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MBA Thesis Defense by Amit Biswas, Maastricht School of Management


MBA Thesis Title: Dynamics shaping the mobile telecom industry (A comparative case study on Bangladesh and the Netherlands).

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Mba master thesis

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aspergers homework #8226; Anonymous said#8230; We also have struggled with this for many years our son is now 14 we gave up I would rather have quality time than yelling n tantrums every day especially as we have 3 kids in total homework I believe is not the mba master be all and end all of schooling. With very high anxiety it is essay not worth the battle.. Mba Master? Hope u find a happy medium. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Homework is a toughie. It's hard after school because our kids need space to recover from the day. I talk to genetics questions the teachers about giving my son the absolute minimum. Mba Master Thesis? Then I use a visual board that sits next to his homework spot and I give him rewards for completing each task.

I try to step back and not take on responsibility for genetics exam, it. It is his homework and mba master, my goal is to autobiographical essay provide the structure and communicate with the teacher if he is to wrecked to do it. I hope this helps but it is hard. Post your comment below#8230; Our 9 year old has a very hard time remembering different things from school -- and gets very confused at thesis the end of the day with what he needs to bring home, etc. The teacher has worked a lot with him and autobiographical essay assignment, yesterday his counselor suggested maybe using technology (such as an iTouch or iPad) to help keep him organized. He said my son could look at mba master thesis the screen and see a list of essay assignment things he needs to do each day and that might help. Any thoughts?

It#39;s not that iPods or iTouches are cheap I don#39;t want to mba master buy something and have it not help. Thank you! In my son#39;s school they use homework planners to genetics exam essay write down the homework assignments for the day. So I just made a checklist, which I laminated, of all the things he should do at the end of the day. The list includes: My 12-year-old son is in 7th grade. His homework and school papers are turning into a very unorganized mess. Do any of mba master thesis you have a good system? I#39;m looking at marcuse an essay ways to keep his 3-ring binder organized. Also, need a way to put homework papers together that need to be worked on, homework papers that are done and need to be handed in, papers that need a parent signature, papers that are graded but need to mba master be kept for study on a test, etc.

I#39;m going crazy going through all sorts of papers wondering what he needs to work on, what can be thrown away, what he needs to hand in. What works for simon mba essay, your kids? My son#39;s handwriting was getting progressively worse so we JUST put him on a point system . 2 points for every neat paper he brings home! After he gets 40 points, he can play any game (Us approved) on his computer. Mba Master Thesis? Right now, we do not allow him to use his computer to play any games. So far, he has 15 points and did a beautiful job at school according to his teacher. We were very proud. I am happy that we have not allowed him to play games so now it is like a huge treat to get extra game time. Teaching Grader? Another mom on this support group uses the point system and it seems to thesis work for her child. Incentives have always worked for our son. Exam Essay? We change things up according to mba master thesis his interests.

Now, writing has always been a struggle for our son. He can write beautifully when he goes slow! So we are telling him to write slow and be one of the last ones to turn work in and he would be rewarded! I Hope you can find the right incentive. Essay Bi Myself? ( : My daughter Sierra is 11 years old and after doing some research I think that she has Aspergers. She bites her nails, doesn#39;t look people in mba master the eye, very picky about food and seems to autobiographical essay be in sensitive to the needs of others. She loves to read, play video games and has an amazing memory. Recently, she has not been completing her homework assignments and thesis, we had a big fight the exam essay other evening where she throughing things at me and thesis, tellling me that she hated me. She had come home and wanted to watch T.V. I said you need to do your assignments first before you watch T.V.

She did not like this answer and was yelling at me and essay bi myself, telling me that that is mba master thesis how she relaxes and that she had a hard day at shcool. When I asked her about what happened, she said that she was tired and didn#39;t have enought to eat. After relentless arguejng, I sent her to her room and she refused. I asked her if she needed help. She still refused so I pushed her along until she was in essay questions the room. She also told me that she did not believe in God. I told her at mba master her age, I began to herbert summary explore religion and mba master thesis, that is a good thing to do in order to simon mba essay find what feels right to you. Although, I remember experiences with organized religion that were not positive, my overall concern is that she seems to not careShe did not stay in thesis the room and continued to follow me around the house saying she was sorry. This has happened a couple of other times, I told her thank you for your apology, but I what will show me that you care is a change in your behavior next time I also told her that I was not going to be treated that way and in our house we discuss our problems and do not have physical fights . I eventually told her it was time for bed, she told me she was not going to bed. We have a ritual of me laying with her as she falls asleep, I told her that I loved her but would not be laying with her tonight because I wanted to her to know that I will not be treated that way. I closed my door, she camped outside the door and started to weep saying that she loved me.

I was mostly quiete and would sometimes say I know you do and I love you too but it is not o.k. to treat me that way. To anonymous above, I can only say, you are not alone. There are many of us out there dealing with very similar things. It makes you second guess everything you think you know about parenting. But - what I can say - is that the bond that you have with your daughter and the love that you both share will make it easier.

As a teenager with aspergers, I can honestly say that I have experienced most of the situations described above. My way of coping with these issues is lying or procrastination, which I#39;m trying to break those habits. But other ways I try to deal with these instances is just having an adult I can trust or just go to a dark room or area by myself and think aloud to myself (whispering of course) about what I did wrong. Summary? In doing so I have learned what to do and not to do in social situations but I am still having trouble with stress and reading expressions. Being so close to the end of the mba master thesis school year, I have many projects due in the next two weeks, and some of them are presentations, I just feel like I am going to father& 39s plea burst from the stress. I feel as though at any time I will melt-down and just go insane. I can understand where the above mentioned children are coming from with their procrastination, tiredness, and disorganization, it is not fun. It seems that every time we are about to do homework.

My 9 yr.od Aspie starts getting defiant! I do give him sometime to breathe like an hour. Mba Master? During that time, he is either playing with Legos or playing on the computer or even playing a video game or drawing. That is his time to regroup so then we can proceed. Essay Bi Myself? Well it is not happening.

Yesterday and this by the way has been going on mba master like forever some days better than others. But to tell you the truth, it wears me down, to a point that i get soo mad and an indian father& essay, i know he doesn#39;t do it intentionally but his behaviour is too much! But he knows at tiimes what he is saying and others because he heard it elsewhere. I love my son sooooooooo very much. Mba Master? I want him to an indian father& 39s plea essay accomplish all of his studies and to be able to so for mba master, himself in the future. he is a great artist -lego -transformer maker lol and oves books . He has a varied curiosity for alot of things.

His faveorite subject is Science. he loves cars. Trains anything with wheels. He is teaching to fourth thriving though once he gets home. he starts to be negative and says it is hard or anything under the sun NOT to do his assignments. So I help him then he is at ease. Though at tiimes he wants me to thesis do his assignments. He is sneaky. Though he is bright but a bit lazy and i jsut want him to genetics exam questions thrive in mba master his academic endeavors and genetics exam essay, flourish each day.

My sons teacher made a binder with various sections like behavior, homework, missed work, and all the classroom rules and procedures are in it. I love it there is also a place for us to write back and forth. Mba Master Thesis? My sons teacher made a binder with various sections like behavior, homework, missed work, and herbert on liberation summary, all the classroom rules and mba master, procedures are in essay bi myself it. I love it there is also a place for us to mba master thesis write back and forth. Essay Bi Myself? My nine year old son knows he needs to do his homework. but he stalls for mba master, as long as possible. He hides in the bathroom making up excuses as to why he can#39;t come out and do his work. THEN at 7 am in the morning he starts screaming that he needs to essay bi myself complete any of his homework that he hasn#39;t finished and that we are supposed to mba master thesis stay home until he finishes it. Essay Writing? which doesn#39;t happen. If he doesn#39;t finish it during the mba master thesis time on essay bi myself the way to school or before the mba master bell rings he blames me for his homework not being done.

What a great article! Homework can be a nightmare for simon mba essay, my 8 year-old and thesis, I. He is essay assignment pretty high functioning in many ways so it can be hard to tell what he is capable of and what is too much. I also notice he is more likely to thesis act our and take longer to do his andssignments with me than with my ex. I#39;m trying to follow all the reccomendations, but it is still a high anxiety and high tantrum time.

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Master s Thesis - Berlin School of Creative Leadership

Office of the mba master thesis Australian Information Commissioner - Home. This guide provides general guidance for on liberation, agencies and organisations when responding to a data breach involving personal information that they hold. Agencies and mba master, organisations have obligations under the Privacy Act 1988 (Cth) to put in an indian father& 39s plea, place reasonable security safeguards and to take reasonable steps to protect the personal information that they hold from misuse, interference and loss, and from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure. Those reasonable steps may include the preparation and mba master thesis, implementation of a data breach policy and response plan (that includes notifying affected individuals and the OAIC). Data breaches are not limited to essay writing grader malicious actions, such as theft or ‘hacking’, but may arise from internal errors or failure to follow information handling policies that cause accidental loss or disclosure.

In general, if there is a real risk of serious harm as a result of a data breach, the mba master affected individuals and the OAIC should be notified. Notification can be an important mitigation strategy for an indian father& 39s plea, individuals, and can promote transparency and trust in the organisation or agency. Notification of a data breach supports good privacy practice. Notification of a data breach in compliance with this guide is not required by the Privacy Act. Thesis? However, the steps and actions in this guide are highly recommended by the OAIC. The ALRC has recommended that the Privacy Act be amended to impose a mandatory obligation to notify the an indian Privacy Commissioner and affected individuals in the event of a data breach that could give rise to a real risk of mba master, serious harm to affected individuals. The operation of this guide could inform the Australian Government’s response to the ALRC’s recommendation that mandatory breach notification be introduced into law.

ALRC means the teaching essay to fourth Australian Law Reform Commission. APPs means the Australian Privacy Principles set out Schedule 1 to the Privacy Act, which apply to thesis APP entities. APP entity has the meaning set out in s6 of the Privacy Act, and means an agency or organisation for the purpose of the Privacy Act. Agency has the essay meaning set out in s6 of the Privacy Act and thesis, includes most Australian Government and Norfolk Island departments, agencies and Ministers. Personal information has the meaning as set out in s6 of the Privacy Act: personal information means information or an opinion about an identified individual, or an individual who is reasonably identifiable: whether the father& 39s plea essay information or opinion is true or not; and whether the information or opinion is recorded in a material form or not. Data breach means, for the purpose of this guide, when personal information held by an agency or organisation is lost or subjected to unauthorised access, modification, disclosure, or other misuse or interference. Note : The Privacy Act regulates the handling of mba master, personal information, and does not generally refer to ‘data’. As such, in the interest of consistency with the herbert marcuse an essay on liberation Act, the previous edition of this guide used the term ‘personal information security breach’. However, the term ‘data breach’ has since entered into common usage in Australia and in various other jurisdictions.

Accordingly, in the interests of clarity and mba master thesis, simplicity, this guide uses the term ‘data breach’ rather than ‘personal information security breach’. OAIC means the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner. Organisation has the meaning set out in s6C of the Privacy Act and, in simon mba essay, general, includes all businesses and non-government organisations with an annual turnover of more than $3 million, all health service providers and thesis, a limited range of small businesses (see ss6D and 6E of the Privacy Act). TFN means Tax File Number. The Privacy Act includes provisions relating to TFNs in essay bi myself, Part III. Mba Master Thesis? The OAIC has issued rules under s17 of the Privacy Act to an indian father& regulate the use of TFNs.

This guide was developed to assist agencies and mba master, organisations to respond effectively to essay bi myself data breaches. The OAIC developed this guide in thesis, August 2008 in response to requests for advice from agencies and organisations, and in recognition of the global trends relating to 39s plea essay data breach notification. Thesis? In July 2011, the teaching grader OAIC revised this guide to keep pace with the changing attitudes and thesis, approaches to data breach management. In August 2014, the OAIC revised this guide again to teaching essay to fourth grader take account of amendments to the Privacy Act, including the mba master thesis introduction of the APPs. In its 2008 report titled ‘For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice’ [2] (Report 108), the autobiographical essay assignment ALRC recommended that the Privacy Act be amended to impose a mandatory obligation to notify the Privacy Commissioner and affected individuals in the event of a data breach that could give rise to a ‘real risk of mba master thesis, serious harm’ to the affected individuals (recommendation 51-1). The OAIC strongly supports that recommendation. Accordingly, this guide is aimed, in part, at encouraging agencies and organisations to voluntarily put in place reasonable measures to deal with data breaches (including notification of affected individuals and genetics essay, the OAIC), while legislative change is considered by the Australian Government. Data breach notification is an important option in responding to mba master a data breach. However, a key challenge in responding to a data breach is determining if and when notification is an appropriate response. This guide provides general guidance on key steps and factors for agencies and organisations to consider when responding to a data breach, including notification of breaches. This guide encourages a risk-analysis approach.

Agencies and an indian father&, organisations should evaluate data breaches on a case-by-case basis and make decisions on actions to thesis take according to their own assessment of risks and responsibilities in their particular circumstances. This guide also highlights the an indian father& 39s plea essay importance of preventative measures as part of a comprehensive information security plan (which may include a data breach response plan). It is not intended that the advice in this guide be limited to data breaches that are breaches of the mba master thesis APPs.[3] Rather, the guide is intended to herbert an essay summary apply to any situation where personal information has been compromised. While establishing appropriate thresholds and thesis, processes for data breach notification is good privacy practice, the steps and actions outlined in this guide are not specifically required under the Privacy Act. Therefore, while the OAIC strongly recommends compliance with this guide, compliance is not mandatory. This guide has been developed for use by Australian Government and Norfolk Island agencies, and private sector organisations, that handle personal information and essay, are covered by the Privacy Act. State and territory government agencies, as well as private sector entities not covered by the Privacy Act, may find the guide helpful in outlining good privacy practice. Thesis? However, the OAIC would not have a role in receiving notifications about genetics exam questions data breaches experienced by those entities, other than for mba master, ACT Government agencies.

State and territory government agencies should also consider the role of relevant Privacy or Information Commissioners (or applicable privacy schemes) in their own jurisdictions (listed at the end of this guide). Data breaches occur in a number of simon mba essay, ways. Some examples include: lost or stolen laptops, removable storage devices, or paper records containing personal information. hard disk drives and other digital storage media (integrated in mba master thesis, other devices, for example, multifunction printers, or otherwise) being disposed of or returned to equipment lessors without the contents first being erased. databases containing personal information being ‘hacked’ into or otherwise illegally accessed by individuals outside of the agency or organisation. employees accessing or disclosing personal information outside the requirements or authorisation of their employment. paper records stolen from insecure recycling or garbage bins. an agency or organisation mistakenly providing personal information to the wrong person, for example by assignment, sending details out to thesis the wrong address, and. an individual deceiving an agency or organisation into improperly releasing the herbert summary personal information of thesis, another person. Preventing data breaches — obligations under the essay Privacy Act. Security is a basic element of mba master, information privacy.[4] In Australia, this principle is an indian father& essay reflected in the Privacy Act in the APPs.

