Filmed in a New Way: Stride Made in Technique,” Los Angeles Times (3 September 1944), C1.
58 : I discuss this sequence, and short essay on, link to expository essay you admire the scene, in a blog entry. 60 : The play’s source is an used, Agatha Christie short story, “Philomel Cottage.” It does include a rival suitor, although he isn’t much help to the heroine. You Admire! Interestingly, Christie’s story turns on the revelation that the short essay on, husband isn’t the only practitioner of hearthside murder. 61 : Diane Waldman, “Horror and Domesticity: The Modern Gothic Romance Film of the 1940s,” Ph. D. Expository Essay On Someone You Admire! thesis, University of WisconsinMadison, 1981, 556. 62 : On restriction to a single character, Hitchcock notes that he avoids the omniscient range of an indian essay knowledge provided by Griffith-style crosscutting: “Griffith showed the man on the scaffold, then the expository, messenger with the a business, pardon riding to the rescue. We show the man on the scaffold, but the audience doesn’t know whether our rider has started or not. Essay On Someone You Admire! That’s the used stores, secret of suspense today.” Quoted in Philip K. Scheuer, “A Town Called Hollywood,” Los Angeles Times (19 April 1939), C3. The more famous formulation of the alternative is found in his dialogue with Truffaut: “In the usual form of suspense it is expository essay on someone you admire indispensable that the public be made perfectly aware of essay wade all the expository essay on someone you admire, facts involved” (Truffaut, Hitchcock , 51).
63 : I discuss these fluctuations in knowledge in Narration in the Fiction Film (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), 2961. On North by Northwest , see David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2012), 406410. 64 : “New Films in extended London,” The Times (London) (7 December 1936), 12. 65 : McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock , 310. 66 : I propose that competition played a more specific role in Hitchcock’s experiments with long-take filming at a period when many directors were trying out this technique. See my essay “Poetics of Cinema,” in Poetics of Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2008), 3242.
67 : On Hitchcock’s literary sources, see the essays in essay on someone Hitchcock at extended, the Source: The Auteur as Adapter , ed. On Someone You Admire! R. Short Essay On! Barton Palmer and David Boyd (Albany: SUNY Press, 2011). 68 : In her essay “Suspense in on someone Fiction” ( The Writer 67, 12 [December 1954], 404), Patricia Highsmith recalls that when her novel was filmed, “the director” (Hitchcock is prime essay never named) told her that he had to on someone you admire alter the plot so that Guy did not commit the murder that he owed Bruno. “He told me that he had been unable to find a script writer who could make the story convincing, or who could put the story into form for the screen.” Yet for Highsmith the key to a business the story was that second, coerced murder: “Only therein lay the drama and the suspense for me.” The result, Highsmith judged, was a weaker story. 69 : For more on the development of suspense films and essay on someone you admire, thrillers, see Martin Rubin, Thrillers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999); Ralph Harper, The World of the Thriller (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1969); Jerry Palmer, Thrillers: Genesis and Structure of a Popular Genre (London: Edward Arnold, 1978); Charles Derry, The Suspense Thriller: Films in the Shadow of prime essay Alfred Hitchcock (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1988); Thomas Leitch, Crime Films (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). A more recent, if sketchy and erratic, study is Patrick Anderson, The Triumph of the essay, Thriller: How Cops, Crooks, and Cannibals Captured Popular Fiction (New York, 2007). An encyclopedic guide to mystery fiction and film is Mike Grost’s website.
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Ask “why?” five times…. Expository Essay? Proximate causes vs root causes, Narrative fallacy and ib philosophy essay, Mental Models. Great post for on someone you admire, people in the investment field: Farnham Street is an amazing blog dedicated to discussing mental models and they do a great job of explaining the challenges of short essay on, proximate vs root causes and how to expository essay on someone you admire, deal with the deductive problems that can occur when we jump to conclusions too quickly. In investments we are always coming up with narrative to explain what happened. The financial press exist purely on this, reporting the book day after on why the markets have moved the way they have as if it’s an expository essay, obvious truth. Used Book? Making an investment is much harder, you need to expository essay on someone, look forward to what is father& essay, likely to happen. When assessing our investment outcomes we are also immensely susceptible to a whole range of behavioural biases. The issue of proximate cause and narrative fallacy often comes up. Proximate cause: The manager lost a lot of money because the position was very big and the stock blew up because company management were hiding what they were really doing and no one could have know. Root causes: they failed to size the position correctly because they failed to essay, assess the writing plan for dummies risk in expository essay on someone, the investment correctly, they failed to assess the risk because they were trying to cover too many different investments without enough resource, or they failed to assess the risk properly because they did not have enough independent challenge to the key decision maker, or they failed to assess the risk properly because the extended essay analyst was not diligent enough/experienced enough to identify the risks…
Each of those different causes has very different corrective actions and very different reactions that we should have as asset allocators. The opposite essay on someone can also be true: the manager lost money, what an idiot, obviously they should have seen the risks, because now with hindsight we have the narrative stating how obvious it was. But at the time they understood the risks. They sized appropriately for the risks. And things just didn’t go their way this time, which will happen 45% of the time for most money managers. The key to extended essay, differentiating between these different potential cases is asking the right questions, and asking more and more questions. Digging deeper and challenging your assumptions. In the Farnham Street article the particular route I like is expository, asking “Why?” 5 times? Why did you lose money? We sized it to big and got it wrong. Why did you size it to prime essay, big?
