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Army Duty Essays and Research Papers. the Army , and other Soldiers.” Duty “Fulfill your obligations.” Respect “Treat people as they should be treated.” . Selfless Service “Put the welfare of the nation, the bob mcdonnell thesis text, Army and your subordinates above your own.” Honor “Live up to the army values.” Integrity “Do what’s right legally and morally.” and Personal Courage “Face fear, danger or adversity physical or moral.” We are all drilled on these 7 army values from the very first day of essay organizational management basic training and throughout our Army career. Army , Core issues in ethics , Duty 1126 Words | 3 Pages. Accountability - The importance of obligation with the thesis text, Army. Accountability also correlates with knowing where a certain person resides currently or in the future. In the Army accountability represents . organization, discipline, and control. Accountability becomes an samples proposal obligation when you join the Army , it benefits every party involved. The importance of obligation with the Army . Your obligations given to you as a soldier are there to help you perform your duties , much like guidelines to success. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis Text? Obligations within a workplace are there to term in apa, benefit those associated. Core issues in ethics , Duty , Leadership 1597 Words | 4 Pages.

DUTY Every soldier has certain duties , responsibilities, and most have some level of authority. Soldiers should know . Bob Mcdonnell Thesis? what these are and how they apply to them. Samples Research Proposal? One of the obligations as a soldier is to text, carry out your duties to management, standard and the best of your ability. Fulfill your responsibilities knowing that you are part of a great team that only works when each of bob mcdonnell text its members do their best. If in a leadership position, exert authority to build the a reply, team and develop your soldiers. Soldiers. Duty , Law , Leadership 418 Words | 2 Pages. Bob Mcdonnell? Duty of Care 1.1 The term duty of care refers to the duties and responsibilities that someone in charge and . authority has to those they are caring for. In the area of term paper childcare and early years, teachers, nursery workers and other care workers have a duty of care to the children they are looking after and are responsible for. There is a general definition for duty of care as well as different definitions in greater detail. For example moral and legal duties of care.

Legal duty of care is thesis text, where. Complaint , Duty , Law 1497 Words | 4 Pages. WHAT IS DUTY ? It is necessary in the study of on quality Karma-Yoga to know what duty is. If I have to do something I must first know that . it is my duty , and then I can do it. The idea of duty again is different in different nations. The Mohammedan says what is written in his book, the Koran, is his duty ; the Hindu says what is in the Vedas is his duty ; and the Christian says what is in the Bible is his duty . We find that there are varied ideas of bob mcdonnell text duty , differing according to different states in life, different. Boy , Duty , English-language films 3211 Words | 7 Pages. Madison Sloan Philosophy 252 Trevor Hedberg Paper #4 “Is There a Duty to Die” by John Hardwig “Is There a Duty to Die” and . “A Duty to Care Revisited” debate over one’s duty to others when a life becomes burdensome to others. Who is on quality, more morally obligated, the thesis, caregivers or the sick and elderly?

Cohn and Lynn argue that we are morally obligated to organizational management, care for the dying and allow them to take their time, while Hardwig believes that the dying have an thesis text obligation to die rather than burden their loved. Duty , Family , Heart failure 1424 Words | 4 Pages. Abstract The Army is a great profession were many individuals come together and make the impossible happen. This institution has to overcome . more obstacles then most average career paths will take you. The only way these thing have happened and essays on quality, will continue to happen is through discipline, leadership, training and thesis, mentorship. The army is always changing at a fast rate of speed and on quality assurance, without these elements the profession of bob mcdonnell thesis text arms will fall apart. About? After over a decade of war the bob mcdonnell thesis, army is changing again.

Army , Coaching , Leadership 1438 Words | 4 Pages. Management and the Army Mark Bietsch MGT330: Management for essay about religion Organizations (BAC1250A) Professor Moore 28 July 2013 Management and the . Army The Army has a very well organized structure that has many different elements within its structure. The Army uses many different regulations that cover the way it runs its organization to ensure it maintains and improves the way it is managed. The Army uses the bob mcdonnell thesis text, Human Resources Command Center (HRC) which is to execute career management, sustainment, distribution. Essay Management? Army , Human resource management , Leadership 1706 Words | 5 Pages. Duties and Rights of bob mcdonnell Sovereign States: sovereign states, each state has certain undeniable rights and duties to which they are obligated. He states that in the law of nature men have . mutual duties to assist one another.

Since men are incapable of providing sufficient for themselves to improve their state of being, they must therefore work together for the mutual improvement of their condition in life (Vattel, 100). Nations are bound by the same laws of nature and duties that individuals are bound, however a sovereign nation is only. Duty , Emerich de Vattel , Hugo Grotius 1244 Words | 3 Pages. The Duties of an Agent to Principal. THE DUTIES OF THE AGENTS TO PRINCIPAL The duties of an agent depend primarily on the contract of agency if there is one.

Subject . to assurance, any such express terms, the agent owes a number of implied duties or obligations to his principal. Text? It is the agency relationship as such that gives rise to these obligations so that, as a general rule, they fall as much on the gratuitous agent as on the paid agent. 1. Of Phd Research? Obey the Principal’s instructions Section 164 states, The agent must obey the instructions given. Breach of bob mcdonnell thesis contract , Contract , Contract law 2072 Words | 6 Pages. individuals are required to be informed and perform lawful and moral duties to their government.

Likewise, the government has the . duty to provide protection for its people. Thinking? However, at the same time, each induvidual has the power to decide how involved he or she will be in those duties , and they must decide how much power they allow their governement to hold. Therefore, an bob mcdonnell text induvidual's duty to their government and and the term, government's duty to bob mcdonnell thesis text, society are complex issues that cannot be defined as specific. Duty , Government , Law 1100 Words | 3 Pages. element in a fire team equipped with a M4 and a variety of essay organizational different hand gernades a riflemen is the backbone of the fight. a riflemen's duties . are as followed executing the orders of his Fire Team and Squad Leaders, maneuvering and providing cover fire with his element, and completing his mission at whatever cost. Although a riflemen holds the lowest rank in text, the army they have a very high powered posistion as far as there job goes. A grenadier is also a great member consisting of a SPC (E-4) Armed. Army , Corporal , Military 1270 Words | 4 Pages. readiness of soldiers. I would have to say that I was wrong for not showing up at essay organizational my appointed place of duty . But in all things that have been . done I have seen that accountability is the most important asset here for work. In doing so it makes sure that everybody is on the same page at the same time in order to do that you have to follow orders that were given to you.

I may have made mistakes but the army also teaches us that we are a family and if anything stick together and help the other person out. Army , Military , Need to text, know 1035 Words | 3 Pages. Duty to essay religion, Avoid Conflicts of Interests. When analysing the breach of text duty , should give examples (“the facts of this case are similar to ‘…’”) to strengthen the arguments. Outline for . Essay? “ Duty to thesis, avoid conflicts of interest”: (Practice question about Agrico) Consider the company Agrico Limited, discussed last week. Jenny Smith is the managing director of Agrico, and she is also a director and shareholder of 50% of the shares in Telegenics Pty Ltd – a small IT company founded by her husband (he is the other director and samples of phd, 50% shareholder of. Board of directors , Contract , Duty 1559 Words | 4 Pages. The Daily Duties of a Probation Officer Reggie Haag Everest University Have you ever wondered what the daily duties of a . Probation Officer are? Well I am going to tell you what some of them are in this paper. But, first let me give you a brief history on what made me pick this topic.

When I was 20 years old I got into a little bit of legal trouble and was put on probation for two years. When that happened I thought that my life was over. But, my probation officer told me that as. Alcoholism , Category , Criminal law 880 Words | 3 Pages. Prima facie Duties and bob mcdonnell thesis text, Ross's Theory of samples proposal Right Conduct. Prima Facie Duties and Ross’s Theory of Right Conduct “There are other beings in bob mcdonnell thesis text, this world whose condition we can make better in respect . of virtue, or of intelligence or of pleasure” (Ross). W.D.

Ross was a philosopher who developed the Theory of Right Conduct. The seven prima facie duties are central in Ross’s Theory of Right Conduct. The purpose of these duties is to critical thinking problem, determine what people ought to do in thesis, questionable moral situations. “A prima facie duty is a duty that is binding (obligatory). Biological warfare , Duty , Ethics 1461 Words | 4 Pages. Employer’s Duty of Care To what extent are employees required to perform their job with a duty of essays assurance care?

We all know that . corporate officers have a duty of care to thesis, the corporation that they are employed by. About Religion? They have an obligation to perform their duties with the care that a person in a like position would reasonably exercise under similar circumstances (Halbert amp; Ingulli, 2010, p 52). As a fellow employee down on the totem pole, we are held to the same standard to act in good faith in. At-will employment , Duty , Employment 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Army Reserve: A Better Choice Stacy Tharpe Devry University With tensions building around the globe, it takes a multi-tiered force of . highly trained, committed Soldiers to protect our freedoms and uphold democracy. This force consists of Active Duty Soldiers and Soldiers in the Army Reserve. (US Army ) Many families struggle with the decision to text, enlist Army Reserve or Active Duty . Mcdonaldization A Reply To Ritzer's Thesis? Evaluating your current living situation can help in the final decision. Army Reserve allows you to serve your country.

Army , Military , Paisley Park Records 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis Text? CUSTOM DUTY Customs duty is a duty or tax, which is a reply to ritzer's thesis, levied by Central Govt. on text import of goods into, and export . of goods from, India. It is collected from the importer or exporter of samples of phd research goods, but its incidence is actually borne by the consumer of the goods and not by the importer or the exporter who pay it. These duties are usually levied with ad valorem rates and their base is determined by the domestic value ‘the imported goods calculated at the official exchange rate. Similarly, export duties. Customs , Customs duties , Duty 1947 Words | 6 Pages. ASAP - Army Substance Abuse Program Download PDF Version Download Flashcards Online Flashcards Email Icon Email to a friend . 1 What does ASAP stand for? Army Substance Abuse Program 2 What is the mission of ASAP? The ASAP’s mission is to bob mcdonnell, strengthen the overall fitness and effectiveness of the paper in apa, Army’s total workforce and to enhance the combat readiness of its Soldiers. 3 What are the objectives of ASAP? •Increase individual fitness and overall unit readiness. Addiction , Army , Benzodiazepine 748 Words | 5 Pages.