Agencies and organisations are required to take reasonable steps to protect the personal information they hold from misuse, interference and loss, and thesis, from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure. This requirement is essay bi myself set out in thesis, APP 11[5] (see Appendix A for APP 11). Sections 20Q and 21S of the Privacy Act imposes equivalent obligations on credit reporting agencies and all credit providers. Similarly, guideline 6.1 of the statutory TFN guidelines[6] requires TFN recipients to simon mba essay protect TFN information by such security safeguards as are reasonable in the circumstances. Depending on the circumstances, those reasonable steps may include the preparation and mba master, implementation of a data breach policy and response plan. Notification of the individuals who are or may be affected by a data breach, and the OAIC, may also be a reasonable step (see page 9). Many agencies are subject to agency-specific legislative requirements that add further protections for personal information (such as secrecy provisions), as well as legislative and other requirements which apply more generally across government. These other requirements can include the Australian Government’s Protective Security Policy Framework [7] and the Information Security Manual .[8] Organisations may also be subject to additional obligations through sector-specific legislation in respect of particular information they hold. For example, Part 13 of the Telecommunications Act 1997 (Cth)[9] sets out obligations on the telecommunications industry in relation to the handling of simon mba essay, certain telecommunications-related personal information. Some organisations may also have common law duties relating to mba master thesis the confidentiality of particular information.

These additional obligations need to be considered by agencies and organisations when taking steps to prevent or respond to data breaches. Considerations for keeping information secure. Note : Some of the information in Step 4 of this guide ( Prevent future breaches : see page 30) could equally be used by agencies or organisations as a way of assessing what security measures are necessary to prevent data breaches. What are the reasonable steps (as required by APP 11) necessary to secure personal information will depend on context, including (but not limited to): the sensitivity (having regard to the affected individual(s)) of the personal information held by the agency or organisation. the harm that is marcuse likely to result to individuals if there is a data breach involving their personal information. the potential for harm (in terms of reputational or other damage) to mba master the agency or organisation if their personal information holdings are breached, and. how the agency or organisation stores, processes and transmits the personal information (for example, paper-based or electronic records, or by using a third party service provider).

Appropriate security safeguards for personal information need to be considered across a range of areas. Essay? This could include maintaining physical security, computer and network security, communications security and personnel security. To meet their information security obligations, agencies and organisations should consider the following steps: Risk assessment – Identifying the thesis security risks to personal information held by the organisation and the consequences of a breach of security. Privacy impact assessments – Evaluating, in an essay on liberation, a systemic way, the degree to which proposed or existing information systems align with good privacy practice and legal obligations.[10] Policy development – Developing a policy or range of policies that implement measures, practices and procedures to mba master reduce the identified risks to an indian 39s plea information security.

Staff training – Training staff and managers in mba master, security and fraud awareness, practices and procedures and codes of conduct. The appointment of a responsible person or position – Creating a designated position within the agency or organisation to deal with data breaches. This position could have responsibility for establishing policy and marcuse an essay summary, procedures, training staff, coordinating reviews and audits and investigating and responding to breaches.[11] Technology – Implementing privacy enhancing technologies to secure personal information held by the agency or organisation, including through such measures as access control, copy protection, intrusion detection, and robust encryption. Monitoring and review – Monitoring compliance with the security policy, periodic assessments of new security risks and the adequacy of existing security measures, and ensuring that effective complaint handling procedures are in place. Standards – Measuring performance against relevant Australian and international standards as a guide.[12] Appropriate contract management – Conducting appropriate due diligencewhere services (especially data storage services) are contracted, particularly in terms of the IT security policies and practices that the service provider has in place, and then monitoring compliance with these policies through periodic audits.[13] Further, in seeking to prevent data breaches, agencies and organisations should consider their other privacy obligations under the APPs. Some breaches or risks of mba master thesis, harm can be avoided or minimised by not collecting particular types of personal information or only keeping it for as long as necessary. Consider the following:

What personal information is it necessary to collect? – Personal information that is never collected, cannot be mishandled. APP 3 requires that APP entities must not collect personal information unless it is simon mba essay reasonably necessary, or directly related to, one or more of thesis, their functions or activities. Exam Essay Questions? Additional restrictions apply to the collection of sensitive information (see APP 3.3). How long does the personal information need to be kept? – APPs 4.3 and mba master thesis, 11.2 require APP entities organisations to take reasonable steps to destroy information, on ensure that it is de-identified, if that information is no longer needed for simon mba essay, any purpose permitted under the APPs. Agencies have record-keeping obligations with respect to mba master Commonwealth records – this is reflected in APP 11.2(c). Accordingly, agencies should carefully consider retention practices, subject to record keeping requirements such as those contained in the Archives Act 1983 (Cth)[14] (including their Records Disposal Authorities)[15] or other legislation. Why data breach notification is good privacy practice. Notifying individuals when a data breach involves their personal information supports good privacy practice, for the following reasons: Notification as a reasonable security safeguard – As part of the obligation to keep personal information secure, notification may, in some circumstances, may be a reasonable step in the protection of personal information from essay bi myself misuse, interference and loss, and mba master thesis, from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure (as required by simon mba essay, APP 11).

Notification as openness about privacy practices – Being open and transparent with individuals about how personal information may be handled is recognised as a fundamental privacy principle.[16] Part of being open about the handling of personal information may include telling individuals when something goes wrong and explaining what has been done to try to avoid or remedy any actual or potential harm.[17] Notification as restoring control over personal information – Where personal information has been compromised, notification can be essential in helping individuals to regain control of that information. For example, where an individual’s identity details have been stolen, once notified, the individual can take steps to regain control of mba master, their identity information by changing passwords or account numbers, or requesting the reissue of identifiers. Notification as a means of rebuilding public trust – Notification can be a way of demonstrating to the public that an agency or organisation takes the security of personal information seriously, and is working to protect affected individuals from the herbert an essay harms that could result from a data breach. Mba Master Thesis? Customers may be reassured to know that an agency or organisation’s data breach response plan includes notifying them, the OAIC, and relevant third parties. The OAIC strongly encourages notification in appropriate circumstances as part of good privacy practice, and in the interest of genetics, maintaining a community in mba master thesis, which privacy is valued and respected. The role of the genetics exam Office of the Australian Information Commissioner. A data breach may constitute a breach of information security obligations under the Privacy Act; for thesis, example, the obligations imposed by the APPs, the TFN guidelines, or the simon mba essay credit reporting provisions of the Act. Mba Master? In those circumstances, the breach will be an interference with an autobiographical, individual’s privacy.[18] Individuals can complain about such interferences to the OAIC. The OAIC has the function of mba master, investigating possible breaches of the Privacy Act. Essay? It also has the function of providing guidance and advice to agencies and organisations on the operation of the Privacy Act.[19] As such, the OAIC may provide general information on how to mba master thesis respond to essay bi myself a data breach.

Step 3(d) of this guide provides guidance on when it may be appropriate to notify the OAIC of a data breach. Consistent with its statutory functions, the OAIC may consider whether it needs to investigate the conduct. However, the OAIC cannot make a decision on whether there has been a breach of the Privacy Act until it has conducted an investigation. If an individual thinks an agency or organisation covered by the Privacy Act has interfered with his or her privacy, and they have been unable to mba master resolve the matter directly with the agency or organisation, they can complain to the OAIC.[20] The OAIC may investigate[21] and essay to fourth, may attempt to resolve the matter by conciliation between the parties. The Commissioner also has the thesis power to simon mba essay initiate an investigation on their own initiative in appropriate circumstances without first receiving a complaint.[22] The Commissioner has a range of mba master thesis, enforcement powers, including the power to: make a determination requiring the payment of compensation for damages or other remedies,[23] such as the provision of access or the issuance of an apology (enforceable by herbert an essay summary, the Federal Court or Federal Magistrates Court) accept an enforceable undertakings,[24] seek civil penalties of up to or apply for thesis, civil penalty orders of up to $340,000 for individuals and essay bi myself, up to $1.7 million for companies,[25] and. seek an injunction regarding conduct that would contravene the mba master thesis Privacy Act.[26]

Contraventions of teaching writing to fourth grader, some of the mba master thesis credit reporting provisions in Part IIIA of the an indian father& essay Privacy Act carry specific penalties. Agencies should also be aware that, under s28B(1)(b) of the Privacy Act, the Information Commissioner can inform the Minister responsible for the Privacy Act of action that needs to be taken by an agency in order to comply with the APPs. In general, the OAIC will publish the outcomes of its investigations (in consultation with the subject agency or organisation). In some circumstances, consistent with its roles of education and enforcement, the OAIC may publicise information about the thesis information management practices of an agency or organisation. Responding to data breaches: four key steps. Data breaches can be caused or exacerbated by a variety of factors, affect different types of personal information and give rise to a range of actual or potential harms to individuals, agencies and organisations. As such, there is no single way of responding to a data breach. Essay Bi Myself? Each breach will need to be dealt with on a case-by-case basis, undertaking an assessment of the risks involved, and mba master, using that risk assessment as the basis for deciding what actions to take in the circumstances.

There are four key steps to consider when responding to a breach or suspected breach: Step 1: Contain the breach and do a preliminary assessment. Step 2: Evaluate the risks associated with the breach. Step 4: Prevent future breaches. Each of the steps is set out in assignment, further detail below. A chart summarising the data breach response process is set out at page 40. Agencies and organisations may wish to consider distributing this chart to staff as a data breach response resource.

Be sure to take each situation seriously and mba master, move immediately to contain and assess the suspected breach. Breaches that may initially seem immaterial may be significant when their full implications are assessed. Agencies and organisations should undertake steps 1, 2 and 3 either simultaneously or in quick succession. In some cases it may be appropriate to notify individuals immediately, before containment or assessment of the breach occurs . The decision on how to respond should be made on a case-by-case basis. Depending on the breach, not all steps may be necessary, or some steps may be combined. In some cases, agencies and organisations may choose to herbert marcuse an essay take additional steps that are specific to the nature of the breach. Step 1: Contain the breach and do a preliminary assessment. Once an agency or organisation has discovered or suspects that a data breach has occurred, it should take immediate common sense steps to limit the breach.

These may include the following: Take whatever steps possible to immediately contain the breach. For example, stop the unauthorised practice, recover the mba master thesis records, or shut down the system that was breached. Exam Essay? If it is not practical to mba master shut down the system, or if it would result in loss of evidence, then revoke or change computer access privileges or address weaknesses in teaching essay grader, physical or electronic security. Assess whether steps can be taken to mitigate the harm an individual may suffer as a result of a breach.

For example, if it is detected that a customer’s bank account has been compromised, can the affected account be immediately frozen and the funds transferred to a new account? Initiate a preliminary assessment. Move quickly to appoint someone to lead the initial assessment. This person should have sufficient authority to conduct the initial investigation, gather any necessary information and mba master thesis, make initial recommendations. Herbert Marcuse? If necessary, a more detailed evaluation may subsequently be required. Determine whether there is a need to assemble a team that could include representatives from appropriate parts of the mba master thesis agency or organisation. Consider the following preliminary questions: What personal information does the breach involve? What was the cause of the essay to fourth grader breach?

What is the extent of the breach? What are the harms (to affected individuals) that could potentially be caused by mba master thesis, the breach? How can the breach be contained? Consider who needs to be notified immediately. Determine who needs to be made aware of the breach (internally, and potentially externally) at this preliminary stage. In some cases it may be appropriate to notify the affected individuals immediately (for example, where there is herbert an essay a high level of risk of mba master, serious harm to affected individuals). Escalate the matter internally as appropriate, including informing the person or group within the agency or organisation responsible for privacy compliance. It may also be appropriate to report such breaches to relevant internal investigation units. If the breach appears to marcuse involve theft or other criminal activity, it will generally be appropriate to thesis notify the police.

If the 39s plea data breach is likely to involve a real risk of mba master thesis, serious harm to individuals, or receive a high level of media attention, inform the OAIC. The OAIC may be able to essay bi myself provide guidance and assistance. For more information on what the OAIC can and cannot do, see page 37. Where a law enforcement agency is investigating the breach, consult the investigating agency before making details of the breach public. Be careful not to destroy evidence that may be valuable in determining the cause or would allow the agency or organisation to take appropriate corrective action.

Ensure appropriate records of the suspected breach are maintained, including the steps taken to rectify the situation and the decisions made. An example of breach containment and preliminary assessment. An online recruitment agency accepts resumes from jobseekers and makes these available to recruiters and employers on a password protected website. Jane, a jobseeker whose resume is on the website, receives an email which she suspects is a ‘phishing’ email. The email is thesis personalised and contains information from her resume. It contains a number of exam essay, spelling mistakes and offers her a job.

The email claims that all Jane has to do to secure the job is to provide her bank account details so she can be paid. Jane advises the recruitment agency of mba master, her suspicions, and forwards a copy of the exam essay email to the recruitment agency. The recruitment agency assigns a member from its IT team to undertake a preliminary assessment. Mba Master Thesis? It is found that the email is indeed a phishing email. It claims to be from a recruiter and directs the recipient to a website which asks them to enter further information. It also installs spyware on the recipient’s computer. The recruitment agency attempts to establish how phishers came to have the resume details of the jobseeker. The recruitment agency’s preliminary assessment reveals that the phishers have stolen legitimate user names and passwords from recruiters who use the agency’s website and father&, have fraudulently accessed jobseeker information.

The IT team escalates the issue internally by informing senior staff members and quickly contains the breach by disabling the compromised recruiter accounts. Based on the IT team’s preliminary assessment, senior staff move to evaluate risks associated with the thesis breach and essay bi myself, consider what actions should be taken to mitigate any potential harm. Step 2: Evaluate the risks associated with the mba master thesis breach. To determine what other steps are immediately necessary, agencies and organisations should assess the an indian essay risks associated with the breach. Consider the following factors in assessing the risks: The type of thesis, personal information involved. Herbert Marcuse On Liberation Summary? The context of the affected information and the breach. The cause and extent of the breach.

The risk of serious harm to the affected individuals. The risk of other harms. a) Consider the type of personal information involved. Does the mba master thesis type of personal information that has been compromised create a greater risk of harm? Some information is more likely to cause an individual harm if it is compromised, whether that harm is essay bi myself physical, financial or psychological. For example, government-issued identifiers such as Medicare numbers, driver’s licence and health care numbers, health information, and financial account numbers such as credit or debit card numbers might pose a greater risk of harm to an individual than their name or address. Also, a combination of mba master thesis, personal information typically creates a greater risk of essay bi myself, harm than a single piece of personal information.

It may also matter whether the thesis information is permanent or temporary. Exam? Permanent information, such as someone’s name place and mba master thesis, date of birth, or medical history cannot be ‘re-issued’. The permanence of the essay bi myself information may be more significant if it is protected by encryption – over mba master time, encryption algorithms may be broken, so such information may be at greater longer term risk of being compromised. On the other hand, temporary information may have changed by autobiographical, the time it has been decrypted. Employees, contractors, the public, clients, service providers, other agencies or organisations? Remember that certain people may be particularly at risk of mba master thesis, harm. A data breach involving name and address of a person might not always be considered high risk.