We misestimated the risk. Why did you misestaimate the risk? The analyst was an idiot. Why was the analyst an on someone, idiot? Oh they are not really an idiot. It’s because we left him to do the work on their own and did not provide independent challenge. Why did you not provide independent challenge? Because I was too distracted on prime essay, something else.
It reminds me of Ricardo Semler, who applies this approach to much of his business decisions, for him it seems to work when you just ask Why three times? He is interviewed by Tim Ferriss episode 229 which can be found here. It’s a really inspirational podcast that covers his approach to building a phenomenally successful business with a very unconventional management style, well worth a listen for all sorts of good reasons. The Farnham Street post also has a great explanation of expository essay, other mental models which are all relevant to used book, Investment decision making if you read down to the end. Improving decision making in expository on someone, committees. A review of decision making literature from UCL on what makes for father&, good decisions in committees is particularly relevant for investment committees: 1. Diversity of participants (functional diversity) with different independent expertise or knowledge makes optimal decision making more likely (finding global rather than local maxima more likely with different starting points for the mathematical optimisation geeks) 2. Slower decision making is more accurate. (And conversely sometimes you need to trade speed for accuracy). 3. Don’t vote, prefer discussion.
Getting to expository on someone you admire, a consensus answer or leave it to an expert final choice, if you do vote it needs to short essay on, expertise weighted (ie some votes count more than others) based on objective expertise measurement, not one man one vote. 4. Essay You Admire? Over confidence bias: The worse you are at something the more delusional you are that you know the right answer! More expertise often results in writing plan for dummies, less certainty from expository you admire, expert individuals: the problem is they know how much they don’t know and they can take other less expert people’s opinion into account too much. Extended Essay? Go with the experts opinion after having the discussion and as the expert balance your opinion carefully with the input from others. Podcast: The Naked Scientist. Dan Bang University College London 5:40 mins up to expository essay on someone you admire, 10:40 mins. I was listening to a podcast which reminded me of essay roe vs, a really interesting counterintuitive truth: we are more creative when we have constraints. People think creativity will happen when “I make enough space in my life and have this perfect zen moment and can unleash my creativity.” But creativity seems to come better when we place constraints around it. What sort of expository essay you admire, constraints? 1. Roe Vs? Completely arbitrary random constraints: it seems these are the most powerful way to unleash pure creativity* e.g.1.
For a photographer: Today I can only expository essay on someone you admire, photograph pictures with red in them. Suddenly you start noticing things all over the show that have red in writing a business, them. Suddenly you start looking much more carefully, it becomes a fun objective. E.g.2. For a writer: Describe the forest only with words beginning with T and O… give it a try and see how much more interesting your descriptions have to be with this sort of constraint in place. 2. Structure constraints: e.g. This project has to consist of exactly six photographs. The pictures have to be circular. Once you define a structure you start thinking about what will fit that structure and again looking for essay you admire, something different.
3. Spacial constraints: e.g.1. Take 200 unique photographs of this small space eg. Your kitchen. The first 50’are unique and cliche, the short essay on next 50 you start running out of normal ideas and after 100 the magic starts, you start seeing differently. On Someone? E.g.2. Ib Philosophy? I am only going to essay on someone, write while on plan for dummies, the top desk of a bus travelling around London… 3. Time constraints: I have got to get this project done by July. By next week Friday.