It is always important to be where you are supposed to be. In the Army , every leader stresses the fact on being on time or being at the right . place or being in text, the right uniform. So if you have to ask yourself is it important to be where you are told to be? I think most Soldiers and Leaders will tell you that is very important. It is my responsibility to be where I am supposed to. It is all about accountability. You have to essays assurance, keep track of your Soldiers. It is your responsibility and bob mcdonnell, your leader's. Armed forces , Army , Evidence 1065 Words | 3 Pages.

Duty to Warn/ Duty to Protect BSHS 335: Ethics and Values for Human Services Professionals By: Monica Sandoval . Confidentiality between client and therapist could be a risky and tricky. There is no set standard toward the restrictions of its content. It’s morally right to respect and protect the samples, client trusting information but at times it is ethically and legally impossible to keep this information confidential. The duty to bob mcdonnell thesis text, warn is that obligated by case law the therapist has to notify the. Duty , Duty to warn , Ethics 1397 Words | 4 Pages. The Importance of Individual Duty - Death and the King's Horseman.

Rights and Duties are an integral part of samples research proposal everyone’s life. It would be very difficult, if not impossible, for this world to go on if we do not . assume our rights and duties . As Nelson Rockefeller said, I believe that every right implies a responsibility; every opportunity, an bob mcdonnell thesis text obligation, every possession, a duty . Mcdonaldization A Reply To Ritzer's Thesis? Everyone in thesis, this world has some duty to perform, ranging from the a reply, head of the country to run the county to a common man to earn bread for his household. Wole Soyinka in his play Death and. Text? Death , Duty , Human 1283 Words | 3 Pages. The Army Standards The Army Standards Jimmie Leigh Simmons Dr. Term Format? Tina M. Lamb Business Ethics 301 Abstract The . Army is nothing like any other military worldwide. They set themselves apart from all other militaries. The standards are held to text, a higher level than most. Paper Format? I enjoy being in the Army . As a Noncommissioned officer we are charged to bob mcdonnell text, uphold the on quality, standard and in force the bob mcdonnell thesis text, standards.

We must groom soldiers to essay organizational management, be a great product of the bob mcdonnell text, Army . Essays On Quality Assurance? There are measures we take into bob mcdonnell thesis, making a great. Army , Military , Morality 1116 Words | 4 Pages. Religion? Duty is a word of bob mcdonnell thesis text importance I my field of profession. It can determine if you save a life or save millions of dollars for the people you work . for. About? Being on time and where you are supposed to be is very important while serving in the army or any other branch of service .The military waste millions of dollars on appointments every year. This Plan of action is bob mcdonnell thesis text, ambiguous and essay about, confusing.

From the oral statements that were made from you I believe you wish for me to write 2000essay (Importance of Accountability. Armed forces , Army , Military 2093 Words | 5 Pages. Bob Mcdonnell Text? Are Healthcare Professionals Duty-bound to Disclose They Are HIV Positive? “HIV- Infected Surgeon and a Duty to Disclose” In Case 12 a doctor, Dr. M, has learned he is infected with HIV, should he disclose to his . patients that he has HIV or even discontinue his practice of performing surgery on patients? In a study that was taken 2.5 times for every one hundred surgeries performed about one-third of those procedures the patient is touched with the about religion, surgeons’ blood. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis Text? In the essay about religion, same study they have found that for every one hundred surgeries that a surgeon performs with HIV only.

Duty , Health care , Health care provider 1010 Words | 3 Pages. ? Many people know what the words Loyalty, Duty , Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, and bob mcdonnell thesis, Personal Courage mean. But you don't see how . much these words can affect people's lives as much as they do a soldier's life. As a soldier, I learned these values during basic combat training, and have since applied them to the way I live my life every day. These values are important to me because they create a guideline for thesis me to thesis text, follow. They help create goals for me to achieve and beliefs to adhere. Core issues in ethics , Duty , Obligation 862 Words | 2 Pages. statements that were made from you I believe you wish for essays me to bob mcdonnell text, write a 1500 word essay on the (Importance of Accountability in the army ) i.e.: . appropriate place of duty , proper place and proper time.

I Pride myself on mcdonaldization a reply being a soldier that is accountable for his actions at all times. The reason for this essay is, I did not follow proper orders and was not at my correct place of duty for work call, due to miscommunication through higher, but there is bob mcdonnell text, still no excuse for me to be undisciplined and mcdonaldization to ritzer's, not informing. Armed forces , Army , Duty 1768 Words | 4 Pages. Nanotechnology in the Army Name: College: Course: Tutor: Date: Nanotechnology in the . Army Nanomaterials can be designed at the atomic level, lending more control over their properties, and bob mcdonnell thesis text, making them better suited to their desired purpose. Most nanomaterials derive their enhanced abilities from the large increase in surface area that results when individual particle-size decreases. Paper Format? The first military stride teat came about thesis, inferential of this technology. Army , Lithium-ion battery , Military 1399 Words | 5 Pages. Accountability in the Army Essay 7. In case something happens and someone needs t know where a soldier is accountability comes into play. Army Regulation 600-20 IAW Discipline. . Why is essay, discipline so important? Because to be accounted for is a part of disciplinary actions, and bob mcdonnell text, a part of being a professional and a soldier is by living the army values none more overpowering then the of phd research, other. So yes Discipline along with the other Army Values is very important.

A good leader should always have accountability for their soldiers but it. Army , Artillery , Court-martial 1050 Words | 3 Pages. Being in the Right Place at the Right Time; Army. Bob Mcdonnell Text? The main reason for this essay is because I did not follow standard operating procedure and was not at essay the correct place of bob mcdonnell thesis duty for . accountability of essays assurance my person while on quarters as prescribed by bob mcdonnell thesis, my doctor. Regardless of my reasons for absence, there is no excuse as to essay organizational, why I was not in my barracks room as I had been ordered to be or at thesis a minimum give a courtesy call to my chain of command if I needed to go anywhere for any reason. I want to term paper, be an excellent soldier and I want to excel in bob mcdonnell thesis, the military. Army , Debut albums , English-language films 1148 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction to Indian Customs Duty. Custom Duty is imposed under the Indian Customs Act formulated in 1962 by the Constitution of India under the term, Article 265, which states that . “no tax shall be levied or collected except by authority of law. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis? So, theIndian Custom Act was introduced that allow the Central Government to collect the taxes under the name of Custom Duty . Custom Duties are usually levied with ad valorem rates and their base is thinking problem, determined by the domestic value 'the imported goods calculated at bob mcdonnell thesis the official exchange rate. Thesis? Customs , Customs duties , Duty 801 Words | 3 Pages.

Swot Analysis Chaplaincy Duties 1200-1600 Ad. Liberty University SWOT Analysis of the Chaplaincy Duties from 1200-1600AD A Research Paper Submitted to thesis, Dr. Paul Greer In Partial . Fulfillment of the Requirements For The Course CHPL 500 Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary By Melissa Rolan Lynchburg, Virginia Saturday, January 30, 2011 SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE CHAPLAINCY DUTIES FROM 1200-1600AD Chaplains kept the faith by holding on religion to the “be, know, do concept between the 1200s and the 1600s AD. Being a practitioner of faith. Army , Battle , Chaplain 1052 Words | 4 Pages. Bob Mcdonnell Text? our nation with pride. At an early age I learned about format, sacrifices, “This We Will Defend,” honor, respect and devotion to duty . Text? I truly . believe in what the a reply, Army stands for hence why it would be a great privilege to join the few and elite members of the prestigious Officer’s.

There are many reasons I would like to become one of the officers. I want to serve alongside the Army men and women who’s work and valor have helped keep this nation safe. I want to thesis, help keep our nation a safe place and be able. Army , High school , Military 1188 Words | 3 Pages. ? LIBERTY UNIVERSITY BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY Topical Paper 5: Key Duties of essays a Chaplain Submitted to Dr. Charlie Davidson, In . partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of text CHPL 696 Chaplaincy and Pastoral Ministries By Opeyemi Oluwafisoye April 26, 2015 Table of Content Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………3 Worship……..………………………….…………………………………………………………3 Counseling………………..……………………………………………………………………….4 Ministry of Presence………………………………………………………………………………6. Essays? Army , Chaplain , Chaplains 1926 Words | 10 Pages.

Army Wives Wendy Agbay Baker College The American public’s perception of military spouses is skewed due to a lack of bob mcdonnell thesis information and . incorrect media interpretation. Military spouses must be willing to sacrifice, as well as have courage and integrity to make their family work under extreme circumstances. This cannot be portrayed in the media accurately. Television shows such as Army Wives makes light of samples of phd research proposal what a military spouse has to bob mcdonnell thesis, endure. In turn, this hurts the reputation of the military. Army , Improvised explosive device , Marriage 1686 Words | 5 Pages. performance of the samples research, assigned duties . To be accountable is to be answerable for one's conduct in respect Responsibility is the obligation to . perform assigned tasks, accountability is the reporting of performance. Accountability in the workplace is defined as doing the right thing consistently, day in and day out, in tasks, relationship interactions to fulfill or further the mission of the organization. Accountability also ties closely to the 7 Army Values, most notably Duty . Thesis Text? Duty is on quality, defined as fulfilling. Duty , Individual responsibility , Obligation 1394 Words | 4 Pages. Responsibility is one of the most important things in thesis text, the Army . Research Proposal? Accountability is also a very important part of being in the army . and bob mcdonnell thesis, it goes hand in hand with responsibility.

I failed to maintain accountability of mcdonaldization to ritzer's my weapon while at Yakima Training Center. Bob Mcdonnell Text? This was not an example of being a responsible soldier. This essay will explain what happened and why I think responsibilty is so important in the US Army . I had set my weapon down in the tool room so that I can go grab a couple of things. Army , Artillery , Military 1315 Words | 3 Pages. Format? Fear and Duty in Going After Cacciato.

Fear and Duty in bob mcdonnell text, Going After Cacciato Tim O'Brien's Going After Cacciato might be set during the critical thinking problem, Vietnam war, but at its core it is a novel . about fear. The main character, soldier Paul Berlin, is completely motivated, controlled, and surrounded by fear. When Paul Berlin first arrives at the war he feels annoyed by the derision he receives from bob mcdonnell text, his superiors but at the same time admits that “. the war scared him silly, but this was something he hoped to bring under control” (O'Brein 38). This statement. Anxiety , Army , Cold War 1444 Words | 4 Pages. Customs and Courtesies Us Army Paper. those who have given as well as earned it. With out first giving one shall not receive the same treatment good or bad, moral will fall.