However, a breach to a women’s refuge database containing name and address information may expose women who attend the refuge to a violent family member. Autobiographical Essay Assignment? There may be less risk if the breach only relates to businesses that service the refuge. b) Determine the context of the affected information and mba master, the breach. What is the context of the personal information involved? For example, a list of customers on a newspaper carrier’s route may not be sensitive information.

However, the same information about customers who have requested service interruption while on vacation may be more sensitive. The sensitivity of personal information that may also publicly available information (such as the type found in a public telephone directory) also depends on context. For example, what might be the implications of someone’s name and phone number or address being associated with the services offered, or the professional association represented? What parties have gained unauthorised access to the affected information? To whom was the information exposed? Employee records containing information about employment history such as performance and disciplinary matters or a co-worker’s mental health might be particularly sensitive if exposed to other employees in an indian father& 39s plea, the workplace and could result in an individual being the subject of humiliation or workplace bullying.

Have there been other breaches that could have a cumulative effect? A number of small, seemingly insignificant, breaches could have a cumulative effect. Separate breaches that might not, by themselves, be assessed as representing a real risk of serious harm to an affected individual, may meet this threshold when the cumulative effect of the breaches is considered. This could involve incremental breaches of the same agency or organisation’s database. It could also include known breaches from a number of different sources. How could the personal information be used? Could the information be used for fraudulent or otherwise harmful purposes, such as to cause significant embarrassment to the affected individual? Could the thesis compromised information be easily combined either with other compromised information or with publicly available information to create a greater risk of harm to the individual? c) Establish the cause and extent of the breach. Is there a risk of ongoing breaches or further exposure of the information? What was the extent of the unauthorised access to or collection, use or disclosure of personal information, including the number and nature of likely recipients and the risk of further access, use or disclosure, including via mass media or online?

Is there evidence that suggests theft, and was the information the target? For example, where a laptop is stolen, can it be determined whether the thief specifically wanted the information on the laptop, or the an indian laptop hardware itself? Evidence of theft could suggest a greater intention to do harm and heighten the mba master need to provide notification to the individual, as well as law enforcement. Is the personal information adequately encrypted, anonymised or otherwise not easily accessible? Is the teaching writing to fourth grader information rendered unreadable by security measures that protect the stored information? Is the personal information displayed or stored in such a way so that it cannot be used if breached? For example, if a laptop containing adequately encrypted information is stolen, but is subsequently recovered and investigations show that the information was not accessed, copied or otherwise tampered with, notification to thesis affected individuals may not be necessary. What was the teaching to fourth grader source of the breach? For example, did it involve external or internal malicious behaviour, or was it an internal processing error?

Does the information seem to have been lost or misplaced? The risk of harm to the individual may be less where the breach is unintentional or accidental, rather than intentional or malicious. For example, the client may have a common surname which leads a staff member to accidentally access the wrong client record. The access records show that the staff member immediately closed the client record once they became aware of their mistake. The risk of mba master, harm will be less in this case than in the case where a staff member intentionally and deliberately opens a client’s record to browse the record, or to use or disclose that information without a legitimate business reason for doing so. Has the personal information been recovered?

For example, has a lost laptop been found or returned? If the information has been recovered, are there any signs that it has been accessed, copied or otherwise tampered with? What steps have already been taken to teaching to fourth grader mitigate the harm? Has the agency or organisation contained the breach? For example, have compromised security measures such as passwords been replaced? Has the full extent of the breach been assessed? Are further steps required? Is this a systemic problem or an isolated incident? When checking the source of the breach, it is important to check whether any similar breaches have occurred in the past. Sometimes, a breach can signal a deeper problem with system security.

This may also reveal that more information has been affected than initially thought, potentially heightening the awareness of the risk posed. How many individuals are affected by the breach? If the breach is a result of a systemic problem, there may be more people affected than first anticipated. Even where the breach involves accidental and unintentional misuse of information, if the breach affects many individuals, the scale of the breach may create greater risks that the information will be misused. The agency or organisation’s response should be proportionate. While the number of thesis, affected individuals can help gauge the severity of the breach, it is an essay on liberation summary important to remember that even a breach involving the personal information of one or two people can be serious, depending on the information involved. d) Assess the risk of harm to the affected individuals. Who is the recipient of the information? Is there likely to be any relationship between the mba master unauthorised recipients and the affected individuals? For example, was the disclosure to an unknown party or to a party suspected of being involved in autobiographical essay assignment, criminal activity where there is a potential risk of misuse? Was the disclosure to a person against mba master whom the individual has a restraining order, or to co-workers who have no need to have the information?

Or was the recipient a trusted, known entity or person that would reasonably be expected to return or destroy the information without disclosing or using it? For example, was the information sent to an indian the individual’s lawyer instead of being sent to them, or to another party bound by professional duties of confidentiality or ethical standards? What harm to mba master thesis individuals could result from the breach? identity theft financial loss threat to physical safety threat to an indian 39s plea essay emotional wellbeing loss of business or employment opportunities humiliation, damage to reputation or relationships, or workplace or social bullying or marginalisation. Other possible harms, including to the agency or organisation that suffered the thesis breach. the loss of autobiographical essay assignment, public trust in the agency, government program, or organisation reputational damage loss of assets (e.g., stolen computers or storage devices) financial exposure (e.g., if bank account details are compromised) regulatory penalties (e.g., for breaches of the Privacy Act) extortion legal liability, and breach of secrecy provisions in applicable legislation. An example of mba master, evaluating the risks associated with the essay breach. A newspaper publisher receives a call from mba master a newsagent that sells its newspapers. The newsagent says that the address labels on the bundles of newspapers delivered to assignment his shop appear to show subscriber information printed on the other side.

The information includes names, addresses and credit card details. Following a preliminary investigation, the newspaper publisher confirms that some labels have been inadvertently printed on the back of subscriber lists. As a first step to containing the breach, the publisher attempts to contact newsagencies that have received the thesis newspapers and asks them to check the labels on the bundles and securely destroy any that show subscriber details on the back. With these first steps completed, the newspaper publisher begins to evaluate the risks associated with the breach. The information that was involved in the breach was name, address and credit card information. The newspaper has a large number of subscribers. Herbert An Essay On Liberation? Further investigations into the breach are unable to reveal how many subscribers’ details have been exposed. The bundles of newspapers displaying subscriber information have been delivered to newsagencies in the early hours of the morning. The newspaper publisher notes that the subscriber information was therefore at risk of unauthorised access during the time between delivery and when the newsagents arrived to open shop. Further investigations reveal that many newsagencies have already discarded the labels before checking could be carried out mba master thesis as to essay bi myself whether they contained subscriber information. This means that, in thesis, many cases, the subscriber lists may not have been securely destroyed.

The newspaper publisher concludes that the exposure of this information could present a real risk of serious harm (in this case, financial harm) to essay assignment many individuals. Based on the conclusion that this is a serious breach, the publisher moves to notify subscribers. Given the large number of potentially affected individuals and mba master thesis, the risk of serious financial harm, the publisher also notifies the essay writing to fourth OAIC, particularly as there is a real possibility that individuals may complain about the breach. An example of evaluating the risks associated with the discovery of routine breaches. An Australian Government agency undertakes a periodic audit of user access records. The audit reveals an unusual pattern of mba master, client account enquiries in one branch of the agency. The client records contain address information, financial information, and other details. 39s Plea? The enquiries have occurred over a 12 month period. After some investigation, which includes interviewing the relevant staff, managers and mba master thesis, the department head, it is determined that a specific staff member, John, has been browsing the client accounts of his family and friends without any legitimate business purpose (and therefore without authorisation). There is essay no evidence that client information has been disclosed to any third party.

The agency recognises that some of the information in the client accounts (the financial information in particular) is sensitive information that is not readily available. The agency considers that there is mba master real risk of simon mba essay, embarrassment or other harms from the mba master thesis release of that information, especially to a person such as John, who has a personal relationship with the affected individuals and could combine the information with the details about the individuals that he already knows. On that basis, the agency decides to notify the writing individuals affected by the unauthorised access. It also takes measures to prevent unauthorised access to client accounts by mba master, staff, and to ensure that all staff are aware of their obligations to act appropriately. The agency considers that, having regard to the sensitivity of the information and the context of the breach, the breach is sufficiently serious to essay warrant notification to the OAIC. Agencies and organisations should consider the particular circumstances of the breach, and: decide whether to notify affected individuals, and, if so consider when and how notification should occur, who should make the notification, and mba master, who should be notified consider what information should be included in essay assignment, the notification, and consider who else (other than the affected individuals) should be notified. Notification can be an mba master thesis, important mitigation strategy that has the potential to benefit both the agency or organisation and the individuals affected by a data breach. The challenge is to determine when notification is appropriate. While notification is an important mitigation strategy, it will not always be an appropriate response to essay bi myself a breach. Providing notification about low risk breaches can cause undue anxiety and thesis, de-sensitise individuals to notice.

Each incident needs to be considered on a case-by-case basis to determine whether breach notification is required. In general, if a data breach creates a real risk of serious harm to the individual, the affected individuals should be notified. Prompt notification to individuals in teaching writing to fourth, these cases can help them mitigate the damage by taking steps to protect themselves. Agencies and organisations should: take into account the ability of the individual to take specific steps to mitigate any such harm, and. consider whether it is appropriate to inform other third parties such as the OAIC, the police, or other regulators or professional bodies about the data breach. a) Deciding whether to mba master notify affected individuals. Agencies and organisations should consider whether their obligations under APP11 require them to notify affected individuals and the OAIC[27] (as a ‘reasonable step’ to ensure the security of personal information that they hold). The key consideration is whether notification is exam questions necessary to avoid or mitigate serious harm to an affected individual. Agencies and organisations should consider the following factors when deciding whether notification is required:

What is the risk of mba master thesis, serious harm to essay bi myself the individual as determined by step 2? What is the ability of the individual to avoid or mitigate possible harm if notified of a breach (in addition to mba master thesis steps taken by the agency or organisation)? For example, would an simon mba essay, individual be able to have a new bank account number issued to avoid potential financial harm resulting from a breach? Would steps such as monitoring bank statements or exercising greater vigilance over their credit reporting records assist in mitigating risks of financial or credit fraud? Even if the individual would not be able to take steps to fix the situation, is the information that has been compromised sensitive, or likely to cause humiliation or embarrassment for mba master, the individual? What are the legal and contractual obligations to exam essay notify, and what are the consequences of notification? There may be adverse consequences if an agency or organisation does not notify affected individuals.

For example, if the public, including the affected individuals, subsequently find out mba master about the breach through the media, there may be loss of simon mba essay, public trust in the agency or organisation (which, in mba master, turn, could have its own costs). At this stage, the assignment organisation or agency should have as complete a set of facts as possible and have completed the risk assessment to determine whether to thesis notify individuals. The following tables set out some of the essay bi myself considerations in the notification process. Sometimes the urgency or seriousness of the mba master thesis breach dictates that notification should happen immediately, before having all the relevant facts. In general, individuals affected by herbert on liberation, the breach should be notified as soon as reasonably possible. If law enforcement authorities are involved, check with those authorities whether notification should be delayed to ensure that the investigation is not compromised. Delaying the disclosure of details about a breach of security or information systems may also be appropriate until that system has been repaired and tested or the breach contained in some other way. In general, the recommended method of notification is direct – by phone, letter, email or in thesis, person – to the affected individuals.

Indirect notification, either by website information, posted notices, media, should generallyonly occur where direct notification could cause further harm, is cost-prohibitive, or the contact information for affected individuals is not known. Preferably, notification should be ‘standalone’ and should not be ‘bundled’ with other material unrelated to the breach, as it may confuse recipients and affect the impact of the breach notification. In certain cases, it may be appropriate to use multiple methods of notification. Agencies and organisations should also consider whether the genetics essay method and content of thesis, notification might increase the risk of harm, such as by alerting the person who stole the laptop of the value of the herbert marcuse an essay on liberation summary information on the laptop, if it would not otherwise be apparent. To avoid being confused with ‘phishing’ emails, email notifications may require special care. For example, only communicate basic information about the breach, leaving more detailed advice to other forms of communication. Typically, the agency or organisation that has a direct relationship with the customer, client or employee should notify the affected individuals.

This includes where a breach may have involved handling of personal information by a third party service provider, contractor or related body corporate. Joint and mba master, third party relationships can raise complex issues. 39s Plea Essay? For example, the breach may occur at a retail merchant but involve credit card details from numerous financial institutions, or the card promoter may not be the card issuer (for example, many airlines, department stores and other retailers have credit cards that display their brand, though the mba master cards are issued by a bank or credit card company). Or the breach may involve information held by herbert marcuse an essay on liberation, a third party ‘cloud’ data storage provider, based outside of Australia. The issues in play in each situation will vary. Organisations and agencies will have to consider what is best on a case by case basis.

However some relevant considerations might include: Where did the mba master thesis breach occur? Who does the individual identify as their ’relationship’ manager? Does the agency or organisation that suffered the breach have contact details for the affected individuals? Are they able to simon mba essay obtain them easily? Or could they draft and sign off the mba master thesis notification, for the lead organisation to send? Is trust important to the organisation’s or agency’s activities? Generally, it should be the grader individual(s) affected by the breach. However, in some cases it may be appropriate to notify the individual’s guardian or authorised representative on their behalf. There may be circumstances where carers or authorised representatives should be notified as well as, or instead of, the mba master thesis individual. Where appropriate, clinical judgement may be required where notification may exacerbate health conditions, such as acute paranoia.

c) What should be included in the notification? The content of an essay summary, notifications will vary depending on thesis, the particular breach and the notification method. Genetics Questions? In general, the information in the notice should help the thesis individual to an indian 39s plea essay reduce or prevent the harm that could be caused by the breach. Notifications should include the types of information detailed below: Incident Description — Information about the mba master thesis incident and its timing in general terms. The notice should not include information that would reveal specific system vulnerabilities.

Type of personal information involved — A description of the type of personal information involved in exam, the breach. Be careful not to include personal information in the notification, to mba master avoid possible further unauthorised disclosure. Response to the breach — A general account of what the agency or organisation has done to genetics exam essay questions control or reduce the harm, and proposed future steps that are planned. Assistance offered to affected individuals — What the mba master thesis agency or organisation will do to autobiographical essay assist individuals and what steps the individual can take to mba master thesis avoid or reduce the risk of harm or to essay bi myself further protect themselves. For example, whether the mba master agency or organisation can arrange for credit monitoring or other fraud prevention tools, or provide information on how to change government issued identification numbers (such as a driver’s licence number). Other information sources — Sources of an indian father& 39s plea, information designed to mba master thesis assist individuals in protecting against essay bi myself identity theft or interferences with privacy. For example, guidance on the OAIC’s website and the Attorney-General’s Department website at Identity security. Agency/ Organisation contact details — Contact information of mba master thesis, areas or personnel within the agency or organisation that can answer questions, provide further information or address specific privacy concerns.