By Tomorrow. When that deadline is immovable we all come up with the goods… So give it a try next time you are trying to do something a little more creatively…. constrain yourself! * the idea of random arbitrary constraints reminds me a little of the expository essay on someone approach Derren Brown recommends for memorising something using absurd imagery: if you create an absurd mental image of something you are trying to ib philosophy, remember, you remember it much more easily. For example I was once trying to remember the names of a family I had met recently (as I am always forgetting names), so I pictured them as a giant dad of a man in a caveman’s loincloth (it had an on someone you admire, association with his name. It I won’t give it away here!), standing on a map of the world on Sweden (that’s whether they were from) surrounded by roe vs, his family in various other absurd poses and dress. To this day I can still rebuild the entire mental picture and you admire, I remember their names and where they are from. Short Essay On? The more absurd we create a mental image the expository essay on someone you admire better our brain remembers it. Essay Roe Vs Wade? I wonder whether it’s a similar thing going on with the creative constraints.
It’s forcing our brain out of the everyday “auto pilot” and into expository essay you admire a place where it has to writing a business, do some work which then unleashes the creativity. Here is the essay on someone podcast, from The Psych Files by Michael Britt episode 269: How to get people to be creative. How do we learn? How should we learn? The fun bit is there are many ways to learn. Books, podcasts, videos, lectures, demonstrations, and doing it yourself. I have learnt that the optimal approach to learning is different for different people. Personally I find my self quite visual and auditory, if I can visualise a problem or listen to an explanation I can often internalise it. There are also many stages to learning. Essay Roe Vs Wade? Head knowledge, heart knowledge, practice, failure until eventually it becomes internalised, muscle memory, and we can be “in the flow…”, operating with unconscious ease.
There are some guiding principles that I believe are important to remember on our journey to expository on someone, learn: Be open minded: “It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it.” ? Aristotle, Metaphysics Seek to truly understand: “Any fool can know. The point is to understand.” ? Albert Einstein Seek simplicity on the other side of complexity: “The simple things are also the most extraordinary things, and only the wise can see them.” ? Paulo Coelho, The Alchemist. (In mathematics you often know you have the cracked a problem and arrived at the right answer when the formulas magically compress to short essay on, an elegant, beautiful solution) Hold your own beliefs lightly: “Don’t believe everything you think. Thoughts are just that – thoughts.” ? Allan Lokos, Thomas E Kids. Each of these make us more receptive to deep learning.
But most profoundly, are the expository on someone principle paths to wisdom: “By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by essay roe vs, reflection, which is noblest; Second, by expository, imitation, which is prime essay, easiest; and expository essay on someone, third by experience, which is the bitterest.” ? Confucius. I don’t have time in this life to make all the prime essay mistakes myself! So Confucious’s first two paths are to be preferred: I can learn through true understanding – often my preferred route, can I come up with an axiomatic explanation or understanding from essay on someone, first principles rather that statistical inference, or learn from other people’s mistakes (or by deconstructing their successes) – the reason that studying history in prime essay, any field of endeavour is so important is because through that we may potentially understand the reasons for expository essay, the mistakes and successes of those who came before us. then I can get on with making the roe vs mistakes that I need to make myself, Confucius’s bitterest path, to push my own learning further. And from there flows a further insight, to push the boundaries beyond what others have learnt, we need to be making mistakes. We learn by essay you admire, making mistakes. And you only make mistakes when you go for it. So don’t be afraid to do, to act. My danger, my demon, is I spend all of my time thinking and prime essay, not enough of my time doing.
So doing is expository essay on someone, something I have to ib philosophy, constantly challenge myself to on someone, do more of! “The fool doth think he is ib philosophy, wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool.” ? William Shakespeare, As You Like It. What inspires you? What motivates you? I love learning. I am motivated by learning and expository essay on someone, I become inspired by learning. I spend a lot of my time listening to book, podcasts, reading and interacting with interesting people. But I won’t make much impact if I keep what I learn to myself. I want to expository essay, share the things I am learning, with anyone who is interested. Perhaps they will help and inspire you and prime essay, make the world a better place… What is the purpose of expository essay you admire, learning?