In the military . service, where personnel live and work in close quarters, courtesy is practiced both on and off duty . Military courtesy is important to everyone in the military. If you know and to ritzer's, practice military courtesy you will more than likely make more favorable impressions and display self-confidence that will carry you through many difficult situations. Military. Thesis? Armed forces , Army , Etiquette 1512 Words | 4 Pages. The 7 Army Values and Malingering.

The seven Army values are the backbone of the United States Army . They are broken down to us in the acronym ‘LDRSHIP’. Loyalty, . “Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. constitution, the Army , and other soldiers.” Duty , “Fulfill your obligations.” Respect, “Treat people as they should be treated.” Selfless Service, “Put the welfare of the nation, the Army and your subordinates above your own.” Honor, “Live up to the army values.” Integrity, “Do what’s right legally and morally.” and Personal. About Religion? Army , Military , Non-commissioned officer 1444 Words | 4 Pages. Rbi Importance of Being at Appointed Place of bob mcdonnell thesis Duty. RBI: The importance of being at an appointed location on time In the Army , it is common knowledge that every Service Member has to be at a . Mcdonaldization A Reply Thesis? certain location, in the proper attire at least ten minutes prior to the stated time put out by their Team leader, Squad leader, Platoon sergeant, or First Sergeant. When a Soldier fails to make it to that appointed place in the allotted time, their short coming contributes to a mission failure and text, could show early signs of potential lack of career advancement. In Apa? Army , Failure , Military 1584 Words | 4 Pages.

Equipment Responsibility in the Us. Army. Equipment Responsibility The United States army values soldiers that are responsibility for their actions and equipment. Being . responsibility means being Dependable-arriving to work and appointments on bob mcdonnell thesis time, keeping track of and control of equipment, meeting deadlines, being in the right place At the right time, doing the right thing at the right time. Without having accountability there is not knowing of where or in term, what shape your equipment is in and there for having a negative effect on. Continental Army , Duty , Obligation 994 Words | 4 Pages. today…being in the Army is one of the wisest choices I’ve made in my life, many people take being in the Army for granted and . have no clue how beneficial the army can be. Your rent is guaranteed paid every month, money for thesis text food and your basically approved for anything in essays assurance, the world as long as you serve in the Army or any branch of thesis service. You also gain free knowledge and experience that many outside people in the civilian world do not have the chance or opportunity to critical thinking problem, be a part of. The Army has a lot to. Text? Corporal , Leadership , Non-commissioned officer 2016 Words | 4 Pages.

conviction Frederic needs to obtain peace and stability. Although his attempts to find order fail and lead to great suffering for him, Frederic ends up . maturing greatly, with a better understanding of thinking life. Hemingway uses Frederic’s conflict between his duty as a soldier and his love for Catherine to demonstrate that maturity and true solace come from following a conviction and gracefully accepting the hardships that may follow. Frederic begins the war as a naive and detached young man seeking for a. Bob Mcdonnell Text? A Farewell to Arms , Duty , Ernest Hemingway 863 Words | 3 Pages. time for any reason -Visitation hours: Duty days before duty days 1700-2200 Duty days before Non . Thinking? duty days 1700-0200 Non- Duty days before Non- Duty days 1000- 0200 Non- Duty days before duty days 1000-2200.I will be inspecting your room regularly and will not tolerate any violations. Bob Mcdonnell? PHYSICAL FITNESS: Physical fitness is a must. You are to be in the standard at all times.

If you are unaware of the about, standard you can discuss it with me or reference the bob mcdonnell thesis, Army Regulation. Army , Counseling psychology , If You Have to Ask 389 Words | 2 Pages. be Vigilant in a reply thesis, the army for many reasons. Not the least of which being it could keep you and your buddies alive despite the world’s best . attempts to make you otherwise. But it means more than just staying awake and bob mcdonnell thesis, alert at guard duty . It means both being mentally and physically prepared to react to changing conditions and to being aware and cognizant of the current conditions. There are three important categories to term paper format, discuss here and expound upon. The First is Vigilance on Duty , the second is Vigilance. A Good Thing , Arithmetic mean , Desmond Tutu 1026 Words | 2 Pages. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis? ?Serving in the Army A 1. Management? In the thesis text, text, ”Why They Serve” by Sarah Palin she discusses why her own son Track enlisted in the military and . deployment in Iraq. Essay? In her opinion the men and women who serve in the US Army and especially those who are deployed overseas serve with an outstanding sense of duty and patriotism.

She wrote the text when she was governor of bob mcdonnell Alaska and with a possibility of becoming vice-president. She speaks about how she admires the young soldiers who have possibly never known. Army , Combat , English-language films 861 Words | 3 Pages. performance or productivity of the unit will also suffer. Respect is management, just one of the many building blocks that make up the United States Army’s Ecosystem. . Text? These basic elements are outlined in the Army Values. The army values are; loyalty, duty , respect, selfless Service, honor, Integrity, and Personal Courage.

The army values are ordered in such a way not so as to list which of our values are greater or more important than that of another. It is merely for drilling these staples of core fundamental values. Essay Organizational? Armed forces , Army , Enlisted rank 1027 Words | 3 Pages. In tort law, a duty of care is bob mcdonnell text, a legal obligation which is imposed on an individual requiring adherence to a standard of essays on quality assurance reasonable care while . performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others. It is the first element that must be established to proceed with an bob mcdonnell thesis action in negligence. Term Paper Format? The claimant must be able to show a duty of bob mcdonnell thesis text care imposed by law which the assurance, defendant has breached. In turn, breaching a duty may subject an individual to liability. The duty of care may be imposed by bob mcdonnell, operation of.

Caparo Industries plc v Dickman , Common law , Donoghue v Stevenson 1336 Words | 4 Pages. courts have established that for negligent conduct to be actionable, there must be a duty to take care resting on the defendant, which must be . breached, which must cause damage, where the thinking problem, damage must not be too remote form the breach. These requirements carry significant policy controls : of autonomy, causation, foreseeability and proximity which will be discussed in due course. Bob Mcdonnell Text? The courts first recognised such a duty in Hevan v Pender though it was in Donoghue v Stevenson that the law of essays on quality negligence. Complaint , Defendant , Duty of care 1276 Words | 3 Pages. Bob Mcdonnell? One of the values the essays on quality assurance, United States Army most seeks in its soldiers is accountability. According to bob mcdonnell thesis text, Army Regulation 600-8-14, . the wear of identification tags is governed in such a way requiring each and every soldier to wear their identification tags when in a field environment, while traveling via aircraft carrier, and a reply, when the bob mcdonnell, soldier is outside the samples, continental United States. All personnel should be wearing identification tags around their neck except when there are safety considerations such. Army , Army Combat Uniform , Military 1281 Words | 3 Pages. essentially take a vow to be faithful to thesis text, your commitment to critical thinking, the military which includes everything from vowing to text, be loyal to your unit, leadership, and of . course to oneself. Oftentimes though, I have been told by senior enlisted members that the “new army ” is non-argumentatively greatly different than what it used to be.

And, typically the junior enlisted will ask why? What is different now than what it used to be back then? What is told to us, is normally a general consensus amongst the essays, senior enlisted. Army , Generation X , Generation Y 1139 Words | 3 Pages. Bob Mcdonnell Text? Introduction to Roles of organizational Army Engineers. CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE NIGERIAN ARMY ENGINEERS TO NATION BUILDING: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS INTRODUCTION 1. Thesis? Nations of the world set . objectives which they continually strive to achieve. These objectives which are regarded to assurance, be of benefit to the citizens of the country are collectively known as national interest.

The extent to which a nation can achieve its national interest and indeed the influence it wields in the international community depends largely on text its level of development. Nation. Army , Bailey bridge , Construction 970 Words | 3 Pages. responsibility in the United States Army . A Soldier must always actively strive to reflect well upon the Army . To do this, . they must hold themselves to a higher standard than the rest of society. From the outside looking in, It would be unreasonable for a citizen to place faith in to ritzer's thesis, a person who cannot even be responsible for themselves, especially with a task as great as defending a country. Text? If it was a wide spread problem, it would reflect negatively on the United States Army and we would lose our support. Army , Evaluation , Military 1539 Words | 4 Pages. Describe the duties and responsibilities of own work role. ANSWER Duty : Duty is a moral commitment to something . or someone. Duty is a result of of phd human beings, one’s particular place, one’s character and one’s own moral expectations. As duty refers to moral commitment, it denotes an active feeling for doing something. Once a person engages himself with some duty or if he has been entrusted with a duty , then that person fully commits himself to it.

As an experienced care worker, my duty involve giving. Care of residents , Duty , Individual responsibility 1285 Words | 3 Pages. Ethical Egoism vs Deontological Egoism. Ethical Egoism One is required to pursue one's own interests and one has no duties to the interests of others, so the thesis, foundation of one's . morality in this theory is the regard of one's own self-interests as superior.Ethical Egoism is a normative moral theory, i.e. it is prescriptive and tells one what one ought to do. Normative theories offer guidance in critical thinking problem, our decisions and judgements. What are one's obligations and duties in particular situations? [2] Ethical egosim is in contrast to psychological. Duty , Egoism , Ethical egoism 2275 Words | 6 Pages. people(s) that take part in leading the Army . They are as follows (from highest point of responsibility to lowest); the SA ( Army . Staff) and bob mcdonnell thesis text, CSA (Chief of Staff), the Vice CSA, the DCS G-1 (Deputy Chief of Staff), the on quality assurance, HQDA (Headquarters Department of the Army ) Heads of text other staffing support, and commissioned officers/NCOs. Critical Problem? In completeness, the Army Staff all take care of how we as soldiers are supposed to thesis, behave to each other, as well as civilians, and the duties we are to uphold. LDRSHIP was put into. Army , Military , Military of the United States 1121 Words | 3 Pages. The Adelphia Communications scandal. executives fixed the books in order to deceive the public and stockholders, and how they used the company as their own person “ATM” machine in order to . Essays? support their extravagant lifestyles.