Where it is decided that a third party will notify of the breach, a clear explanation should be given as to how that third party fits into the process and who the individual should contact if they have further questions. Whether breach notified to regulator or other external contact(s) — Indicate whether the agency or organisation has notified the OAIC or other parties listed in an indian 39s plea, the table at 3(d). Legal implications — The precise wording of the mba master notice may have legal implications; organisations and agencies should consider whether they should seek legal advice. The legal implications could include secrecy obligations that apply to agencies. How individuals can lodge a complaint with the agency or organisation — Provide information on internal dispute resolution processes and how the herbert an essay on liberation summary individual can make a complaint to the agency or organisation or industry complaint handling bodies.[28]

How individuals can lodge a complaint with the mba master OAIC — If the agency or organisation is covered by the Privacy Act, explain that if individuals are not satisfied with the response by the agency or organisation to resolve the issue, they can make a complaint to the OAIC. The OAIC’s contact details are set out at page 38. In general, notifying the simon mba essay OAIC, or other authorities or regulators should not be a substitute for notifying affected individuals. However, in some circumstances it may be appropriate to notify these third parties: OAIC — The OAIC strongly encourages agencies and organisations to report serious data breaches to the OAIC. The potential benefits of notifying the OAIC, together with what it can and thesis, cannot do about a notification, are set out at page 37.

Police — If theft or other crime is suspected. The Australian Federal Police should also be contacted if the breach may constitute a threat to national security. Insurers or others — If required by 39s plea, contractual obligations. Credit card companies, financial institutions or credit reporting agencies — If their assistance is necessary for thesis, contacting individuals or assisting with mitigating harm. Professional or other regulatory bodies — If professional or regulatory standards require notification of these bodies. For example, other regulatory bodies, such as the Australian Securities and Investments Commission, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, and the Australian Communications and Media Authority have their own requirements in essay bi myself, the event of a breach. Other internal or external parties not already notified — Agencies and organisations should consider the potential impact that the breach and notification to individuals may have on mba master thesis, third parties, and take action accordingly. For example, third parties may be affected if individuals cancel their credit cards, or if financial institutions issue new cards.

third party contractors or other parties who may be affected internal business units not previously advised of the breach, (for example, communications and media relations, senior management), or union or other employee representatives. Agencies that have a direct relationship with the information lost/stolen — Agencies and organisations should consider whether an incident compromises Australian Government agency identifiers such as TFNs or Medicare numbers. Notifying agencies such as the Australian Taxation Office for teaching essay writing grader, TFNs or Medicare Australia for Medicare card numbers may enable those agencies to provide appropriate information and assistance to thesis affected individuals, and to take steps to protect the integrity of identifiers that may be used in essay writing grader, identity theft or other fraud. An example of notification of affected individuals. A bank customer, Margaret, receives mail from thesis her bank. When she opens the envelope she notices that correspondence intended for another customer – Diego – has been included in the same envelope. The correspondence includes Diego’s name, address and account details. Margaret contacts the bank to report the incident. The bank asks that she return the mail intended for Diego to an indian father& essay them.

The bank then contacts Diego by phone to notify him of the mba master thesis breach, apologises to him, and advises that it will be investigating the matter to determine how the marcuse on liberation summary incident occurred and how to prevent it from reoccurring. The bank also offers to restore the security of mba master, Diego’s customer information by closing his existing account and opening a new account. In addition, the questions bank agrees to discuss with Diego any further action he considers should be taken to resolve the matter to his satisfaction and provides a contact name and number that Diego can use for mba master, any further enquiries. The bank investigates the matter, including getting reports from the mailing house it uses to generate and autobiographical essay assignment, despatch customer correspondence. Mba Master? While the mailing house has a number of essay, compliance measures in place to manage the process flow, it appears that an mba master, isolated error on one production line meant that two customer statements were included in one envelope. Following its assessment of the breach, the genetics essay questions bank is satisfied that this is an mba master thesis, isolated incident. However, it reviews the compliance measures taken by the mailing house has in place to ensure they are sufficient to protect customer information from simon mba essay unintentional disclosure through production errors. Thesis? The bank writes to Diego and informs him of the outcome of exam essay questions, its investigation.

An example of notification of affected individuals and the OAIC. A memory stick containing the employee records of 200 employees of an thesis, Australian Government Department goes missing. Essay Writing To Fourth? Extensive searches fail to locate the whereabouts of the memory stick. The information contained in mba master thesis, the employee records includes the names, salary information, TFNs, home addresses, phone numbers, birth dates and in some cases health information (including disability information) of current staff. Simon Mba Essay? The data on the memory stick is not encrypted. Due to the sensitivity of the unencrypted information – not only the extent and variety of the thesis information, but also the summary inclusion of health and disability information in the records – the Department decides to mba master notify employees of the herbert on liberation summary breach. Mba Master Thesis? Anticipating that individuals may, at some point, complain, it also notifies the OAIC of the breach and explains what steps it is taking to resolve the situation. A senior staff member emails the affected staff to essay bi myself notify them of the breach. In the notification she offers staff an apology for mba master thesis, the breach, explains what types of information were involved, notes that the OAIC has been informed of the breach, and 39s plea, explains what steps have been put in place to prevent this type of a breach occurring in the future.

The senior staff member also provides staff with details about how they can have a new TFN issued, and informs staff that they can make a complaint to the OAIC if they are unhappy with the mba master steps the agency has taken. An example of notification of affected individuals, OAIC and police. FunOnline, a popular online gaming service provider, sells access to its gaming network on a subscription basis. FunOnline collects and holds a range of personal information from its customers in order to create a user account and deal with subscription payments, including names, dates of birth, email addresses, postal addresses, and credit card numbers. During a routine security check, FunOnline discovers through the use of intrusion detection software that the server containing its account information has been compromised, and the account information of over 500,000 customers has been accessed without authorisation and, most likely, copied. FunOnline takes immediate steps to contain the breach (including temporarily shutting down its servers) and notifies the OAIC. Herbert Marcuse Summary? Based on its belief that criminal activity has been involved, FunOnline also contacts the mba master police.

The police investigate, during which time they ask FunOnline not to release any information about the breach. FunOnline uses this period to engage a technology security firm to enhance the security of its accounts systems. As soon as the police are satisfied it will not compromise their investigation, FunOnline notifies the affected customers. An Indian 39s Plea Essay? FunOnline explains exactly what happened and when, that the police have been investigating, and that the mba master thesis OAIC has been notified. FunOnline also suggests that affected customers monitor their credit card accounts and simon mba essay, contact their financial institution if they have any concerns. In contravention of policy, a staff member at an Australian Government Department takes a memory stick out of the office so that he can work on some files at thesis home. At some point between leaving work and arriving at home, the staff member loses the essay bi myself memory stick.

He reports it missing the next day. Despite the assistance of the transport authority, the Department is unable to locate the memory stick. Mba Master? The Department conducts a preliminary assessment of the autobiographical essay assignment breach, then evaluates the thesis risks associated with the essay bi myself loss of the memory stick. First, the Department assesses what (if any) personal information may have been lost.. While the memory stick did not contain client records, it did contain the mba master names, phone numbers and business email addresses of about 120 external stakeholders involved in a project lead by marcuse an essay summary, the Department, along with email correspondence from these stakeholders.

Further evaluation reveals that data held on the stick is protected by high level encryption technology. The Department consults with its IT team to confirm that the encryption on the memory stick is adequately secure and, following confirmation by that team, decides that notification of individuals whose personal information was held on mba master, the memory stick is unnecessary. In contravention of policy, a staff member at exam an Australian Government Department takes a memory stick out of the office so that he can work on some files at home. At some point between leaving work and arriving at home, the staff member loses the memory stick. He reports it missing the next day. Despite the assistance of the mba master thesis transport authority, the Department is father& 39s plea essay unable to mba master locate the memory stick. The Department conducts a preliminary assessment of the breach, then evaluates the risks associated with the loss of the memory stick.

First, the Department assesses what (if any) personal information may have been lost.. While the memory stick did not contain client records, it did contain the names, phone numbers and business email addresses of about 120 external stakeholders involved in a project lead by the Department, along with email correspondence from these stakeholders. Further evaluation reveals that data held on the stick is protected by high level encryption technology. Essay Bi Myself? The Department consults with its IT team to confirm that the encryption on the memory stick is adequately secure and, following confirmation by that team, decides that notification of individuals whose personal information was held on the memory stick is unnecessary. A pathologist receives a phone call from a GP, Dr Jones, with whom he has a professional relationship. Dr Jones advises the thesis pathologist that she has just received a fax from the pathologist’s office disclosing test results for an individual that is not her patient. When the pathologist checks his records, he discovers that the test results were intended for a different GP. The pathologist asks Dr Jones to destroy the test results and considers whether notification of the patient is simon mba essay warranted. The pathologist recognises that Dr Jones is bound by ethical duties, and is familiar with principles of confidentiality and privacy.

Accordingly, the pathologist is confident that Dr Jones can be relied upon not to mishandle the information contained in the test results and the disclosure is thesis unlikely to pose a serious risk to the privacy of the patient. The pathologist decides not to notify the patient, but he reviews his practices to avoid a similar breach occurring in the future. The pathologist ensures that administrative staff are trained to exercise care in checking that fax numbers are accurate. Grader? The pathologist also begins to routinely phone recipients to tell them that results are being faxed. This reduces the risk that any fax, whether misdirected or not, will be left unattended on the machine for long periods of time. Thesis? It also allows the intended recipient to let the sender know if it a fax not received. Once the immediate steps are taken to mitigate the essay risks associated with the breach, agencies and organisations need to thesis take the time to investigate the cause and consider whether to grader review the existing prevention plan or, if there is no plan in place, develop one. A prevention plan should suggest actions that are proportionate to the significance of the breach, and whether it was a systemic breach or an isolated event. This plan may include: a security audit of both physical and mba master, technical security a review of policies and procedures and any changes to reflect the lessons learned from the investigation, and regular reviews after that (for example, security, record retention and collection policies) a review of simon mba essay, employee selection and training practices, and a review of mba master, service delivery partners (for example, offsite data storage providers). The plan may include a requirement for an audit at exam the end of the process to ensure that the prevention plan has been fully implemented.

Suggested preparations for responding to a data breach include the mba master following: Develop a breach response plan — While the aim should be to an indian 39s plea essay prevent breaches, having a breach response plan may assist in ensuring a quick response to breaches, and greater potential for thesis, mitigating harm. The plan could set out contact details for simon mba essay, appropriate staff to be notified, clarify the roles and responsibilities of staff, and document processes which will assist the agency or organisation to contain breaches, coordinate investigations and breach notifications, and cooperate with external investigations. Establish a breach response team — Depending on the size of the agency or organisation, consider establishing a management team responsible for responding to personal information breaches. The team could include representatives from relevant areas that may be needed to investigate an incident, conduct risk assessments and make appropriate decisions (for example, privacy, senior management, IT, public affairs, legal). The team could convene periodically to review the breach response plan, discuss new risks and practices, or consider incidents that have occurred in other agencies or organisations. It may also be helpful to conduct ‘scenario’ training with team members to allow them to thesis develop a feel for an actual breach response. Key issues to test in such training would be identifying when notification is an appropriate response, and the timing of that notification.

Identify relevant service providers — Consider researching and identifying external service providers that could assist in exam questions, the event of a data breach, such as forensics firms, public relations firms, call center providers and notification delivery services. The contact details of the service providers could be set out in the breach response plan. This could save time and assist in responding efficiently and effectively to a data breach. Enhance internal communication and training — Ensure staff have been trained to respond to data breaches effectively, and are aware of the relevant policies and procedures. Staff should understand how to identify and report a potential data breach to the appropriate manager(s).

Enhance transparency — Include information in the agency or organisation’s privacy policy about how it responds to breaches. This could include letting individuals know when and how they are likely to mba master thesis be notified in the event of a breach, and whether the agency or organisation would ask them to verify any contact details or other information. This would make clear to individuals how their personal contact information is used in the event of a breach, and essay questions, may also assist individuals to thesis avoid ‘phishing’ scam emails involving fake breach notifications and requests that recipients verify their account details, passwords and other personal information. Tips for preventing future breaches. Some of the measures that have resulted from real-life data breaches include: the creation of essay to fourth, a senior position in the agency or organisation with specific responsibility for data security[29] the institution of a ban on bulk transfers of data onto mba master thesis removable media without adequate security protection (such as encryption) disabling the download function on computers in use across the agency or organisation, to prevent the download of data onto removable media. the institution of a ban on the removal of unencrypted laptops and autobiographical, other portable devices from government buildings. the institution of a policy requiring the thesis erasing of genetics, hard disk drives and other digital storage media (including digital storage integrated in other devices such as multifunction printers or photocopiers) prior to mba master thesis being disposed of essay writing to fourth, or returning to the equipment lessor. the use of secure couriers and appropriate tamper proof packaging when transporting bulk data, and. the upgrading of mba master, passwords (for example, an increase from 6 to 8 characters, including numbers and essay bi myself, punctuation), and the institution of a policy requiring passwords to mba master thesis be changed every 8 weeks. Technological advances allow increasingly larger amounts of exam, information to be stored on increasingly smaller devices.

This creates a greater risk of data breaches due to the size and portability of these devices, which can be lost or misplaced more easily when taken outside of the office. There is mba master also a risk of theft because of the value of the essay bi myself devices themselves (regardless of the information they contain). Preventative steps that agencies and organisations can take include conducting risk assessments to determine: whether and in what circumstances (and by thesis, which staff), personal information is simon mba essay permitted to be removed from the office, whether it is mba master thesis removed in electronic form on DVDs, USB storage devices such as memory sticks, portable computing devices such as laptops, or in paper files,[30] and. whether their stored data, both in the office and when removed from the office, requires security measures such as encryption and password protection. Responding to a large scale data breach: An illustration of how to work through the Four Key Steps.

A health insurer discovers that a backup tape containing customer details and other data has been lost. The information on the tape was not encrypted. The insurer routinely creates two copies of each backup tape. One tape is stored on father& 39s plea essay, site; the mba master other tape is stored securely off-site. The lost backup tape was the on liberation summary copy stored on-site and included data collected during the previous month. Step 1 — Containing the breach and the preliminary assessment. The Chief Executive Officer nominates the Risk Compliance Manager to lead an mba master thesis, investigation.

The Risk Manager’s initial assessment suggests that the tapes were lost when the insurer’s IT department moved some records between floors. The Risk Manager interviews the staff involved in moving the records, reviews the relocation plan and exam essay questions, arranges for the building to thesis be searched. Despite these efforts, the tape cannot be found. The Risk Manager moves on to assessing the breach. She thinks that the grader breach was most likely the result of poor practices and sloppy handling. However, while there is no evidence that the mba master thesis tape was stolen, theft cannot be ruled out. The type of information that has been lost and how it could be used is an teaching writing grader, important part of the risk assessment.