To acquire knowledge but more importantly to translate that knowledge into wisdom – the used book beneficial application of knowledge. Some quotes to illustrate the difference. “Knowing yourself is the beginning of all wisdom.” ? Aristotle “The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.” ? Socrates “The saddest aspect of life right now is that science gathers knowledge faster than society gathers wisdom.” ? Isaac Asimov “The unexamined life is not worth living.” ? Socrates “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and instruction.” ? The Bible, Proverbs 1:7. I love learning for many reasons: We are creative beings. Creativity creates meaning in my life. As a kid I grew up programming computer games, reading fantasy novels and dreaming of creating my own adventure stories with friends. I remember thinking “adults lose their imagination. I must make sure that as I grow up I must never lose this… this ability to expository on someone, create something out of nothing, by using my imagination.” As I grew up what interested me changed, or more accurately expanded: I still love those things I grew up with, but I discovered that the world had many more interesting topics to explore. I realised that creativity builds not out of nothing but on the ideas of others. Learning about essay, things we don’t yet know is a great way to expository you admire, inspire yourself to being creative.
Learning will make me a better person. I know I will never be perfect (one of the wonderful, liberating truths to be found in the doctrines of Christianity). But I want to be a better person, more true to book, myself, and on someone you admire, a richer contributor to the lives of my family, my friends, my colleagues at work, my community. I do love trivia. I just love learning stuff just for short essay on, the sake of knowing something interesting. I hope it makes me a more interesting person. But what I desire most through knowledge is wisdom. Expository? Let’s be clear though, Wisdom should not be our only aim. A Business Plan? God was pleased with King Solomon’s request to grant him Wisdom, but he still ended up failing to live as a godly man. Perhaps there is something even deeper we should be aspiring to? Relationship?
Wisdom about relationships? Join me on that journey… Breadth vs depth, what do I want to be expert at? In any given area there are experts, who through their tremendous skill, focus and extensive dedicated time have built exceptional expertise in that area, more than I could ever hope to do. Expository? The world typically encourages and rewards great specialisation. But my interest in for dummies, learning is broad. I love connecting the dots between disparate, seemingly unrelated topics. I have always tended towards the generalist rather than the specialist in one particular area. I love the idea of expository essay, being the “meta connector” of concepts.
As an prime essay, example, my job in investments gives me the tremendous privelege of dealing with true “best in the world” experts on a very wide variety of investment topics, which is why I love it so much. It was one of the few careers I came across where I felt, “I can do the expository you admire same job every day and never stop learning about a very wide range of stores, things.” But what about the gaps between the specialist experts? The unexplored cracks and fissures between the various fields-of-endeavour? For me the interesting opportunities are in on someone you admire, making connections between those disparate areas, how can ideas in one area be applied somewhere new? That’s where I want to focus: to be the expert “meta connector”. I want my skill, my differentiator and competitive advantage, to be that I am a person able to used book, make those diverse connections. Through that I will be able to have greater creative impact and to on someone you admire, hopefully boost the creativity and essay roe vs, enhance the skills of the specialists with whom I am priveleged to work or interact.
But you can’t be properly broad and wise without also getting sufficiently expert in some areas. I still need to be enough of an expert in the areas I want to expository you admire, apply the things I learn to. Used Book Stores? So I will need the skills and focus to on someone, learn to become an expert in some select areas. Used Book Stores? The key is focus, doing a few things well. My mission in life is to develop my expertise in expository you admire, a few specific areas: 1. Ib Philosophy Essay? In being the expert meta concept connector, my learning passion. 2. In Investment Management generally, and specifically in Asset Allocation, my work passion.
3. In Photography, my creative passion. 4. In enriching a select human relationships: my family, my friends, my colleagues and my chosen communities, my human passion. What do I want to expository on someone you admire, learn and share about? So what will this blog cover? For the reasons mentioned above I am intentionally keeping it broad. There are some broad categories I find myself interested in extended essay, which might appeal to different people, so I will try to categorise each entry into one or more topics, listed below, to which it is most pertinent. Essay On Someone? But remember, it’s the connections between diverse topics, the repeating patterns, that allow us to make the connections where there are gaps in expertise. The main categories of topics I will focus on are, in no particular order. Relationships Psychology Business (particularly the cultures we define in father&, business) Investments (because it is what I do) History Health Science (broadly but also particularly Physics and Astronomy) Art and in particular Photography (because that is what my hobby is) Maths and expository you admire, Statistics. Many of the posts are likely to ib philosophy extended essay, be quite short. But occasionally I might publish a thought piece, more like an essay.
If these are of less interest please skip them, the last thing I want to do is bore people. So why another blog on this sort of topic? Well firstly just because I will enjoy producing it. But secondly because learning is how we progress as a civilisation. Expository You Admire? That may seem like a statement of the obvious, but how good are we at extended essay learning as a civilisation?
If I can help spread ideas more widely we may all learn wisdom a little faster, and the world will become a little better….