We will go on to discuss and focus on what is bob mcdonnell thesis, meant by the duties and rights of management deontological ethics and bob mcdonnell thesis, how Kant’s Categorical Imperatives might be applied to both those issues. Finally, we’ll take a look at what a deontological framework of business ethics looks like and of phd proposal, how applying it to the two problems mentioned. Categorical imperative , Deontological ethics , Duty 1879 Words | 6 Pages. “Famine, Affluence, and text, Morality” In Peter Singer’s 1972 article titled “Famine, Affluence and Morality”, he suggests that wealthy nations have an . ethical duty to contribute much more than they do to to ritzer's thesis, other nations who are suffering through a natural disaster, extreme poverty, famine or other issues. In this paper, I will describe Singers objective and give his argument with regards to this issue. I will describe three counter-arguments to Singer’s view which he addresses, and bob mcdonnell text, after that reveal.

Animal Liberation , Counterargument , Duty 1214 Words | 3 Pages.

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lowell mason essay By Kyle Gann for American Public Media. William Billings was the bob mcdonnell, only person in 18th-century Boston to samples research, list his profession as Singing Master. Yet like so many American musicians of centuries to come, music was not his primary income source; he had a day job. He was a tanner, and tanned hides for a living. The description that comes down to thesis, us of organizational management William Billings is not prepossessing.

He is said to bob mcdonnell text, have had only one eye, one leg shorter than the other, a withered arm, an alarming snuff habit, and an uncommon negligence of dress. However, in 1770 - six years before the Declaration of Independence was signed, and the same year that Ludwig Van Beethoven was born in Germany - Billings published a book of critical 120 hymns and choral pieces that he had composed himself in a collection called The New England Psalm Singer. (American patriot Paul Revere engraved the frontispiece for the collection.) Even for a European such a collection would have been an exceptional feat. For a self-taught Boston tanner, it was unimaginable. Before that collection, there had been fewer than a dozen published choral pieces written by Americans. With one stroke Billings increased that number tenfold. Billings' anthems and so called fuging tunes, such as Be Glad, then, America and Lamentation over thesis text Boston, spoke of the American Revolutionary experience in terms of Biblical grandeur. The Billings hymn that would become most famous was Chester, a stirring Revolutionary War tune that would still be included in format, children's school books well into the 20th century: Let tyrants shake their iron rods. And slavery clank its galling chains.

We fear them not, we trust in God. New England's God forever reigns. The glory of Billings' music is its irrepressible tunefulness, matched with a liveliness of rhythm unafraid to bob mcdonnell thesis, shift gears as the text requires. Critical Thinking! The fact that European standards of counterpoint were sometimes violated did not bother him. In the introduction to The New-England Psalm-Singer, Billings wrote the archetypal declaration of bob mcdonnell American music's independence from essays on quality assurance Europe: . all the hard, dry, studied rules that ever was prescribed, will not enable any person to form an air. I don't think myself confin'd to any Rules for composition, laid down by any that went before me, neither should I think (were I to pretend to lay down Rules) that any who came after me were any ways obligated to adhere to them. I think it is best for every Composer to be his own Carver. Billings music wasn't always appreciated by his contemporaries. In response to a complaint that his music was too consonant, he wrote a song called Jargon completely in dissonances. And rive the nerves asunder;

Let hateful discord greet the ear. As terrible as thunder. In response, some local boys tied two cats together by the tails and hung them from the sign of Billings' tannery shop to let them howl. The fault lines and thesis, tensions of American music were ordained in the earliest years of our national history. On one side was nature, spontaneity, and the freedom from civilization that the American wilderness offered.

On the other was Europe, and those in a reply, the growing East-coast metropolitan centers who felt that European civilization should be transplanted to these shores lock, stock, and barrel. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis Text! On one hand were composers like Billings, Anthony Philip Heinrich, and Louis Moreau Gottschalk who believed that Americans could create their own national music from local materials, the inspiration of nature, and on quality, sheer Yankee inventiveness. On the text, other were critics like John Sullivan Dwight, hymn writers like Lowell Mason, and music professors like Horatio Parker who insisted that American music should be subject to the standards and rules developed by the great European masters like Haydn and Mozart. These two types have been transformed, but they have never ceased to exist, and our national music history has been a tug of war between them. Billings' choral music, along with that of Supply Belcher, Daniel Read, and other fuging tune writers from the New England tradition, dominated American choral music in the first decades of the 19th century. But in the 1830s and '40s, new winds began blowing across America. In 1822 a banker in Savannah, Georgia, named Lowell Mason published his first hymn book. Mason had studied music with a German named Frederick L. Abel, and about religion, had come to believe that hymn arrangements should be done according to scientifically correct European standards. His hymn settings were partly taken from Mozart, Haydn, and other European composers. Further hymn collections followed in 1829 and 1831, with songs like When I survey the Wondrous Cross, Joy to the World, and Nearer My God to text, Thee.In 1837 Mason became superintendent of music in mcdonaldization a reply to ritzer's, the Boston schools. Bob Mcdonnell Text! Through his educational activities and widely reproduced hymn books, Mason had a tremendous impact across America, replacing the indigenous New England tradition of a reply to ritzer's fuging tunes with hymns based on allegedly correct European models.

Even the British Grove Dictionary of Music refers to Mason's revolution as a mixed blessing. Then, in 1840 virtuosos like violinist Ole Bull began to concertize across America. In 1843, Ureli Corelli Hill and members of the fledgeling New York Philharmonic presented the first string quartet series. Before 1840, America had considered the fiddle the lowliest of musical instruments, meant only to accompany jigs in bars. After 1840, violins were suddenly represented as bearers of high culture. John Sullivan Dwight, known as the dean of Boston music critics, championed Beethoven and bob mcdonnell thesis, described the essay, glories of European music in terms of religious ecstasy. Dwight was a part of the Transcendentalist movement centered around Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau; Dwight had joined Bronson Alcott, Louisa May Alcott's father, in an ill-fated communal living experiment at a place called Brook Farm. The Transcendentalists threw their weight on the side of European culture.

Margaret Fuller, one of the movement's leading intellectuals, went so far as to bob mcdonnell thesis text, write an imaginary letter to Beethoven, who at essays on quality assurance, the time had been dead for 16 years: . Bob Mcdonnell Text! oh blessed master!, she wrote. Like a humble wife to the sage, or poet, it is my triumph that I can understand and cherish thee. The infinite Shakespeare, the stern [Michel] Angelo, Dante, - bittersweet like thee, - are no longer seen in thy presence. . beside these names, there are none that could vibrate in thy crystal sphere. Samples Of Phd! There is none greater than Shakespeare; he, too, is a god; but his creations are successive; thy fiat comprehends them all. Nevertheless, Charles Ives, seeing a different side of Transcendentalism, would write many years later: Thoreau was a great musician, not because he played the flute, but because he did not have to go to Boston to hear 'The Symphony.'

Against this roaring wind of bob mcdonnell thesis European aesthetics, joined as it was to pious morality and upper-class pretentions, certain American composers still campaigned for an indigenous tradition, an American music that had something American about it. The most unusual of these was Anthony Philip Heinrich, who won for himself the nickname, The Beethoven of America. Term! Though born into a merchant family in text, Bohemia in 1781, Heinrich emigrated to term paper in apa, America after his family business was destroyed by the Napoleonic Wars. Thesis! Once in America, he decided to samples research proposal, make a living through music, in which he had previously been only an amateur. Thesis Text! He pushed inland to Lexington, Kentucky, where, in 1817, he put together the first American performance of a Beethoven symphony, No. 1. Convalescing in a log cabin in essay organizational management, the Kentucky wilderness in 1818, Heinrich had a vision that he should compose music, and so at the age of 37, he taught himself theory and became a composer. Today Heinrich's bizarre works, with titles like Barbecue Divertimento, Hail to Kentucky, and The Yankee Doodleiad, seem humorous, but he was tremendously successful in his lifetime, even making tours of Europe. His greatest work, he felt, was a grand symphony entitled The Ornithological Combat of text Kings: or The Condor of the Andes and term in apa format, the Eagle of the Cordilleras. With its energetic bursts of timpani in the opening measures, it was certainly unlike anything being done in Europe in the 1840s.

Today, perhaps the best-known 19th-century American composer is Louis Moreau Gottschalk. Born in New Orleans in 1829, Gottschalk was exposed early to African, Creole, and West Indian influences, and was a pioneer at incorporating them into thesis, his music. He also studied in Europe, but in France with Hector Berlioz, a figure considered scandalous by critical American standards. Works such as his Night in bob mcdonnell, the Tropics incorporated Carribbean syncopations into concert music for the first time. Following Berlioz's example, Gottschalk presented monster concerts of ten pianos or 900 musicians, and played over a thousand concerts between 1862 and essays on quality assurance, '65 alone. Such activities were antithetical to sober New England sensibilities, and John Sullivan Dwight criticized Gottschalk harshly. At one concert, however, Gottschalk took a delicious revenge on Dwight on text, behalf of samples research American composers everywhere. Thesis! He played a work of critical thinking problem his own and bob mcdonnell text, attributed it to Beethoven in the program, also playing a Beethoven work identified as his own; Dwight, predictably, praised the assurance, Beethoven composition and lambasted Gottschalk's music for its amateurish inanities. Afterwards, Gottschalk wrote to Dwight to bob mcdonnell text, apologize for the unfortunate printing error.

American music had a European character stamped on term paper in apa format, it by the American academic musical establishment, which itself was a product of the late 19th century. Before 1870, there was no such thing as a college music course; universities were meant for text academic courses in science, history, and languages. Music was a mere extracurricular amusement. In 1873, however, John Knowles Paine convinced Harvard to appoint him America's first university music professor. In 1882 George Whitefield Chadwick joined the faculty at Boston's New England Conservatory. Research Proposal! In 1894 Horatio Parker took a teaching position at bob mcdonnell thesis, Yale, where his most famous and most recalcitrant student would be Charles Ives.

Paine, Chadwick, and Parker were all trained in Europe: Paine had studied in Berlin, Chadwick at Leipzig Conservatory, and Parker in Munich. Along with John Sullivan Dwight, Paine championed what he called the modern Romantic movement, meaning Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, and essay about, Mendelssohn, as well as Handel, Mozart, Beethoven, and Bach. Together Paine, Chadwick, and Parker formed a cultural triumverate of East Coast academicians who excersized an enormous power in imposing on American musicians an bob mcdonnell thesis, exaggerated awe of European musical standards and paper, practices. Today the music of these European-trained professors is of only specialist interest. Parker was known for his sacred choral work Hora Novissima, Chadwick for his Brahmsian Second Symphony, Paine for bob mcdonnell thesis text his Mass in D and two symphonies.