Step 2 — Evaluate the thesis risks associated with the breach. The evaluation shows that the information on the tapes falls into 3 main groups: Type of information — Enquiry information collected via the website to provide quotes. Only included state, date of birth and gender and was retained for essay bi myself, statistical marketing purposes. Identity apparent or ascertainable? — No. Thesis? The information is aggregated statistical data only. How could the information be used? — The information is likely to be of simon mba essay, little or no use other than for statistical purposes. Source — Probably unintentional and accidental.

But theft is also a possibility. As the source of the breach is unclear, and given the sensitivity of thesis, much of the information, the insurer decides to assume a worst case scenario. Severity — The information was not encrypted or recovered. The large number of records involved and the sensitivity of the many of the records (health and financial information, as well as identifying information), make this a serious breach. A real risk of serious harm? — No. Current contact details held? — No.

Type of information — Application information, including full name, address, contact details, and date of birth. Also includes Medicare card number, and credit card details. Identity apparent or ascertainable? — Yes. Sensitivity — Substantial identifying information, Medicare card number and financial details. How could the information be used? — The information could be used for identity theft and financial fraud. There is genetics a lesser possibility that it could be used to attempt fraud against the Medicare and thesis, PBS systems. Source — Probably unintentional and accidental. But theft is also a possibility. As the source of the breach is unclear, and given the essay bi myself sensitivity of much of the information, the thesis insurer decides to assume a worst case scenario.

Severity — The information was not encrypted or recovered. The large number of records involved and exam questions, the sensitivity of the many of the mba master thesis records (health and financial information, as well as identifying information), make this a serious breach. A real risk of serious harm? — Yes. The information could be used to cause serious harm to individuals, including identity theft, financial fraud, and fraud against the Medicare and PBS systems. Possibly health fraud. Current contact details held? — Yes, from current member list and external sources. Type of information — Claims information, including full name, member number, contact details, and clinical information about the treatment being claimed. Identity apparent or ascertainable? — Yes. Sensitivity — Substantial identifying information, as well as information about the individual’s health condition. How could the information be used? — The information could be used for identity theft, as well as being potentially embarrassing or stigmatising to the individual. Source — Probably unintentional and accidental.

But theft is simon mba essay also a possibility. As the source of the breach is mba master thesis unclear, and given the sensitivity of much of the information, the insurer decides to assume a worst case scenario. Severity — The information was not encrypted or recovered. The large number of records involved and essay bi myself, the sensitivity of the many of the records (health and financial information, as well as identifying information), make this a serious breach. A real risk of serious harm? — Yes. If misused, the identification information could be used for identity theft. Serious harm could also arise from misuse of the health information, including stigma, embarrassment, discrimination or disadvantage or, in thesis, extreme cases, blackmail.

Current contact details held? — Yes, from current member list and external sources. The evaluation shows that there is a real risk of serious harm for Group 2 and essay bi myself, 3 individuals, and that the information in Group 1 is not personal information. The evaluation indicates that Group 2 and mba master, 3 individuals should be notified about the breach, and that there is a real risk of serious harm to their interests. If notified, individuals could take steps to mitigate the risks of identity theft and financial fraud. This could include changing credit card details or monitoring their credit reports. While there may be limited steps that can be taken to mitigate the risks of simon mba essay, their health information being mishandled, individuals should still be informed given the heightened sensitivities of this information. The Risk Manager also considered whether notification would cause harm by leading to unfounded concern or alarm.

Taking all these factors and mba master thesis, the evaluation into an indian account, it is decided that individuals in Groups 2 and 3 should be notified. Separate letters are drawn up for each group, outlining the mba master thesis general types of information that are affected. The Risk Manager also arranges for the notification letters to include: a general description of the type of information that has been lost for each group what individuals can do to mitigate the harm caused by the breach, and who they can call to get further information or assistance. For example, the notification to individuals in Group 2 tells them that the information they provided on their application form, including their Medicare number and credit card details, may have been compromised. If an individual is concerned about either, they are advised to teaching essay writing contact Medicare Australia or their financial institution so as to change their registration and account details.

Group 3 individuals are told that a record containing their claims information has been lost, including the clinical details held on their file. Both letters explain that there is no evidence of theft, and that the company is notifying the mba master individuals as a precautionary measure only. The notifications also include contact details for an indian essay, the insurer’s customer care area and the OAIC, and suggest that individuals should check their credit card account statements and mba master, credit reports for any unusual activity. The Risk Manager also notes that some claimants had an authorised representative acting for them. These records are separately assessed to determine whether notification should be made to an essay the authorised representative rather than the member. Staff in the insurer’s customer care area are briefed about the mba master thesis breach and given instructions about how to help customers responding to a notification. Given the genetics essay questions large number of individuals affected, and the sensitive nature of the information, the insurer notifies the thesis OAIC. The insurer explains what steps it has taken to teaching address the breach. It also advises the mba master thesis OAIC of the contact details for essay bi myself, the insurer’s customer care area, so that customers contacting the OAIC can be redirected to thesis the insurer if appropriate. Step 4 – Preventing Future Breaches. Once immediate steps have been taken to essay questions respond to the breach, the Chief Information Officer (CIO) carries out an audit of the security policies for storage and transfer of backup tapes and reviews the access of staff in the area.

The CIO also makes some amendments to the compliance program to thesis ensure non-compliance with IT Security policies will be detected and reported in the future. Reporting a data breach to the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner. Agencies and organisations are strongly encouraged to an indian father& 39s plea notify the OAIC of mba master thesis, a data breach where the circumstances indicate that it is appropriate to do so, as set out in Step 3(d). The potential benefits of notifying the OAIC of a data breach may include the marcuse on liberation following: An agency or organisation’s decision to notify the OAIC on its own initiative is likely to be viewed by the public as a positive action.

It demonstrates to clients and mba master, the public that the agency or organisation views the protection of personal information as an important and serious matter, and may therefore enhance client/public confidence in the agency or organisation. It can assist the OAIC in responding to inquiries made by the public and managing any complaints that may be received as a result of the simon mba essay breach. If the agency or organisation provides the OAIC with details of the thesis matter and any action taken to simon mba essay address it, and mba master, prevents future occurrences, then, based on that information, any complaints received may be able to be dealt with more quickly. In those circumstances, consideration will need to be given to whether an genetics exam essay, individual complainant can demonstrate that they have suffered loss or damage, and whether some additional resolution is required. Alternatively, the OAIC may consider that the steps taken have adequately dealt with the matter.

Note : Reporting a breach does not preclude the thesis OAIC from receiving complaints and conducting an investigation of the autobiographical assignment incident (whether in mba master thesis, response to a complaint or on the Commissioner’s initiative). If the agency or organisation decides to essay bi myself report a data breach to thesis the OAIC, the following provides an indication of what the OAIC can and writing grader, cannot do: Provide general information about obligations under the Privacy Act, factors to consider in mba master, responding to a data breach, and steps to take to prevent similar future incidents. Respond to community enquiries about the breach and explain possible steps that individuals can take to protect their personal information. Provide detailed advice about how to father& respond to thesis a breach, or approve a particular proposed course of action. Agencies and organisations will need to seek their own legal or other specialist advice.

Agree not to autobiographical investigate (either using the Commissioner’s power to investigate on their own initiative, or if a complaint is mba master thesis made to the OAIC) if the OAIC is an indian 39s plea notified of a breach. When the OAIC receives a complaint about an alleged breach of the Act, in most cases, the OAIC must investigate. As set out above, the OAIC may also investigate an act or practice in mba master thesis, the absence of assignment, a complaint on the Commissioner’s initiative. The OAIC uses risk assessment criteria to determine whether to commence a ‘Commissioner’s initiative investigation’. Those criteria include: whether a large number of mba master, people have been, or are likely to be affected, and the consequences for those individuals.

the sensitivity of the personal information involved. the progress of an agency or organisation’s own investigation into herbert marcuse an essay on liberation summary the matter. the likelihood that the acts or practices involve systemic or widespread interferences with privacy. what actions have been taken to minimise the mba master harm to individuals arising from the breach, such as notifying them and/or offering to re-secure their information, and. whether another body, such as the simon mba essay police, is thesis investigating. These factors are similar to those included in the risk assessment criteria for simon mba essay, responding to a data breach. What to put in a notification to the OAIC. Any notice provided to mba master the OAIC should contain similar content to that provided to marcuse an essay individuals (see page 24).

It should not include personal information about the affected individuals. It may be appropriate to include: a description of the breach the type of mba master, personal information involved in the breach what response the agency or organisation has made to simon mba essay the breach what assistance has been offered to mba master thesis affected individuals the essay writing name and mba master thesis, contact details of the appropriate contact person, and whether the breach has been notified to other external contact(s). 1300 363 992 (local call cost, but calls from mobile and payphones may incur higher charges) 1800 620 241 (this number is dedicated for the hearing impaired only, no voice calls) Sydney NSW 2001.

Maintain information security—APP 11. Protect information from misuse, interference and loss, and from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure. To comply with their obligations under the essay APPs, agencies and organisations should consider: the sensitivity of the personal information the harm likely to flow from mba master a security breach developing a compliance and essay bi myself, monitoring plan, and regularly reviewing their information security measures. Personal information is mba master lost or subjected to genetics exam essay unauthorised access, modification, use or disclosure, or other misuse or interference. Key steps in responding to a data breach. Contain the breach and make a preliminary assessment. Take immediate steps to contain breach Designate person/team to coordinate response. Evaluate the risks for individuals associated with the breach. Consider what personal information is involved Determine whether the context of the information is important Establish the cause and extent of the breach Identify what is the risk of harm. Consider breach notification.

Risk analysis on mba master thesis, a case-by-case basis Not all breaches necessarily warrant notification. Should affected individuals be notified? Where there is a real risk of serious harm , notification may enable individuals to essay bi myself take steps to avoid or mitigate harm. Mba Master Thesis? Consider: Legal/contractual obligations to notify Risk of harm to individuals (identity crime, physical harm, humiliation, damage to reputation, loss of teaching essay writing grader, business or employment opportunities. When? - as soon as possible How? - direct contact preferred (mail/phone) Who? - entity with the direct relationship with the mba master thesis affected individual What? - description of breach, type of personal information involved, steps to help mitigate, contact details for information and assistance.

Should others be notified? Office of the Australian Information Commissioner Police/Law Enforcement Professional or Regulatory Bodies Other agencies or organisations affected by essay bi myself, the breach or contractually required to notify. Review the incident and take action to prevent future breaches. Fully investigate the cause of the breach Consider developing a prevention plan Option of audit to ensure plan implemented Update security/ response plan Make appropriate changes to policies and procedures Revise staff training practices. Australian Privacy Principle 11 – security of personal information. 11.1 If an APP entity holds personal information, the entity must take such steps as are reasonable in the circumstances to protect the information: from misuse, interference and loss; and from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure. an APP entity holds personal information about an individual; and the entity no longer needs the information for any purpose for which the information may be used or disclosed by the entity under this Schedule; and the information is thesis not contained in a Commonwealth record; and the entity is not required by or under an genetics exam questions, Australian law, or a court/tribunal order, to retain the information; the entity must take such steps as are reasonable in the circumstances to destroy the mba master thesis information or to essay bi myself ensure that the information is de-identified. Appendix B – Contact list: State and thesis, territory privacy contacts. Information and Privacy Commission New South Wales.

Sydney NSW 2001. 1300 666 444 (Within Australia: local call cost, but calls from mobile and payphones may incur higher charges) +61 3 8619 8719 (From outside Australia) Melbourne Victoria 3001. Local call within Australia: 1300 666 445 (local call cost, but calls from mobile and payphones may incur higher charges) From outside Australia: +61 3 8619 8700. Office of the Information Commissioner, Queensland. BRISBANE QLD 4000. Adelaide SA 5001. (08) 9220 7555 (Western Australia)

1800 117 000 (toll free for essay assignment, country and interstate callers) Ombudsman Western Australia. St Georges Terrace. 1800 001 170 (Tasmania – toll free) 1300 766 725 (Within Australia: local call cost, but calls from mobile and payphones may incur higher charges) Office of the mba master Information Commissioner, Northern Territory.

1800 005 610 (Northern Territory – toll free) ACT Government agencies are subject to assignment the Territory Privacy Principles (TPPs) in the Information Privacy Act 2014 (ACT). The TPPs came into effect on 1 September 2014. Mba Master Thesis? The OAIC is undertaking some of the functions of the ACT’s information privacy commissioner, including receiving voluntary data breach notifications. The OAIC can be contacted at: [3] APP11 requires APP entities to essay take reasonable steps to protect information they hold from misuse, interference and loss, and from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure; see Appendix A. [4] See the ‘security safeguards principle’ in mba master, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data (1980).

The Privacy Act was enacted to 39s plea implement the OECD guidelines in Australia, as recognised in the preamble to mba master the Act. [5] The OAIC has provided further guidance on compliance with the autobiographical essay assignment Australian Privacy Principles, available at thesis APP guidelines. The OAIC’s Guide to teaching essay to fourth information security provides guidance on what the OAIC may consider to thesis be ‘reasonable steps’ as required by APP 11. [10] The OAIC has published a guide to an indian father& 39s plea essay Privacy Impact Assessments, available at Guide to undertaking prviacy impact assessments. [11] Agencies may wish to consider the thesis OAIC’s Principles on open public sector information: Report on review and development of principles . Principle 3 provides that agencies should appoint a senior executive ‘information champion’ to autobiographical be responsible for information management and governance. Principle 4 relates to robust information asset management.

The report is mba master available at Open public sector information: from principles to practice. [16] See the ‘openness principle’ in teaching writing to fourth grader, the Organisation for mba master, Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data (1980). This principle is reflected in APP 1 in the Privacy Act. [17] Agencies may also wish to consider Principle 2: Engaging the community set out in OAIC’s Principles on writing grader, open public sector information: Report on review and development of principles (see footnote 11). [18] See s13 of the Privacy Act. [19] See ss 28 and 28B of the Privacy Act. [20] For more information about mba master complaints, see the OAIC’s website: Privacy complaints.

[21] See s 40(1) of the Privacy Act. [22] See s 40(2) of the Privacy Act. [23] See s 52 of the Privacy Act. [24] See s 33E of the Privacy Act. [25] See ss 13G and 80W(5) of the Privacy Act. [26] See s 98 of the Privacy Act.

[27] For information on notifying the OAIC, see page 37. [28] The OAIC has published guidance on resolving internal complaints. Organisations may wish to review the OAIC’s ‘Privacy fact sheet 9: Guide to internal investigations’. [29] Agencies: see footnote 14 re appointing a senior executive ‘information champion’ to an indian father& essay be responsible for information management and governance. [30] For more information on appropriate security measures, see the OAIC’s Guide to information security (see footnote 5).

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Master s Thesis - Berlin School of Creative Leadership

The Vietnam War and the My Lai Massacre. The murder of more than 400 Vietnamese civilians in My Lai and thesis My Khe by autobiographical assignment US soldiers on March 16, 1968, stands as one of the darkest days in the nation’s military history. It left an indelible stain on America’s record in Vietnam, the nation’s longest, least popular, and most controversial war. It raises fundamental questions about the American way of war, US military leadership in Vietnam, and the difficulties of fighting insurgencies, a problem of major contemporary concern. It needs to be remembered and studied. The United States’ involvement in Vietnam expanded through a series of stages between 1950 and 1965. From 1950 to 1954, in mba master thesis, the name of containing communism, the US assisted the marcuse an essay summary, French in fighting a Communist-led nationalist revolution in Vietnam, ultimately paying close to 80 percent of the cost of the war. From 1954 to 1961, after the mba master, French had departed, the American government attempted to construct in simon mba essay, the southern part of mba master, Vietnam an independent, non-Communist nation to essay bi myself stand as a bulwark against further Communist expansion in Southeast Asia.

From 1961 to 1965, the United States assisted the South Vietnamese in fighting an internal insurgency backed by Communist North Vietnam. A full-fledged shooting war between US and South Vietnamese combat forces and National Liberation Front (NLF) insurgents and North Vietnamese regulars lasted from 1965 to 1973. After 1965, the United States undertook what one top official with no apparent sense of paradox described as an “all-out limited war” in Vietnam. Mba Master Thesis. US aircraft carried out bombing campaigns in teaching, South and North Vietnam that in time exceeded the tonnage dropped by all nations in all theaters in World War II. By 1968, the United States had more than 500,000 troops in South Vietnam fighting a variety of wars in different regions. Along the demilitarized zone separating North from South Vietnam, US Marines and North Vietnamese regulars were dug in like the armies of thesis, World War I pounding each other with artillery. Father&. In other parts of South Vietnam, major increments of US forces conducted massive “search-and-destroy” operations to root out NLF and North Vietnamese regulars.

In remote areas, small units probed inhospitable terrain in mba master, search of an elusive but deadly enemy. In villages across South Vietnam, military personnel and civilians conducted “pacification” operations designed, in the phrase of the genetics essay, day, to win the hearts and minds of the people. Even with this level of thesis, engagement, the best the United States could achieve was a costly stalemate. The massive North Vietnamese-NLF Tet Offensive of February 1968 escalated the violence still further. For the first time, the enemy struck with lethal force at the major towns and cities of South Vietnam, even the supposedly secure capital of an indian essay, Saigon, sparking heavy fighting nationwide. The United States and South Vietnam regained what been lost, but at enormous cost and with huge destruction and loss of life. The My Lai massacre occurred in the immediate aftermath of the mba master, Tet Offensive. On March 16, 1968, the soldiers of Charlie Company, First Battalion, Americal Division, helicoptered into what they called My Lai 4, a hamlet in the larger village of Son My in Quang Ngai province, a beautiful but for Americans deadly region along the northeastern coast of South Vietnam and for years an enemy stronghold. Charlie Company was part of Task Force Barker, commanded by LTC Frank Barker and given the mission to root out NLF units deeply entrenched in the area.

CPT Ernest Medina headed Charlie Company; 2nd LT William Calley commanded the First Platoon. Bravo Company undertook a similar operation in nearby My Khe. The savagery that followed defies description. Geared up for action, the men entered My Lai at 8 a.m. with weapons blazing and for the next four hours engaged in an orgy of killing. “We just rounded ’em up, me and a couple of guys, just put the M-16 on automatic, just mowed ’em down,” one soldier later recalled. Meeting no resistance, the father&, Americans killed old men, women, and even children and babies. They burned homes and thesis destroyed livestock. There were rapes. The GIs suffered but one casualty, a self-inflicted wound to a single soldier. The company’s after-action report counted 128 “enemy” dead and—tellingly—three weapons captured.

An official account boasted that Task Force Barker had “crushed an enemy stronghold.” The carnage might have been worse without the courageous intervention of helicopter pilot Hugh Thompson, decorated many years later, who, upon witnessing the scene from an indian father& 39s plea above landed and mba master protected a small group of Vietnamese by threatening his fellow soldiers with his machine guns. Among a people that have historically prided themselves on their exceptional virtue, the question that still lingers is how could My Lai happen. Part of the answer rests with the assignment, way the war in Vietnam was fought. All wars produce atrocities. Thesis. Since World War II, moreover, civilians have increasingly been victimized.

In Vietnam, the United States relied on its technological superiority, mainly its massive firepower, to disrupt enemy operations, kill enemy soldiers, and inflict sufficient pain on writing to fourth, the NLF and North Vietnam that they would be persuaded to thesis cease the fight. In a war without front lines, the principal measure of progress was the notorious body count, which incited GIs to kill as many enemy as possible. In a guerrilla war like Vietnam, the distinction between warrior and civilian was often blurred. Many villages willingly or under duress harbored guerrilla fighters. To the GIs, civilians were often indistinguishable from guerrillas and thought to be in assignment, league with them. The mentality of war also contributed to My Lai. The soldiers of Charlie Company brought to this operation a melange of intense emotions: fear, anger, a lust for revenge, even a sort of emotional numbness that deadened normal human inhibitions.

One of the company’s troopers had been killed by a sniper on mba master thesis, February 12, its first death in Vietnam. In the marcuse summary, weeks that followed, others were killed or wounded by booby traps and mba master land mines, even though the company had never actually seen, much less engaged the enemy. These conditions provoked in the Americans anger, frustration, and summary a determination to avenge their buddies, manifesting itself even before My Lai in the increasingly brutal treatment of thesis, Vietnamese civilians, including several reported rapes. The day before the teaching writing, action, the company held a highly emotional memorial service for a fallen comrade. Thesis. The formal briefing for My Lai followed soon after and further conditioned the men for teaching writing revenge. The soldiers thus vented their rage on civilians who were deemed to be the enemy or at least in mba master, league with the enemy. Leaders from the top down failed abjectly in planning, preparation, and execution of the operation.

Senior officers ordered an attack they believed would demonstrate to the people of Quang Ngai the costs of harboring the enemy. The plan was based on faulty assumptions regarding enemy strength and the presence of civilians. The soldiers were told that the area was full of NLF sympathizers and must be cleaned out. Civilians would be at market. The pre-operation “pep-talk” reminded the GIs of their past losses, thus, at least by implication, feeding their desire for revenge. It said nothing about dealing with civilians. Leaders on the ground failed to lead.

Calley was young, inexperienced, and by most accounts incompetent. Officers and non-coms got caught up in a herd mentality. Senior officers such as Barker and Medina had some idea what was going on but failed to intervene. These same officers participated in a full-fledged cover-up. No one bothered to question the apparent discrepancies in simon mba essay, the after-action report. Mba Master Thesis. Those who knew the truth sat on it or looked the other way. An order to go back to My Lai and take a second look was countermanded by MG Samuel Koster. In violation of Army regulations, the division command allowed the herbert marcuse on liberation summary, brigade to do its own investigation. CL Oran Henderson, the brigade commander, conducted a perfunctory investigation, admitting only that twenty “non-combatants” had been killed accidentally. Thompson’s superiors did not follow up on mba master thesis, his reports. The division command accepted the official account without question and ignored conflicting reports.

The horrific story of My Lai was finally revealed more than eighteen months later by an intrepid and conscience-stricken former GI, Ron Ridenhour, who initially heard about it in a bar and traced various leads to get the facts. Ridenhour’s letter to a Congressional committee prompted an Army investigation that led to an indian father& charges against Calley in thesis, September 1969. The story of Calley’s indictment in turn spurred investigative reporter Seymour Hersh to an indian father& 39s plea uncover the truth, which he published in thesis, November. Shortly after, the Cleveland Plain-Dealer printed a collection of gruesome photographs taken at the scene. The nation’s reaction to My Lai mirrored its attitudes toward a war that by November 1969 had become markedly unpopular. The press properly expressed horror at essay assignment the revelations, but it also treated My Lai ethnocentrically as an thesis American story.

Some blamed the war itself rather than the men of Charlie Company. Many newspapers that opposed the war saw in My Lai added reason to end it as soon as possible. Simon Mba Essay. Some also questioned why it took so long for mba master the story to come out. The public judged My Lai similarly. Some of those who still backed the war questioned whether My Lai had happened at all or blamed the essay, media for publicizing it. Mba Master Thesis. Others pointed out that the enemy committed atrocities as a matter of policy. Those who wanted the war to end were appalled at the horror and pressed for its termination. Under the glare of media publicity and public discussion, the Army sought to deal with My Lai through its legal system.

Thirteen soldiers were charged with murder. The charges against six were dropped for to fourth lack of evidence; six were tried in military courts and found not guilty. Twelve officers were accused of a cover-up. Mba Master Thesis. Only Henderson went to teaching essay grader trial. Mba Master. The charges against Koster were dropped, but he was demoted and censured, ending his career. The trial of Calley for murder drew as much attention as the teaching to fourth, incident itself. In March 1971, he was found guilty of murder and mba master thesis sentenced to life imprisonment at father& 39s plea essay hard labor. Thesis. The sentence provoked another uproar, many commentators expressing outrage that Calley was made a scapegoat while senior officers got off.

President Richard M. Nixon intervened by simon mba essay agreeing to review the case, setting off more outrage. In August 1972, the commanding general at Fort Benning reduced Calley’s sentence to twenty years. Two years later, a US District Court freed him on bail and made him eligible for thesis parole in six months. Later that year, another federal court overturned his conviction on grounds that the pre-trial publicity had made a fair trial impossible. In Vietnam and the United States, memories of My Lai have dimmed over the years.

Americans, including some veterans, helped construct a hospital at the site of the massacre and a “peace park” to remind future generations of the horrors of war. For those Vietnamese who lost loved ones, of course, forgetting is impossible. Yet even in Vietnam there are signs of a desire to move on. Luxury beachfront hotels have been constructed near My Khe as part of the essay bi myself, nation’s campaign to attract tourists. Thesis. In the United States, the Army has determinedly attempted to use My Lai to train officers and men in problems of military ethics and leadership. Yet atrocities continue, whether the mistreatment of prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq, the massacre of unarmed Iraqis by US Marines at the side of a roadside bombing in Hidatha, Iraq, or in the indiscriminate killing of civilians, often by high technology weapons, in Afghanistan. And for most Americans, My Lai is forgotten.

Inasmuch as they recall Vietnam, they see themselves as victims and evince little sympathy for the Vietnamese. If the United States is to essay bi myself live up to the high ideals it professes to believe in, events such as My Lai must be remembered and must be seen not simply in terms of the thesis, impact upon an indian 39s plea essay ourselves but also on mba master, the horrors visited on others. Autobiographical Essay Assignment. The courageous efforts of mba master, heroes like Hugh Thompson and Ron Ridenour offer compelling examples of what individuals can do to stop or expose injustice. George C. Father& 39s Plea. Herring is mba master thesis, Alumni Professor of History Emeritus at the University of Kentucky and the author of America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950–1975 (4th ed., 2001). Professor Herring recommends these resources for more information: David L. Anderson, ed., Facing My Lai: Moving Beyond the Massacre (Lawrence, KS, 1998) Michael Bilton and Kevin Sim, Four Hours in My Lai (New York, 1992) Remember My Lai (A Frontline Television Film, 1989) Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History.

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Individual K-12 educators and students can also get a free subscription to the site by making a site account with a school-affiliated email address. Click here to simon mba essay do so now! Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Your subscription grants you access to archives of rare historical documents, lectures by top historians, and mba master thesis a wealth of essay questions, original historical material, while also helping to support history education in schools nationwide. Mba Master Thesis. Click here to see the kinds of historical resources to which you'll have access and an indian essay here to read more about the mba master thesis, Institute's educational programs. Click here to father& sign up for an individual subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for thesis History. We're sorry, but it looks as though you do not have access to the full Gilder Lehrman site.

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Error Handling and Debugging Tips and Techniques for Microsoft Access, VBA, and Visual Basic 6 (VB6) This paper is featured on. Experienced developers use a variety of mba master thesis, techniques to simplify their coding and maintenance efforts. Some of the tricks are general programming styles and conventions, while others are specific to the characteristics of Visual Basic (VB6) and Microsoft Office/Access VBA. Hopefully, by simon mba essay, adopting such best practices techniques, you'll be able to write code that's easier to write, debug, and mba master understand. Not only can you reduce bugs during development, you can also significantly reduce the to fourth grader, effort required to thesis replicate and fix bugs your users encounter. A consistent coding style is essay bi myself, critical for efficient application development in multi-developer environments. It also increases the chance that future developers can understand your work to fix or enhance it. Debugging is mba master, one of the most important skills for a developer.

Software development is all about writing code, making mistakes, and fixing them. Essay Bi Myself! Strong debugging skills minimizes the development cycle by allowing developers to pinpoint bugs quicker, make fixes that actually address the problems encountered, and thesis verify the modifications are correct. This is teaching, particularly important as the code gets more complex. Debugging doesn't end when the application is thesis, shipped. Autobiographical Assignment! Having the proper error handling in place is critical to providing quick support when users encounter crashes. At the mba master thesis, very least you want to verify it's a problem in your application, and if so, as much information as possible so you can minimize the need for user recall on 39s plea essay, how to reproduce the thesis, bug. Fortunately, Microsoft Access offers very powerful debugging tools during development, with the ability to add error handling routines to help debug deployed/remote applications. The most common use of the herbert marcuse an essay, debugger is to diagnose the mba master, code when a crash is encountered. If no error handling is in place, when an Access application crashes, you or your user are prompted with an genetics exam essay, End, Debug message box:

Assuming you're not running an MDE, when you press Debug, you enter the IDE at the line where the crash occurred and have the opportunity to examine the problem. Another important use of the debugger is thesis, during system development to verify the code is autobiographical essay assignment, working correctly even if a crash doesn't occur, or to narrow down the situations where a crash occurs. The Microsoft Access/VB6 debugger lets you step through each line of code as it runs, examine the environment (including all variables), and even change variable values and lines of code! By seeing how your code runs (which procedures get called, which IF statement branch is taken, how loops work, etc.) you gain a much better understanding of mba master thesis, how your code work and teaching essay to fourth grader whether it's behaving as designed. By including a consistent error handler design with a central error handler, you can deploy applications that document the crashes your users encounter. This is particularly important if you have many remote customers and can't easily go to the offending desktop when the user calls. With a sophisticated error handler, you can document not only the error, but other important information such as the procedure name, procedure call stack, line number where the crash occurred, and other Access environment information.

With this information you'll be able to thesis reproduce the error quicker, and be more assured that you make the fixes necessary to essay bi myself address them. Most importantly, you'll minimize the mba master, often frustrating process that developers and users face when trying to reproduce crashes. Professional applications need to include error handling to essay assignment trap unexpected errors. Thesis! By using a consistent error handler, you can make sure that when crashes occur, the user is assignment, properly informed and mba master thesis your program exits gracefully. Basic error handling just hides the default behavior and exits the program. Genetics Exam! Advanced error handling can include all sorts of features such as saving information about the cause of the error and the environment at the time, attempts to address the problem, and information for the user on what they need to do next. If you are deploying Microsoft Access databases with the free runtime version (to users who don't own Microsoft Access), the developer environment doesn't exist. In such situations, you need to have an mba master, error handling system in essay bi myself place to capture errors and gracefully exit your program should it crash.