By contrast, the music of mcdonaldization to ritzer's our 19th-century mavericks remains popular. The choral music of Billings has continued to be sung in the South and thesis, Appalachia as part of the organizational management, rural tradition of shaped-note singing. Gottschalk's virtuoso piano works such as The Banjo, Bamboula, and bob mcdonnell thesis text, Souvenir de Porto Rico have always remained popular as the religion, pianistic analogue to the homespun songs of Stephen Foster. If we listen to this example from Paine's Mass in D, we'll hear how closely the American academics hewed to bob mcdonnell thesis, their European models.On the other hand, this piece by Gottschalk called The Banjo is as American as baseball, hot dogs, and the Fourth of July. There were also American symphonists who didn't study in Europe, like William Henry Fry, George Bristow, and our first important woman composer Amy Beach. Fry's Santa Claus Symphony and Bristow's Arcadian Symphony may not have the Continental polish of works by Paine and Chadwick, but they are livelier and more individual. The Arcadian Symphony is subtitled The Pioneer, and Bristow opened it with an unusual gesture for a symphony: a long, lonely, unaccompanied violin solo.

Both Fry and Bristow campaigned as critics for an indigenous American music, and in 1854 Bristow temporarily quit his job as violinist in organizational, the New York Philharmonic to protest the text, orchestra's treatment of mcdonaldization a reply American composers. Amy Beach turned to bob mcdonnell thesis text, composition partly because her husband discourageed her from proposal a public career as a pianist. Nevertheless, after his death she resumed concertizing, and became, in 1911 our first native composer to thesis, travel to Europe, not to study, but to essay religion, promote her own music. In 1983, the thesis, Czech composer Antonin Dvorak sparked a controversy about what made American music American. Unlike other European composers who came through America to essay, tour and make money, leaving as quickly as possible, Dvorak came to stay, temporarily, as dirctor of New York's National Conservatory of Music from bob mcdonnell thesis text 1892 to '95. In 1983 he was completing his now-famous New World Symphony supposedly based on on quality assurance, Negro themes such as Swing Low, Sweet Chariot.

Dvorak made a statement to the press which was quoted in bob mcdonnell thesis text, the New York Herald: I am now satisfied. he said, that the essays assurance, future music of this country must be founded upon what are called negro melodies. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis! There is nothing in the whole range of composition that cannot be supplied with themes from this source. The following week, the Boston Herald printed indignant replies by essay American composers, including Paine, Chadwick, and bob mcdonnell, Beach. Paine, taking an internationalist viewpoint, disagreed that American music need differ in term, any way from European music. Dr. Dvorak. he wrote, greatly overestimates the influence that national melodies and bob mcdonnell thesis text, folk-songs have exercised on the higher forms of term paper in apa musical art.

In the case of text Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, and other German masters, the old folk-songs have been used to a limited extent as motives; but movements founded on such themes are exceptional in comparison with the immense amount of entirely original thematic material that constitutes the bulk of their music. On Quality Assurance! Amy Beach, on the other hand, sympathized with the attempt to create a national music, but felt that Negro melodies need not be the entire basis for it. The African population of the United States, she wrote, is far too small for its songs to be considered 'American.' It represents only one factor in the composition of our nation. We of the north should be far more likely to be influenced by the old English, Scotch, or Irish songs, inherited. from bob mcdonnell our ancestors. In response, Beach wrote the work for essay about religion which she is best-known today, her Gaelic Symphony, based on thesis text, Irish folksongs. This was the most public exposition yet of an eternal American musical conflict.

What is America's folk music? African-American, Appalachian, songs from Ireland, pop music? And what role should it serve for essays assurance American composers? As a melting pot the bob mcdonnell, United States has been in a unique position, the only major nation whose music was not allowed to critical, grow naturally, but with a wealth of conspicuous and often contentious soul-searching. Throughout America's history the conflict between European training and indigenous folk sources has resonated, coming back over bob mcdonnell thesis and over again in different guises. From the term paper, beginning the American composer labored under an assumption that crippled his or her creativity: any innovation, any departure from European precedent, might be interpreted as a technical deficiency. Europeans like Berlioz, Liszt, and Wagner were free to ignore the past and create their own rules, but American symphonists such as Bristow, Chadwick, and Beach dared not transgress beyond precedents set by bob mcdonnell thesis text even the more conservative Europeans like Mendelssohn, Brahms, Dvorak. As Henry Cowell wrote, “Transplanted to paper in apa format, the United States, the rules of harmony and composition took on a doctrinaire authority that was the more dogmatic for being second hand.” For decades American composers struggled under mutually contradictory mandates. On one hand, they were expected to demonstrate a level of formal and technical polish equal Schumann, Brahms, and the other familiar European masters.

On another, they were expected to keep pace with Europe's latest trends. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis! As if that were not enough, they were also challenged by the critical press to make their music sound distinctly American - whatever that meant. Composer Henry Gilbert stated the problem in sharp terms: American music. he wrote in 1915, has this problem to face: that it can only essay organizational become ultimately distinctive by leaving the paths of thesis text imitation, and that by leaving the paths of imitation it must temporarily sacrifice both immediate success and the respect. of both public and academician.Decade by decade we can chart the paper in apa, great divide between those American composers who sought to be original and those who sought to bob mcdonnell, live up to European standards. In the 1920s, there was the Pan American Association organization versus the League of Composers. The Pan American Association was founded by maverick composer Edgard Varèse, and was dedicated to performing music by about religion composers of the Western hemisphere. Its members included Charles Ives, Henry Cowell, Carl Ruggles, the thesis, Mexican Carlos Chavez, Roy Harris, and a reply to ritzer's, Wallingford Riegger, most of whom had not studied in Europe.

Typical of the Pan American Association was Varèse's hair-raising 1931 work for percussion orchestra called Ionisation, the first work written in thesis text, the Western world entirely for percussion, and his riotous work for orchestra, Arcana. The League of essays on quality Composers, on the other hand, included mostly composers who had studied in Paris or Fontainbleau, the most important being Aaron Copland. Heavily influenced by the aggressive new works of Igor Stravinsky, the Europhilic League composers supported the new French style of neoclassicism, and performed primarily European music. Text! The League of management Composers might have been more typified by the Piano Variations of Aaron Copland, which flirted with the trends of dissonance and abstraction being championed in Europe at the time. The League had wealthier patrons, and text, were backed by two important conductors, Serge Koussevitsky of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and Leopold Stokowski of the Philadelphia Orchestra. The Pan Americans, meanwhile, kept going primarily through the term in apa format, generous financial backing of bob mcdonnell text Charles Ives, who used the fortune he had made in the insurance business to support performance and publication of American music. After World War II the term paper format, fight surfaced again in bob mcdonnell thesis, a new form. Composers such as Milton Babbitt, Roger Sessions, George Perle, and others felt that the future of music lay with the 12-tone language developed by term Arnold Schönberg, who had emigrated to America in 1933. Their music was typified by Sessions, who famously stated, I have no sympathy for bob mcdonnell consciously sought originality. Samples Of Phd Proposal! The tremendous influx of European emigre composers before and text, during World War II, including Schönberg, Stravinsky, Bartok, Hindemith, Kurt Weill, Krenek, and many others, represented a deluge of European influence that temporarily buried American trends during the 1950s and much of the '60s. As one composer of the period, Edward T. Cone, put it, the American past is the European past and. the foundation provided by mcdonaldization the great line [meaning Beethoven, Brahms, and so on] is basic to the development of music in the United States as well as Europe.

Opposed to this overwhelming trend were a number of maverick American composers who continued working in non-European idioms during the 1950s with very little support: John Cage, Lou Harrison, Harry Partch, Conlon Nancarrow. Scorning 12-tone technique as a dead end, and as an expression of post-War angst that meant little or nothing to American audiences, these composers embraced world music influences and technology, as Cage did in his Credo in US, the first piece to use the turntable as a musical instrument. One would have thought that by the late 20th century, Europe's psychological claims on American composers would have relaxed. But in the 1980s, the bob mcdonnell text, dichotomy returned again in full force, with different philosophies, different protagonists. Essay Religion! On one side, many of the composers writing for orchestra had abandoned 12-tone music and bob mcdonnell thesis text, returned to a newly ironic approach to the rhetoric of 19th-century romanticism. Composers like George Rochberg, Jacob Druckman, John Corigliano, David Del Tredici, William Bolcom, and John Harbison developed what became known as the New Romanticism, a return to the harmonies, timbres, and forms of 19th-century European music, although with elements of pastiche and rhythmic fragmentation. At the very same time, beginning in the late 1970s, there was a move among the maverick composers to appropriate the materials of rock and pop music. Music, so the philosophy went, should derive from the vernacular music of the people, and by the late 1970s, most people's vernacular music was rock. Rhys Chatham and essay about, Glenn Branca started writing symphonies for electric guitars. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis Text! Robert Ashley wrote an thinking, opera, Perfect Lives, with a rock beat.

Laurie Anderson came out of the avant-garde and actually had a hit single, O Superman, hit number two on the pop charts in England in 1981. Even those composers who didn't go so far as to bob mcdonnell text, use a propulsive backbeat were writing a simple, accessible music growing from the avant-garde movement that had taken off in the 1960s: minimalism. One of the best of these was William Duckworth, whose Time Curve Preludes brought together bluegrass and minimalist influences, in much the proposal, same way that Gottschalk's The Banjo had fused 19th-century banjo playing with romanticism. Two hundred years of thesis text history should be enough to suggest that this rift in American music may be permanent. There are two streams of American music both claiming to occupy the essay about religion, same position.

For some musicians, America is simply Europe's western branch, and our musical tradition is a linear continuation of the same tradition that grew from Bach through Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, and Schönberg. These composers tend to write for orchestra whenever possible; they write symphonies, concertos, string quartets. For other composers - the mavericks - the dominance of bob mcdonnell text European music represents an imperialism we've been waiting for decades to escape. A new continent, they feel, requires its own music, its own practice, its own sounds, techniques, forms, and procedures. Its music should be drawn from the essay organizational, local enviornment, the sounds of bob mcdonnell text home; its forms should be relevant to essay organizational management, American society, not to a 19th-century European aristocracy that no longer exists. These two viewpoints have never been reconciled. Thesis! It is unlikely that either will disappear in the forseeable future.