Visit our Microsoft Access Runtime Distribution and mba master thesis Free Downloads page for simon mba essay, more info. Before you can use error handling, you need to understand the Error Trapping setting. VB6/VBA lets you to determine how it should behave when errors are encountered. From the IDE, look under the mba master thesis, Tools Options setting. Make sure error trapping is essay assignment, not set to Break On All Errors. That setting will cause your code to stop on every error, even errors you are properly handling with On Error Resume Next. Break on Unhandled Errors works in mba master thesis most cases but is problematic while debugging class modules. During development, if Error Trapping is set to Break on Unhandled Errors and an error occurs in a class module, the debugger stops on the line calling the class rather than the offending line in the class. This makes finding and fixing the problem a real pain. I recommend using Break in Class Modules which stops on the actual crashing line.

However, be aware that this does not work if you use raise errors in your classes via the Err.Raise command. This command actually causes an error and makes your program stop if Error Trapping is simon mba essay, set to Break in Class Modules. Unfortunately, users can modify this setting before launching your application so you should make sure this is properly set when your application starts. Programmatically, the mba master thesis, option settings can be viewed and modified using the Application.GetOption and Application.SetOption methods. Always include code in your startup routines to essay bi myself set the appropriate error handling level. Make Sure Every Procedure has Error Handling. Once the Error Trapping issue is resolved, you need to add error handling to your application. Mba Master! Unfortunately, VB6/VBA does not support a global error handler to manage any errors that arise. You actually have to set error handling in every procedure. Without explicitly adding error handling, VB6/VBA shows its default error message and then allows the user to debug your code or just crashes.

At the most basic level, error handling involves two parts: This section invokes the essay to fourth grader, error handler: If an thesis, error occurs in the procedure, the code jumps to the line where the label PROC_ERR is defined. For consistency, use the same label name in every procedure. This section is where the code goes if an writing to fourth grader, error occurs in thesis the procedure: Here you can manage the error and determine what to do next. Examine the essay bi myself, error object (Err) to see what occurred. For instance, Err.Number is the error number, Err.Description is the error description, etc. In some situations, you need to turn off error handling.

For instance, you may want to see if a file exists. By looking for it and managing the error if it can't be found, you can determine whether it exists or not. Disable error handling with: Turn off error handling during development and testing. Without error handling, if an error is encountered, the debugger automatically stops on the offending line. This is great for debugging and correcting mistakes. However, if error handling exists in the procedure, when an error occurs, rather than stopping on the offending line, the code in the Error Handling section is invoked. This makes debugging much more difficult. An easy way to mba master thesis avoid this problem is to genetics exam essay questions add a global constant or variable that controls when error handling is active. Mba Master Thesis! So rather than this: and define a global constant: Set this constant to False during development, and True when you deliver your application.

That way, your users get the benefit of the error handling and you can get your work done without it. Getting information from the teaching writing to fourth grader, error object. When an thesis, error occurs, information about the essay bi myself, problem in thesis the Error Object. This object is named Err and contains several properties. These are the teaching essay writing grader, ones you should check: The error number, which is useful for testing.

Zero means no error. Description. The built-in description of the error. Sometimes this doesn't exist and this text Application-defined or object-defined error is given. The error object lets you easily inform the user of the problem. For instance, rather than a simple message that an error occurred, you can specify the exact error number and message: This still may not be understandable by the user, but can be very helpful in mba master thesis diagnosing the problem. There may be situations where you test for an error number but cannot be sure the Err object doesn't already contain an error. In such cases, use the exam, Clear method to clear the object: Alternatively, you can set the error number to mba master thesis zero (Err.Number = 0), but is not as effective as the Clear method since it does not clear the description property.

Error handling can also be used to test a condition. Here's an example of deleting a file and providing the user with error messages: Notice how this syntax: allows the essay assignment, program to continue (go to the next line) even when a command cannot be executed. The Kill command triggers an thesis, error if the essay bi myself, file being deleted doesn't exist or is locked. We don't care whether the object exists or not.

We just want to mba master delete it if it does. Simon Mba Essay! Therefore, the command to ignore the error (Resume Next) is appropriate. On Error Resume Next effectively disables error handling from that line forward (within the procedure) and thesis should be used with care. It should only essay bi myself, be used before a line where a specific error is mba master thesis, being ignored. To reset error handling, use this line: Or, your standard error handler with an extra clause to handle situations where error handling is teaching essay writing grader, not being used: Notice that a test of the error number is conducted to determine if a specific error occurred. That is, we consider it okay if the object could not be found.

However, there are other reasons that may cause a failure to delete an object that exists (for instance another user has the object open, insufficient rights to mba master thesis delete it, etc.). Error handling only handles well-behaved errors: errors that trigger an error number in code. Essay! Technically, these are the only types of errors you can have, but we all know that Access can crash with a GPF. Unfortunately, these crashes are so severe that your error handling routines are ineffective. There are several parts of the mba master thesis, debugger that work together to let you analyze how your code runs: Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Breakpoints Stepping Through and herbert marcuse on liberation Over Code. Integrated Development Environment (IDE) From the IDE, there are several things you can do: Put the cursor on the variable, procedure, or property in question and press [Shift F2] to see where it's defined. You'll jump directly to it.

You can do this as often as you like to understand how your code works. Press [Ctrl Shift F2] to go back to where you came. Highlight the procedure you want to run and mba master thesis press [F5] to essay bi myself run it. If you want to step into it line-by-line, press [F8]. More explanations on running code line-by-line is given later. Of course, running a procedure this way only mba master, works if you don't have to pass parameters to it. If you need to, consider using the Immediate Window. Breakpoints are placed on the lines in your code so the an indian father& 39s plea, debugger is invoked when the thesis, program tries to execute that line. A breakpoint can be placed on any line that is actually run (not lines in the General Declarations section, or lines that define variables in a procedure). This is an extremely powerful technique to let you run your code normally until the section you're interested in is encountered. Breakpoints can be added by moving to the line desired and pressing F9, clicking with the questions, mouse on mba master, the left border, or from the Debug menu.

Multiple breakpoints can be added during your debugging session. Breakpoints are temporary and are automatically removed when you close the marcuse an essay summary, database. Once you are in mba master the debugger and stopped on autobiographical, a line whether it's from selecting Debug from the crash menu or a breakpoint, you have the opportunity to see the guts of mba master thesis, your program. Simply move your cursor over variables to see their current values. You can also use the Immediate Window or the simon mba essay, other Watch windows to mba master thesis be described later to understand all the values. The debugger gives you a variety of techniques to step through your code:

Run the current line and go to the next one. Used for exam essay, a line that calls a procedure to run that procedure without going into mba master thesis, it. This is a real time saver if you don't care about the lines in the called procedure because you assume it works correctly. The command lets you run the procedure (and any procedures it may call), and go to the next line in the calling procedure. Run the current procedure and go to the line after the line that called the procedure. This is basically a way to simplify the autobiographical assignment, debugging process by thesis, letting you skip the remainder of the current procedure once you realize you don't need to autobiographical essay assignment step into it any more. This command lets you set the next statement as any line in thesis the current procedure including lines you've already run. This is extremely powerful and quite amazing when you think about it. It's particularly useful if you run though some code and then decide you should repeat it because you missed something. It's not always the same as the first run because variables may have changed, but if you understand the situation, it lets you debug again without getting to the same code or situation again.

Sometimes you examine different procedures as you debug your code, so the simon mba essay, Show Next Statement menu command makes it easy to go to the currently highlighted line. In addition to seeing which line of thesis, code runs and evaluating variables as you debug, there are several other views that help you diagnose your development environment: The call stack keeps track of the procedure calling chain so you can easily see how you got to summary the current procedure through all the other procedures. Retrieve it under View, Call Stack, or press [Ctrl L]. From this dialog, you can click on any procedure and jump immediately to thesis it. Before analyzing the details of the current procedure, it may be more important to father& 39s plea understand how and thesis why you got there since the problem may be there rather than in the current procedure. This is the most basic debugging area. You can use the an essay, Immediate Window whether your code is running or not. Open the Immediate Window by pressing [Ctrl+G] or selecting it from the mba master thesis, IDE menu under View.

The Immediate window lets you: Evaluate expressions unrelated to your code (e.g. math equations) Evaluate variables or expressions in essay bi myself your code (e.g. a current variable value) Run code. For items that return a value, use a question mark followed by the expression. Mba Master! For instance: then hit Enter to see the an indian 39s plea, value. If your code is thesis, currently running and stopped, you can use this method to evaluate the current value of a variable: You can also use it to teaching writing to fourth launch a VB6/VBA function or your function with the parameters you want: the Immediate Window runs the function, then shows its return value. If you want to run a sub, which doesn't return a value, do not include the ? and just enter the subroutine name:

Rather than examining variable values individually by typing them in the Immediate Window, you can see all the local variables by selecting Locals Window from the Views menu. This displays the entire list of local variables and their current values. Local variables are variables defined in the current procedure and module declaration section. Notice how each array element is shown by expanding the treeview for that variable. You can modify the value held by thesis, a variable by clicking on the Value column and editing it. This is an alternative to modifying values from the Immediate Window.

The Watch Window is marcuse on liberation summary, similar to mba master thesis the Locals Window, but you specify the variables you want to track. You can track variables across modules and procedures and keep them in your Watch Window to see their value no matter where the current line is. The first step is to herbert add a variable to the Watch Window. This can be done by placing the cursor in the variable you want to track, and selecting Debug, Add Watch, or from the thesis, right-click menu, selecting Add Watch. This dialog appears: The current variable is added to the Expression section, and the current procedure and module added to the Context sections. If you press [OK], this variable is added to the Watch Window and you can see its value whenever you look at the Watch Window. What's most powerful about adding watches is that in addition to variables, you can also add expressions, and options to break when the value changes. The latter is essay bi myself, particularly powerful when you are having trouble determining why a particular situation arises in your application. Maybe a variable is set in mba master thesis multiple places and you can't tell which instance is causing the value to an essay summary change. By setting the Watch Type option, you can quickly stop when this occurs.

This stops the debugger on the line immediately after the thesis, value of the variable/expression changes. This stops the essay bi myself, debugger on the line immediately after the mba master thesis, value of the variable/expression becomes True. This is useful if you want to stop when a variable becomes a particular value rather than stopping every time it changes values. For instance, enter this in exam essay questions the Expression section: and when the variable becomes 500, the program stops and lets you start debugging from there. So far, we've explored ways to mba master debug an Access application without changing any behavior with the program itself. We've added breakpoints or watches that cause the program to stop, but after we close Access, the database will run normally without stopping.

However, there are instances where you may want to have the program stop or behave differently while debugging. Some examples include adding: Testing code Debug.Print statements Debug.Assert statements Stop statements. Sometimes using the Immediate Window is insufficient for testing a function or procedure. Maybe you want to test it multiple times and essay assignment don't want to enter it each time on the Immediate Window, or maybe the mba master thesis, procedure call is too complex to use in the Immediate Window. For instance, if you are passing variables that get assigned values, that can't be done from the Immediate Window. Similarly, the procedure you are testing may require calling lots of other procedures in advance to set up the environment before you can run it. In these cases, it's easiest to create a procedure you only use for testing. Herbert Marcuse On Liberation Summary! This can be a real time saver if the code you are testing is buried deep in mba master a process and you don't want to run the whole program to essay writing get there. The Debug.Print statement lets you write output to the Immediate Window.

Insert this command into sections of your code where you'd like to know the value of certain variables, but would rather not stop the program to get it. For instance, if you're moving through a recordset and would like to mba master thesis know the values of a few fields as the processing occurs, you may have code like this before the other processing of the record occurs: It's not as good as stepping through each line, but maybe this is all you need initially to see if a particular routine is running properly before narrowing your search further. The Debug.Assert statement stops your code when the boolean value passed to it evaluates to herbert marcuse an essay False. For instance, if you add this. the debugger stops when x is 5. The alternative to using Debug.Assert is to use a Stop statement inside an If clause. The equivalent to above would be: Stop statements are rare but some developers like to thesis add it to the end of Select Case statements for what should be an impossible branch: One could argue that during development and testing, if the value should not be one of the acceptable ones, the program should stop.

That's good, but if this technique is used, before deploying the final version, Stop statements should be eliminated. Essay Bi Myself! Far better to have an error arise and trap for that than a program simply stop for the end-user. The error handling examples shown so far only mba master thesis, manage errors in the current procedure. In a more complex application, a more advanced error handling system should be used. A single (global) error handler should process unexpected errors and reveal information beyond the error number and teaching grader description. This section will reveal how your error handler can document: The procedure name where the thesis, error occurred The procedure call stack to see how the genetics exam essay questions, procedure was invoked The line number where the error occurred. Additionally, this information is written to a file on disk so you can keep a permanent record of the problem. Gathering this information can significantly reduce the effort required for identifying, replicating, and fixing your anomalies (bugs). Unfortunately, while VB6/VBA tracks the procedure call stack and lets you examine it under the View, Call Stack menu item while debugging, this information is not available to mba master thesis your code. The only way to generate this is to track it yourself.

To do this, you need to keep your own Call Stack of essay writing, procedure names. This can be done by: Adding a procedure call (PushCallStack) at the beginning of the procedure and passing the procedure name to add to the stack Adding a procedure call (PopCallStack) to the end of each procedure to remove the procedure name from the stack. Since VB6/VBA does not have a current procedure name function, the procedure name needs to be explicitly added when the mba master thesis, PushCallStack procedure is called. Here's an example of marcuse an essay on liberation summary, how each procedure should appear: Notice how the PushCallStack procedure is invoked at mba master thesis, the beginning of the procedure with the name of the current procedure as a parameter. The PopCallStack is simon mba essay, called at mba master, the end of the procedure to remove the current procedure name from the stack when the procedure completes successfully. If a problem occurs, the marcuse an essay, global error handler (GloalErrHandler) procedure is invoked. In most cases, the global error handler will exit the program, but if for mba master, some reason it doesn't the code is designed to exit this procedure. Avoid exits before the end of the procedure.

For this process to work, procedures may not quit without going to herbert an essay on liberation summary the bottom of the procedure. That is, you can't have code such as Exit Sub or Exit Function in the middle of your procedure; otherwise, the PopDebugStack routine will not be invoked and thesis the procedure name remains on the stack. An error module should contain your error handling routines. The declarations section should define some variables used by the routines. Adds the current procedure to the call stack array. Needs to be called at the beginning of each procedure: Removes the current procedure from the call stack array. Needs to be called at the end of each procedure:

Track line numbers to pinpoint the genetics exam, location of thesis, a crash. After knowing which procedure crashed, an extremely valuable piece of information to get is the line number where the error occurred. The Erl function reveals the teaching writing to fourth grader, error line. In many cases, if you know the error and the exact line where it occurred, you can immediately understand the problem and fix it. For instance, this procedure uses a random function and will show you which line it fails on: Of course in a simple procedure, the line number does not offer much, but in a larger more complicated subroutine, knowing which line crashed can save considerable time and effort to replicating and mba master thesis fixing the problem. Unfortunately, the error line feature is only available if you explicitly added line numbers to every line of code.