In future essays, we'll explore many of the about, ways American composers have drawn the music from text American life: by imitating the rhythmic style of jazz, by using American electronic technology, by writing symphonic works for critical problem electric guitars. Art is a transformation of the world around us - at least, that's the bob mcdonnell thesis text, standpoint of the American Mavericks.

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A for and against essay about the internet. Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the bob mcdonnell text and do the other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for young people? For young people it is.

They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and organizational management, such. Thesis Text. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in the essay, the young people get addicted to online games and in apa format, they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. Bob Mcdonnell. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the rules of on quality assurance age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is very useful in schools and in work. It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate.

On the other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is thesis very usefull . Problem. So in conclusion internet is possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site?

Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and text, What is organizational it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it! I think the bob mcdonnell internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person.

One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is very good and useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Critical. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Many parents has banned the thesis text children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. I totaly agree. Essay. It all depends from thesis parents. If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up.

You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is essay religion useful with good children, and bob mcdonnell thesis text, it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to essays on quality, billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the bob mcdonnell Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Essay. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and bob mcdonnell thesis, read new posts in their favourite online communities. Essay. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the bob mcdonnell real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data. Thinking. Everyone has heard stories about bob mcdonnell thesis, hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the research proposal big company.

It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the bob mcdonnell thesis necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for samples of phd research proposal, us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is included. Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is text said that the Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the thinking problem problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in thesis text the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for mcdonaldization, our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for bob mcdonnell thesis text, our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation.

I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is something that we have to know, and we should know what is critical problem good and bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in bob mcdonnell any way. Thesis. I think it is the same for young people, we have to bob mcdonnell, be responsible, because the Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is useful for everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of essays assurance reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of information, and a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do.

It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to thesis, make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for few informations? Internet is useful for of phd research, everyone, for young and old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the bob mcdonnell thesis text internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on in apa, the Internet.

We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. ) and a lot of other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of thesis text dangerous people in mcdonaldization thesis the world. Bob Mcdonnell. To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is many information in the internet.

In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for people. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to organizational, access to lots of bob mcdonnell thesis text useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. Paper Format. On the bob mcdonnell other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to thinking, use it wisely. If young people use the bob mcdonnell Internet for studying and relaxing in term in apa proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the bob mcdonnell elderly.

We communicate with each other using the internet and it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the essay organizational countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to bob mcdonnell, the outside world, the perspective to the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for us. A Reply To Ritzer's Thesis. Internet is particularly useful for bob mcdonnell text, everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it.

Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for essay religion, learning English, reading news and doing research for my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and everything they should do. Thesis Text. I completely disagree that internet is bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the essay internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for bob mcdonnell thesis, it? . Look carefully. What's this everyday object? Play Wordshake and see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and educational opportunities.

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CO-OP health plans: patients’ interests first. By Louise Norris healthinsurance.org contributor August 27, 2017. It’s been a rough few years for the ACA’s Consumer Operated and Oriented Plans. There were 23 CO-OPs when the first open enrollment period got underway in the fall of thesis 2013, but by the beginning of mcdonaldization to ritzer's 2016, only 11 of them were still operational. By July 2016, four additional CO-OPs – in Ohio, Connecticut, Oregon, and Illinois – had failed. And in September, Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey stopped offering new plans and announced that their existing plans would terminate at thesis, the end of thesis 2016 (unlike the other CO-OPs that have failed, state regulators in New Jersey were initially saying that it might be possible for Health Republic to thesis be rehabilitated enough to return to the market in 2018, but that ultimately was not the mcdonaldization a reply to ritzer's thesis case, and bob mcdonnell, an order of liquidation was filed in February 2017). In December 2016, more than a month after open enrollment began for 2017 coverage, Maryland regulators announced that Evergreen Health CO-OP would not renew or issue individual market plans for 2017, leaving just five CO-OPs offering coverage in 2017 (Maryland regulators made an administrative order in July 2017 that is expected to lead to about receivership for Evergreen Health). In June 2017, Minuteman Health announced that they would no longer offer coverage as a CO-OP after the end of 2017.

Their intent at bob mcdonnell thesis text, that point was to reopen in 2018 as Minuteman Insurance Company (and to have plans available for sale during open enrollment in the fall of essay religion 2017 under that name), which was to have been a for-profit insurer rather than a CO-OP. But by mid-August, they had failed to bob mcdonnell thesis raise enough capital by the deadline to secure a license to sell coverage for 2018, and would not be able to essay re-open as Minuteman Insurance Company in 2018. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis Text! Minuteman Health has been placed in receivership by the Massachusetts Division of Insurance, and their plans will terminate at the end of 2017. After all the closures, there are just four CO-OPs slated to offer coverage in 2018, in five states: Maine, Montana, Idaho, New Mexico, and term, Wisconsin. The CO-OP failures have been due in large part to a combination of premiums that were too low, benefits that were too generous, enrollees who were sicker than anticipated, competition from bigger carriers with larger reserves, the bob mcdonnell thesis text risk corridor shortfall that was announced in the fall of 2015, and the risk adjustment payment announcements that were made in June 2016 (see below for term paper in apa format a timeline of the closures). The Trump Administration’s approach to health care reform, and bob mcdonnell thesis, GOP lawmakers’ efforts to repeal and replace the ACA (via bills written in secret that bypass the normal bipartisan committee process), have further increased the uncertainty that insurers are facing, making the situation even more precarious for small insurers like the remaining CO-OPs. 2018: 4 CO-OPs selling plans in 5 states.

There are four CO-OPs that are expected to offer plans in five states in 2018. Although the vast majority of the critical problem original CO-OPs have failed, these four are showing signs of overall stability. It’s important to note, however, that if the text Trump Administration continues to mcdonaldization thesis cause uncertainty and instability in text the insurance markets (including Trump’s recent threats to cut off federal funding for cost-sharing reductions), the remaining CO-OPs will be among the mcdonaldization a reply to ritzer's thesis most vulnerable. Community Health Options (CHO) This was originally called Maine Community Health Options, but the name was changed to reflect the carrier’s expansion outside of Maine. 44,000 people enrolled in bob mcdonnell thesis text coverage through the exchange in 2014, and 83 percent of essay about religion them selected Community Health Options, making the CO-OP’s first year an bob mcdonnell thesis amazing success. CHO expanded into New Hampshire for 2015, fueled by their initial success in 2014 and by a new loan from CMS. During the second open enrollment period, CHO once again dominated the Maine market, securing about 80 percent of the exchange market share. They also enrolled about 5,000 people in New Hampshire. However, CHO reported significant losses in the third quarter of 2015, and decided to limit enrollment in individual plans for thinking 2016. Thesis! Enrollment directly through Community Health Options ceased December 15, 2015; enrollment in Community Health Options plans through Healthcare.gov ceased December 26. CHO ended 2015 with $74 million in losses – a far cry from the profitable year they had in 2014.

In early 2016, Maine’s Insurance Superintendent proposed putting the a reply to ritzer's CO-OP in receivership and canceling a portion of its plans (about 20,000 members would have been transitioned to bob mcdonnell text other coverage). But CMS didn’t allow that, saying that the plan cancellations would run afoul of the thesis ACA’s guaranteed-renewable provision. The CO-OP is under increased oversight from the Maine Bureau of thesis Insurance, which puts out monthly reports that detail how the CO-OP is faring relative to its business plan. According to critical thinking the July 2017 report from the Bureau of Insurance, CHO’s net income in May 2017 was considerably lower than projected, but year-to-date claims were running just about as-projected. CHO is the bob mcdonnell text only remaining CO-OP that received money—as opposed to having to pay out money—under the risk adjustment program for 2015 and essay organizational, again for 2016. For 2017, Community Health Options had an average rate increase of 25.5 percent in Maine, where bulk of their members live. They exited New Hampshire entirely at the end of 2016, and reverted to operating solely in Maine, as they did in 2014. They have proposed roughly a 20 percent average rate increase for 2018 in the individual market, where they have about bob mcdonnell thesis, three-quarters of their membership. Religion! Their total membership was 67,539 at the end of bob mcdonnell thesis 2016, and had dropped to 44,015 by the first quarter of term paper in apa 2017 (all in thesis Maine, since they’re no longer offering plans in New Hampshire). Mountain Health Cooperative Montana Health CO-OP started in essay Montana, and thesis, expanded to Idaho in 2015.

The CO-OP seems to be on relatively solid financial ground. CEO Jerry Dworak noted that the CO-OP didn’t expand too quickly, and maintained substantial reserves; they were not relying as heavily as other CO-OPs on risk corridor payments to shore up their financial position. Average rates for Mountain Health CO-OP in Idaho increased by 26 percent for 2016. For 2017, Mountain Health CO-OP’s average rate increase is 29 percent in Idaho, and 31 percent in Montana. Thinking! As of December 22, 2016, the text CO-OP ceased enrollments in Montana due to the “large number of new members for 2017.” The enrollment freeze was lifted in July 2017 for off-exchange enrollments; on-exchange enrollments in Montana were expected to become available in critical problem the summer of 2017 as well. In both cases, this was ahead of schedule, as the CO-OP had originally expected the lift the enrollment freeze as of November 1, at the start of open enrollment. In another indication of the CO-OP’s increasing viability, their average proposed rate increase for 2018 is only 4 percent in Montana. This demonstrates that the bob mcdonnell 31 percent average rate increase for critical thinking problem 2017 may have been enough to stabilize the CO-OP and “right-size” the premiums. New Mexico Health Connections The CO-OP had net earnings of $420,000 in the first quarter of 2016, as opposed to a loss of thesis text $2.3 million in the first quarter of 2015. By the end of the 2016 open enrollment period, New Mexico Health Connections had more than 50,000 members, and the CO-OP had added several big-name employers, including Goodwill Industries of New Mexico, Youth Development Inc., and Heritage Hotels Resorts.

NM Health Connections has said that they weren’t counting on significant payments from the risk corridor program in 2015, so the shortage didn’t hurt them as much as it hurt other carriers. New Mexico Health Connections dropped their PPO plans for about 2016 in order to focus on thesis text plan designs that allow them to better control costs. Several big-name carriers around the mcdonaldization a reply country took a similar approach in 2016, and PPOs are less common than they once were in the individual market. For 2017, New Mexico Health Connections had an average rate increase of 33 percent, before any exchange subsidies are applied. They have filed an average rate increase of bob mcdonnell thesis text 30.1 percent for samples proposal 2018 (much lower than the 84 percent average rate increase they initially filed; the lower rate filing came about once it became clear that other insurers would not be exiting New Mexico’s market and the CO-OP did not have to insulate themselves against a flood of new enrollees). But their average rate increase could be even lower still, and thesis text, the CEO noted in July that the thinking problem CO-OP’s proposed rate increases were in the 20 to 25 percent range.

Common Ground Healthcare Cooperative – The CO-OP offers coverage in 19 eastern Wisconsin counties. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis Text! The approved weighted average rate increase for Common Ground for 2016 was 18 percent. The CO-OP had 23,629 enrollees in Wisconsin in 2015. For 2017, the CO-OP had an average rate increase of essay 12.6 percent. And after losing money from bob mcdonnell text 2014 through 2017, Common Ground Healthcare posted a positive net income of essays $2.7 million in the first quarter of 2017. 2015 risk adjustment: 9 of 10 CO-OPs owed payments.

Under the ACA’s risk adjustment program, health insurers with lower-risk enrollees end up paying money to health insurers with higher-risk enrollees. The idea is to prevent insurers from designing plans that appeal only to healthy enrollees, and to bob mcdonnell text ensure that premiums reflect benefit levels, rather than the overall health of a plan’s enrollees. On June 30, 2016, HHS released data on risk adjustment numbers for thesis 2015. Of the 10 CO-OPs that were still operational at that point, nine had to pay into the risk adjustment program for 2015; only one remaining CO-OP – Community Health Options in bob mcdonnell thesis text Maine and New Hampshire – received a risk adjustment payment. Of Phd Proposal! Community Health Options received about $710,000 in risk adjustment funds. Some of the remaining CO-OPs had begun to bob mcdonnell thesis text be profitable in early 2016 (details below), but all of the CO-OPs’ financial situations now have to be considered in conjunction with the fact that the CO-OPs will have to essays on quality pay out the following amounts in risk adjustment payments, making their financial futures even more uncertain (of the nine CO-OPs that owed money in bob mcdonnell thesis 2016 for the risk adjustment program, six have closed or are facing impending closure; only the CO-OPs listed in bold continue to essays be fully operational) Mountain Health CO-OP/Montana Health CO-OP (Idaho and Montana): $481,000 Oregon Health CO-OP (Community Care of Oregon): $914,000 ( closed; plans ended July 31, 2016 ) Common Ground CO-OP (Wisconsin): $1.9 million Minuteman (operates in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, but risk adjustment outlay was for NH; MA operates its own risk adjustment program): $11 million (Minuteman has filed a lawsuit against CMS in an effort to “invalidate the illegal Risk Adjustment methodology and institute necessary changes immediately.” Minuteman Health is in receivership, and will stop offering coverage at the end of 2017 ) New Mexico Health Connections : $14.6 million. NM Health Connections filed a lawsuit against HHS in August 2016 over the risk adjustment program, requesting that the program be halted until improvements could be made. Healthy CT: $13.4 million ( closed; plans ended December 31, 2017 ) Evergreen Health CO-OP (Maryland): $24.2 million (Evergreen filed a lawsuit to block the collection of the risk adjustment payments; a district judge denied the CO-OP’s request on July 21, and the CO-OP immediately appealed the decision; Between $2 million and $3 million of the risk adjustment payment was to be withheld by CMS in mid-July from thesis text funds owed to the CO-OP for premium subsidies and paper format, cost-sharing reductions, and the remainder of the payment had to be remitted by Evergreen by August 15). Bob Mcdonnell Text! Evergreen notes that they would have profited between $2 million and $3 million in term paper in apa 2016 if it weren’t for the $24 million they had to pay into the risk adjustment program. As a result of the thesis text losses, they began the process of being acquired by private investors and converting to a for-profit entity (this process ultimately didn’t happen fast enough for Evergreen to be able to sell or renew individual plans for 2017; in critical thinking problem July 2017 the bob mcdonnell thesis investors terminated the acquisition, and essay, Maryland regulators began the process that’s expected to lead to receivership for Evergreen Health ). Land of text Lincoln (Illinois): $31.8 million (the state ordered Land of organizational Lincoln to withhold payment until if and when the CO-OP receives the money they were supposed to text get in 2015 for the 2014 risk corridors program.

That tactic didn’t work however, and on mcdonaldization a reply to ritzer's thesis July 12, Illinois regulators began the bob mcdonnell process of closing Land of Lincoln Health, and the CO-OP was placed in proposal liquidation as of October 1, 2016 ). Freelancer’s CO-OP (Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey): $46.3 million ( in thesis September 2016, regulators placed Health Republic in rehabilitation, and the CO-OP stopped selling new plans ; the risk adjustment payment — which was much more than they had previously been advised it would be — was cited as a primary reason for the CO-OP’s financial instability). HHS has proposed changes to essay about the risk adjustment program for 2018, to thesis make it more equitable and essays on quality assurance, less burdensome for bob mcdonnell text new, smaller carriers. They’ve also indicated that states can make regulatory changes before 2018 to paper format ensure a more functional risk adjustment program. 2016 risk adjustment: 4 out of thesis 5 remaining CO-OPs once again owe money. On June 30, 2017, HHS published the risk adjustment report for 2016. Maine Community Health Options was once again the only remaining CO-OP that will receive funding under the risk adjustment program; they’ll get $9.1 million. The report also details the amount that insurers owe or will receive for paper in apa format 2016 under the ACA’s temporary reinsurance program (2016 was the last year for the reinsurance program). All five of the remaining CO-OPs will receive money from the 2016 reinsurance program, but in bob mcdonnell thesis most cases, it’s not as much as they’ll have to pay out under the risk adjustment program. Maine Community Health Options — the only remaining CO-OP receiving funding under the risk adjustment program — will also receive $21 million under the 2016 reinsurance program, which is far more than any of the other CO-OPs will receive. Common Ground CO-OP has to pay $3.7 million in essays on quality risk adjustment (but will receive $10.5 million in reinsurance) Mountain Health CO-OP/Montana Health CO-OP has to pay $8.3 million in risk adjustment (but will receive $2.9 million in reinsurance) New Mexico Health Connections has to pay $8.9 million in risk adjustment (but will receive $3 million in reinsurance) NM Health Connections sued the federal government in 2016 over the risk adjustment program, but so far, the system is still set up in a way that ultimately ends up taking money from smaller, newer insurers and giving it to thesis text larger, more established insurers. Minuteman, which is closing at the end of 2017, has to pay $25.4 million in risk adjustment for 2016 (but will receive $3 million in reinsurance).

Notably, they owed far more in 2016 risk adjustment than any of the management other remaining CO-OPs. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis! They explained in June, in conjunction with their announcement that they would no longer be a CO-OP after 2017 (at that point, they hoped to re-open as a for-profit insurer, but that plan was scrapped when they were unable to raise enough capital to to ritzer's secure a license for 2018), that the amount they had been forced to pay into bob mcdonnell, the risk adjustment program amounted to about a third of the premiums they had collected. In May 2016, after extensive input from stakeholders, HHS issued new regulations in a reply to ritzer's thesis an effort to help the bob mcdonnell text remaining CO-OPs become financially viable. Due to the urgency of the situation, the regulations took effect almost immediately, on May 11. The new regulations make a variety of changes that make it easier for CO-OPs to seek outside investments and expand their coverage offerings beyond the individual and small group markets: In the past, there were relatively strict rules governing the make-up of essays assurance CO-OP boards. CO-OP board members could not be representatives or employees of any federal, state, or local government entity, and they could also not be representatives or employees of any health insurance carrier that was operational as of text July 2009. These rules were established to prevent conflicts of interest among CO-OP board members (for example, an employee of a competing insurance company might have a conflict of interest and might not make decisions solely based on the best interests of the CO-OP).

The new regulations relax these rules, as HHS has discovered that the rules were too strict, and were preventing well-qualified experts from joining CO-OP boards. The new regulations allow government employees and representatives to be on CO-OP boards as long as they’re not in senior or high-level positions in the government. And employees or representatives from already-established insurers can be on CO-OP boards as long as they’re affiliated with insurance carriers that don’t compete in the individual and small group markets where CO-OPs operate. The old rules also required all of a CO-OP’s board of directors to be elected by CO-OP members, and also required all members of the board of essays directors to thesis text also be members of the samples proposal CO-OP. The new regulations allow for some leeway here too. Only a majority of the board members must be elected by CO-OP members, and board members are no longer required to be members of the CO-OP. This allows outside entities that are providing loans, investments, and services to the CO-OP to have representatives on text the board of critical problem directors, and will – in theory – make it easier for CO-OPs to attract new investments . HHS notes that including investor representatives on boards of directors is a common practice in the private sector. The old rules made it difficult for thesis CO-OPs to find willing and qualified individuals to serve on term paper format their boards of directors, and the old rules allow them to seek outside experts to provide assistance via being on the board of bob mcdonnell thesis directors. The CO-OPs will still be member-driven though, as the of phd research majority of board members must still be elected by CO-OP members. New Mexico Health Connections announced in 2016 that they planned to bob mcdonnell text work with Raymond James, a New York based investment firm, to raise “a substantial amount” of funding for New Mexico Health Connections.

Maryland’s CO-OP, Evergreen Health , was working to raise $15 million by August 2016, and by July, the CO-OP had come to agreements with eight guarantors to front more than half of that $15 million. Mcdonaldization A Reply To Ritzer's! But Evergreen Health later opted for bob mcdonnell thesis the ultimate private investor arrangement, with plans for private investors to acquire the CO-OP in 2017. If that had worked out, the insurer would still have been called Evergreen Health, but would have been a for-profit entity and no longer a CO-OP. Ultimately, the new arrangement didn’t receive federal approval in time to continue to offer coverage for 2017, and Maryland’s Insurance Commissioner announced on December 8 that Evergreen would not sell or renew any individual plans for 2017. They had planned to return to the individual market in 2018, but the private investors terminated the acquisition in essay July 2017, and Maryland regulators imposed an administrative order that is expected to lead to the CO-OP entering receivership. The ACA requires that at least two-thirds of bob mcdonnell text a CO-OP’s policies must be issued in the individual and thesis, small group markets in the state where the CO-OP is licensed. Originally, the rule was that CO-OPs that ran afoul of that provision would have to repay their federal loans immediately.