This is nearly impossible to do manually for all but the an essay, simplest databases. Use our Total Visual CodeTools program to thesis do this. All procedures should call the global error handler when an error is encountered. From this procedure, you centralize your response to handling errors. At a minimum, you should provide a message to the user and record the error information to a file. This should include: How to notify you of the error (contact information such as phone number, fax, email) The error number and description If you've implemented the Push/PopCallStack routines the current procedure name and call stack If you've added line numbers to your code, the error line number Any other information about Access, the Access workspace, operating system, memory, disk space, DLLs, where files are located, etc. that may be useful for your diagnoses. A more sophisticated response may include links to web site technical support pages and product update patches. Customize this to best serve your customers based on their abilities to troubleshoot errors. In most cases, when the global error handler is completed, it should quit the program and exit.

This function returns the current procedure name. When an unexpected error occurs, you often need to cleanup the workspace in Access before showing the messages. Here's a simple routine that handles some basic tasks: Documenting crashes to a text file. Writing to text file is essay bi myself, simply using the Print # command. You need to determine the name of the text file and which directory it should be placed. Thesis! In general, we place the error.txt file in the same directory as the application database.

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MicrosoftAccess database documentation and mba master thesis analysis. Generates complete object and code cross-reference. An Indian 39s Plea! Know where procedures and variables are used. Mba Master! Detects 300+ types of errors and suggestions including unused objects, unused code, procedures without error handling, procedures that should be private, and much more. Total Visual CodeTools will let you takeover existing applications, clean them up, and deliver a more robust solution. The Code Cleanup feature standardizes code indentations, adds your error handling to teaching essay writing to fourth procedures that lack it, adds comment structures, sorts procedures, etc. The Code Delivery feature lets you deliver solutions with line numbers so you can pinpoint crashes. A variety of Code Builders simplify writing code such as new procedures with custom error handling, SQL string converters, and more. FMS also offers source code libraries that eliminate the thesis, need to write a lot of to fourth grader, code from thesis scratch including code for robust error handling in an indian father& 39s plea your applications. Total Visual SourceBook offers lots of mba master, professionally written, tested, and essay documented code that you can use royalty-free.

Add your own code into the system's sophisticated code repository to easily share code among your development team. Mba Master Thesis! These are particularly relevant for managing errors in VBA: Hopefully, the tips and an indian father& techniques presented here will help you create better MS Access and VB6 applications faster. Access and VB6 offers extremely powerful and flexible debugging tools and you should take advantage of them to minimize the thesis, time between discovering an error and fixing it. Questions! With the proper error handling methodology and delivery preparation with line numbers, you can also debug and fix errors in thesis deployed applications.

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What is the thesis capacity of short term memory? Short-term memory is the memory for a stimulus that lasts for a short while (Carlson, 2001). In practical terms visual short-term memory is often used for essay bi myself, a comparative purpose when one cannot look in two places at once but wish to compare two or more possibilities. Mba Master. Tuholski and father& 39s plea, colleagues refer to mba master thesis, short-term memory as being the concomitant processing and storage of information (Tuholski, Engle, Baylis, 2001). They also highlight the fact that cognitive ability can often be adversely affected by an essay on liberation working memory capacity. It is particularly important to mba master, be clear on the normal capacity of short term memory as, without a proper understanding of the intact brain’s functioning it is difficult to essay bi myself, assess whether an individual has a deficit in ability (Parkin, 1996). This review outlines George Miller’s historical view of mba master short-term memory capacity and how it can be affected, before bringing the essay bi myself research up to date and thesis, illustrating a selection of ways of measuring short-term memory capacity.

The historical view of short-term memory capacity. The span of absolute judgement is exam essay questions, defined as the limit to the accuracy with which one can identify the magnitude of a unidimensional stimulus variable (Miller, 1956), with this limit or span traditionally being around 7 + 2. Miller cites Hayes memory span experiment as evidence for his limiting span. In this participants had to recall information read aloud to them and results clearly showed that there was a normal upper limit of 9 when binary items were used. This was despite the constant information hypothesis, which has suggested that the span should be long if each presented item contained little information (Miller, 1956). The conclusion from Hayes and Pollack’s experiments (see figure 1) was that the amount of information transmitted increases in a linear fashion along with the amount of mba master information per unit input (Miller, 1956). Figure 1. Measurements of memory for autobiographical essay, information sources of different types and thesis, bit quotients, compared to essay bi myself, expected results for constant information. Results from Hayes (left) and Pollack (right) cited by (Miller, 1956) Miller refers to mba master, a ‘bit’ of information as ‘the amount of information needed to make a decision between two equally likely alternatives’. Thus a simple either or decision requires one bit of information; with more required for more complex decisions, along a binary pathway (Miller, 1956). Decimal digits are worth 3.3 bits apiece, meaning that a 7-digit phone number (that which is easily remembered) would involve 23 bits of information.

However an apparent contradiction to autobiographical, this is the fact that, if an English word is mba master thesis, worth around 10 bits and only 23 bits could be remembered then only an indian 39s plea 2-3 words could be remembered at any one time, obviously incorrect. The limiting span can better be understood in terms of the mba master thesis assimilation of bits into chunks. Miller distinguishes between bits and chunks of information, the distinction being that a chunk is genetics essay, made up of multiple bits of information. It is interesting to note that whilst there is a finite capacity to remember chunks of information, the amount of thesis bits in each of those chunks can vary widely (Miller, 1956). However it is genetics exam essay, not a simple case of thesis being able to remember large chunks immediately, rather that as each bit becomes more familiar, it can be assimilated into a chunk, which is then remembered itself. Essay Bi Myself. Recoding is the process by mba master thesis which individual bits are ‘recoded’ and assigned to chunks. Thus the conclusions that can be drawn from Miller’s original exposition is that, whilst there is an accepted limit to the number of chunks of information that can be stored in immediate (short-term) memory, the writing to fourth amount of information within each of those chunks is able to be quite high, without adversely affecting the thesis recall of the same number of chunks. The modern view of short-term memory capacity.

Millers magic number 7+2 has been more recently redefined to the magic number 4+1 (Cowan, 2001). The challenge has come from results such as those from Chen and Cowan, in which the predicted results from an experiment were that immediate serial recall of absolute numbers of genetics exam essay questions singleton words would be the same as the number of chunks of mba master thesis learned pair words. However in fact it was found that the same number of simon mba essay pre-exposed singleton words was recalled as the number of words within learned pairs - eg 8 words (presented as 8 singletons or 4 learned pairs). However 6 learned pairs could be recalled as successfully as 6 pre-exposed singleton words (Chen Cowan, 2005). Mba Master. This suggested a different mechanism for marcuse on liberation summary, recall depending on the circumstances. Cowan refers to the maximum number of chunks that can be recalled as the memory storage capacity (Cowan, 2001).

It is mba master thesis, noted that the essay number of chunks can be affected by long-term memory information, as indicated by Miller in mba master thesis, terms of recoding - with additional information to enable this recoding coming from long-term memory. Factors affecting apparent short-term memory. The propensity to use rehearsal and simon mba essay, memory aids is a serious complication in accurately measuring the capacity of short-term memory. Thesis. Indeed many of the studies ostentatiously measuring short-term memory capacity have been argued to be actually measuring the ability to rehearse and access long-term memory stores (Cowan, 2001). Given that recoding involves rehearsal and the use of long-term memory formation, anything that prevents or influences these will obviously affect the ability to recode successfully (Cowan, 2001). Short-term memory capacity may be limited when information overload precludes recoding (Cowan, 2001).

For instance, if attention is directed away from the target stimulus during presentation there is too much information being processed to attend properly to the target stimulus. Essay Bi Myself. Therefore fewer items would be remembered as they would have been replaced by information from this alternate direction. Similarly, but actually distinguished quite definitively by Cowan, are techniques such as the requirement to mba master, repeat a separate word during the target stimulus presentation, which acts to prevent rehearsal. Altering stimulus frequency and format. It has been found that, if a word list contains words of long and short length words, recall is better for the length that occurs least frequently, thus is more individually distinct (Chen Cowan, 2005). Similarly the word length effect indicates that memory span is higher for simon mba essay, words with a shorter spoken duration; syllable length varying as long as the spoken duration remains relatively constant (Parkin, 1996). This is mba master thesis, similar to Miller’s chunking of genetics exam questions information, if one were to assume that the mba master spoken duration was a chunk of information and the syllable length was the bit of information.

Associations between components of information. Associations between the pieces of information presented can influence capacity. Cowan illustrates this using the letter sequence fbicbsibmirs which on first glance looks like a meaningless string that would require memory of 12 separate bits of information. However, on closer examination it can be seen that there are in fact 4 separate 3 letter chunks, namely ‘fbi, ‘cbs’, ‘ibm’ and ‘irs’. An Indian Essay. Now, if these had been random letter strings with no associated meaning there would be little chunk, or indeed likelihood of chunking the letters.

However it is suggested that the well known acronyms of governmental and industry organisations considerably aids recoding, thus memory. The conclusion made is that chunking, thus information recall, is aided if there are strong long-term memory associations within chunks, but minimal associations between chunks (Cowan, 2001). This enables each chunk to be remembered separately without overlap to another chunk. Short-term memory has traditionally be assumed to be time limited, in that information is only able to stay in the memory store for a specific time. However this assertion has been challenged and instead a form of information replacement has been suggested, whereby a finite capacity to thesis, short-term memory ensures that the entry of a new piece of information displaces an older one (Cowan, 2001). Methods of measuring the capacity of short-term memory. There are a variety of methods used to measure the capacity of short-term memory.

These include enumeration, whole report and alphanumeric span tasks (taken to have a 4 chunk upper limit), and recall of visual stimuli, multi-object tracking and repetition priming (all argued to show an upper limit of father& 39s plea essay less than 4) (Avons, Ward, Russo, 2001). The following section outlines a brief methodology of short-term memory measurement for selected experiment types, along with a summary of results thus far obtained. Enumeration tasks involve presenting a participant with n objects to count, and measuring the reaction time for each number. It is mba master, argued that the smaller the working memory capacity, the steeper the reaction time slopes would be (Tuholski et al., 2001). As can be seen from figure 2 below; using lines as the autobiographical object to count; the reaction time is relatively constant until more than 4 lines are presented, at which point reaction time increases sharply. This indicates that 4 lines is the thesis easy upper limit in an essay, terms of this particular version of short-term memory. The authors conclude that it is the controlled processing element of counting that limits the working memory span. This has been described as subitizing, in which a few items can be readily and rapidly attended, but more items require a steep increase in both reaction time and mba master thesis, overall time required to essay bi myself, attend to the items (Cowan, 2001).

Figure 2. Thesis. An example of results obtained from an teaching essay grader enumeration task (adapted from (Tuholski et al., 2001) It could be argued, however, that enumeration isn’t measuring short-term memory as much as counting ability. Further it has been indicated that enumeration is invariably only related to individuated items (Cowan, 2001), eg bits rather than chunks, so it is not clear what results would occur if it were not. Whole report procedures involve recalling all possible stimuli from an array presented. Mba Master. This contrasts to teaching writing to fourth, partial report procedures, in which only specific stimuli need to be recalled, usually in response to a specific cue. Cowan reports results indicating that short-term memory capacity is 4 for whole report procedures and links this to sensory memory (Cowan, 2001). Figure 3 below shows Cowan’s suggested nested information procedure for whole report. In this any and all information is elevated from the activated long-term memory store into the focus of attention until this latter is full (Cowan, 2001). This contrasts to partial report measures; in which only cued items enter the focus of attention. Figure 3. Processing in whole report procedures (Cowan, 2001) Multi-object tracking is carried out using flashing dots on mba master, a computer screen.

Participants are required to identify which of the finally presented dots have flashed at the start of the procedure (a in figure 4), having watched the dots move around the screen (b in figure 4 below). Figure 4. An example of the teaching essay to fourth dots used in a multi object tracking procedure (Cavanagh Alvarez, 2005) Repetition priming involves the presentation of a series of words and nonwords, which includes repetition of words with a variable number of mba master other items intervening. The repeated word is said to be primed and the specific measure is the reaction time to essay writing, this repeated word. It has been found that up to 4 items can be reliably recognised in mba master, this way (Cowan, 2001) (see figure 5 below). McKone argues that repetition priming is an assignment accurate measure of short-term memory capacity as the long lists of words prevent rehearsal, as does the inclusion of thesis nonwords (McKone, 2000). Autobiographical Essay. Indeed she goes on to explain that capacity, as measured by primed repetition is mba master, related to the limited nature of the focus of herbert an essay on liberation summary attention.

Figure 5. The reaction time and number of words recognised from mba master primed (old) words in a repetition priming experiment (McKone, 2000) There is still much debate about the capacity of short-term memory and the accuracy of measuring it. It is difficult to separate genuine short-term memory capacity from the more working memory capacity that is affected by rehearsal. Whilst researchers may argue that they have managed to remove all rehearsal (probably the most crucial thing affecting short-term memory capacity) that cannot be definitively proven as humans can attend to more than one stimulus at any one time. Nevertheless whilst Miller’s original work is still seminal in the area of short-term memory capacity it is herbert marcuse an essay on liberation summary, true to say that his conclusions of 7 + 2 has now been superseded to 4 + 1. Avons, S. Mba Master Thesis. E., Ward, G., Russo, R. (2001). The dangers of taking capacity limits too literally. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 114-115. Carlson, N. Grader. (2001). Learning and memory: Basic mechanisms.

Physiology of behaviour (7th ed.) (pp. 423-465). Boston: Allyn and mba master thesis, Bacon. Cavanagh, P., Alvarez, G. A. (2005). Tracking multiple targets with multifocal attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(7), 349-354.

Chen, Z., Cowan, N. (2005). Chunk limits and length limits in immediate recall: A reconciliation. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(6), 1235-1249. Cowan, N. (2001). 39s Plea Essay. The magical number 4 in short-term memory : A reconsideration of mental storage capacity.

Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 87-114; discussion 114-85. Delvenne, J. Mba Master. F. (2005). The capacity of visual short-term memory within and between hemifields. Essay Bi Myself. Cognition, 96(3), B79-88. Green, C. S., Bavelier, D. (2005). Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: The case of action video game players. Mba Master. [Electronic version]. Cognition, in an indian, press, 1-29.

McKone, E. (2000). Capacity limits in continuous old-new recognition and in short-term implicit memory. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 130-131. Miller, G. Thesis. A. Genetics Exam. (1956). The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81-97. Parkin, A. J. (1996). Spoken language impairments. In A. Mba Master. J. Parkin (Ed.), Explorations in cognitive neuropsychology (1st ed.) (pp. 129-153).

Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press. Essay Bi Myself. Tuholski, S. W., Engle, R. W., Baylis, G. C. (2001). Individual differences in working memory capacity and enumeration. Mba Master Thesis. Memory Cognition, 29(3), 484-492. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to simon mba essay, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Pyschology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Pyschology essay was submitted to thesis, us by a student in assignment, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

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