The new regulations allow for more leeway: CO-OPs that aren’t meeting the bob mcdonnell thesis text two-thirds rule don’t necessarily have to repay their loans immediately, but they do have to demonstrate a plan for getting into compliance with the samples research proposal two-thirds rule, and be acting in good faith to achieve that standard (most CO-OPs only operate in the individual and small group markets thus far, but HealthyCT in Connecticut is an bob mcdonnell thesis exception – they offer large group plans in addition to individual and small group plans). The new flexibility allows CO-OPs to enter into term format, other markets – including large group, Medicare, Medicaid, and ancillary products such as dental and vision, without having to be overly concerned with running afoul of the two-thirds rule and triggering an immediate payback requirement for federal loans. Under prior rules, CO-OPs weren’t allowed to sell their policies to another insurer. Thesis Text! So when 12 CO-OPs failed by the end of 2015, the only option was to send their members back to the general market – on or off-exchange – to seek new coverage. Of Phd Research! The new HHS regulations allow insolvent CO-OPs to sell their policies to text another insurer, although the in apa format transaction would have to be approved by CMS. The idea here is to preserve coverage for existing members if additional CO-OPs fail. Membership surpassed a million enrollees by 2015, but has declined sharply with CO-OP closures. During the text 2014 open enrollment period, just over 400,000 people enrolled in critical thinking problem CO-OPs nationwide.

That climbed to bob mcdonnell text over a million by critical thinking the end of the text 2015 open enrollment period – despite the fact that CoOpportunity (Iowa and Nebraska) stopped selling policies in December 2014, and their once-robust enrollment (120,000 members) had dropped to about 2,000 people by samples research mid-February 2015. Text! While enrollment in samples of phd research private plans through the thesis text exchanges increased by 46 percent in 2015 (from 8 million people in the first open enrollment period, to essays assurance 11.7 million in thesis text the second open enrollment period), enrollment in CO-OPs increased by 150 percent. At the end of 2015, however, more than 500,000 of a reply thesis those enrollees had to switch to a different plan, as 11 of the 22 remaining CO-OPs closed at the end of 2015. In May 2016, Ohio regulators announced that InHealth Mutual would be liquidated, leaving just ten remaining CO-OPs nationwide. And only bob mcdonnell text, three of them are not currently subject to enhanced federal oversight: New Mexico Health Connections, Mountain Health Cooperative (Montana and Idaho), and Minuteman Health, Inc (Massachusetts and New Hampshire). The other eight CO-OPs still in operation are all under “corrective action plans” from the federal government.

Seven of the eleven CO-OPs that were still operational at the end of 2015 had at least 25,000 enrollees as of mid-2015, which is the minimum number that CMS says is necessary for religion financial solvency. The other four had not yet achieved that benchmark by early 2016, and two of them—in Oregon and text, Ohio—were among the four CO-OPs that had failed by July 2016. Of the remaining six CO-OPs, five had membership in excess of 25,000 people as of essays on quality mid-2015. CMS recognized that, in bob mcdonnell a competitive marketplace, CO-OPs would face challenges. The agency acknowledged that more than one-third of the CO-OPs would likely fail in the first 15 years. CMS projected a 40 percent default rate for the planning loans and a 35 percent default rate for the solvency loans. Samples Research! But with only five of 23 CO-OPs slated to still be in business by the end of 2017, the text failure rate is 78 percent, after three and a half years of operations. In terms of paper recent enrollment totals for the remaining CO-OPs: Common Ground CO-OP had 19,300 members in 2016 Mountain Health CO-OP/Montana Health CO-OP had roughly 15,000 members in Montana in 2016, and added 10,000 new members for 2017. They also have members in Idaho. New Mexico Health Connections membership had grown to 50,000 by bob mcdonnell thesis text 2016 Community Health Options: 44,015 members as of the first quarter of 2017.

In addition, Minuteman Health (which will no longer exist as a CO-OP after the end of 2017) has 37,000 members in Massachusetts and New Hampshire in 2017, and Evergreen Health (which is under an administrative order that is a reply to ritzer's thesis expected to lead to receivership) has 25,000 members in Maryland. A look at the CO-OPs that are facing impending closure. In addition to the four CO-OPs described above that intend to continue to offer coverage in 2018, two other CO-OPs are still operational in text 2017, but will no longer exist as CO-OPs in 2018: MASSACHUSETTS and NEW HAMPSHIRE Minuteman Health Inc. ( will close at the end of 2017 ) Enrollment exceeded 22,500 in the first quarter of 2016, and the CO-OP ceased its advertising campaign in an effort to avoid enrolling too many members. The CO-OP had a profitable first quarter of 2016, as opposed to essay the $3.8 million loss they suffered in the first quarter of bob mcdonnell 2015. By April 2016, Minuteman’s enrollment had reached about 26,000 people, which was an 85 percent increase over 2015 enrollment. More than 21,000 of Minuteman’s QHP enrollees are in essay religion New Hampshire, and the state also has more than 3,400 Premium Assistance Program (privatized Medicaid) members with Minuteman coverage. All Minuteman Health enrollees in New Hampshire and Massachusetts will need to bob mcdonnell text secure new coverage for 2018, as the on quality CO-OP is closing at the end of 2017. MARYLAND Evergreen Health Cooperative Inc. (group coverage only in 2017; (no longer allowed to sell or renew any policies under an thesis text administrative order that is “a preliminary step to an anticipated receivership”) Enrollment was under 30,000 at the end of 2015, and had grown to religion 40,000 by March 2016. Text! Evergreen had its first-ever profitable quarter in the beginning of 2016, with a net income of mcdonaldization a reply thesis $547,000. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis! That’s compared with a loss of organizational $2.3 million in the first quarter of 2015.

For 2015, Evergreen Health CO-OP lost money, as did all of the CO-OPs. Thesis! But their loss was the essay smallest of the 11 remaining CO-OPs, at $10.8 million. In 2016, Evergreen would have been profitable for the full year, except for the $24 million they had to pay into the risk corridor program for 2015. For 2017, Evergreen had proposed an average rate increase of just 8 percent, but regulators ultimately approved an bob mcdonnell text average rate increase of more than 20 percent. Evergreen owed CMS $24.2 million in paper risk adjustment funds for 2015, which is bob mcdonnell text more than a quarter of the carrier’s total revenue. They had worked out an arrangement under which they would be acquired by private investors and converted to a for-profit (ie, not a CO-OP) insurance company, but the investors terminated the critical acquisition in bob mcdonnell July 2017, leading state regulators to determine that the CO-OP was no longer financially viable. The following CO-OPs had already closed by 2017: ARIZONA CLOSED Meritus Health Partners In a deviation from the norm, Meritus offered year-round enrollment outside the in apa exchange until late summer 2015; tax credits were only available inside the exchange, and regular open enrollment dates applied to plans purchased in the exchange. Meritus was among the worst-performing CO-OPs in terms of 2014 actual enrollment as a percentage of projected enrollment. The HHS report showed just 869 people enrolled through Meritus as of the end of 2014, out of a projected 24,000. Meritus claims that the actual enrollment total at the end of 2014 was higher (3,500) but still well short of the target number.

By August 2015, enrollment in Meritus plans had skyrocketed to almost 56,000 people. But just two days prior to bob mcdonnell thesis text the start of the 2016 open enrollment period, the Arizona Department of Insurance announced that Meritus could no longer sell or renew policies, and that existing plans would terminate at the end of 2015. COLORADO CLOSED Colorado HealthOP – The CO-OP got roughly 13 percent of the exchange market share in mcdonaldization a reply to ritzer's 2014 (the second highest of any carrier in the exchange), but they lowered their prices considerably for bob mcdonnell 2015, and essays, garnered nearly 40 percent of the exchange’s enrollees during the second open enrollment period. For 2015, they had the lowest prices in thesis text eight of Colorado’s nine rating areas. Colorado Health OP was also facing a shortfall from the risk corridors program, and term in apa, immediately began working hard to overcome it. But their efforts were not sufficient, and text, the Colorado Division of Insurance decertified them from the samples of phd research exchange on October 16, 2015.

CONNECTICUT CLOSED HealthyCT – The CO-OP had 15.6 percent of the market share in thesis 2015, but dropped to just under 12 percent for 2016. The CO-OP raised their premiums by an average of term format 7.2 percent for bob mcdonnell thesis text 2016. Unlike many other CO-OPs, HealthyCT wasn’t counting on of phd the risk corridors payout that they were owed for thesis 2014, so the shortfall wasn’t as significant for HealthyCT as it was for some of the other CO-OPs. Unlike most CO-OPs, HealthyCT also sold coverage in the large group market, so they had a stronger off-exchange presence than carriers that only offer individual and small group plans. HealthyCT also built its own provider network, instead of having to rent an already-established network from another carrier, as many CO-OPs did. But ultimately, the CO-OP succumbed to mcdonaldization a reply to ritzer's thesis the $13.4 million bill that they received for the 2015 risk adjustment program. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis! In July 2016, state regulators ordered HealthyCT to stop writing new policies or renewing existing policies. The CO-OP’s 13,000 individual market insureds (most of whom had coverage through the state’s exchange) were insured through December 31, 2016, but needed to pick a new plan during open enrollment. The CO-OP’s 27,000 employer-sponsored group enrollees continued to have coverage through the CO-OP until their renewal date in 2017 if their 2016 renewal date was July or earlier. Term Paper! Groups that renewed in thesis August or later had to switch to a different carrier as of of phd research proposal their 2016 renewal date. Text! ILLINOIS CLOSED Land of Lincoln Health The CO-OP in Illinois weathered the initial risk corridor storm, as they weren’t counting on a full payment from organizational CMS.

But they limited small group enrollments for the last two months of 2015, and they also capping 2016 enrollment at about 65,000 to 70,000 people (roughly a 30 percent increase over their 2015 membership) in order to sustainably manage their growth. Enrollment for bob mcdonnell thesis the year had ceased by organizational early January, as the CO-OP had met their membership target. During the first quarter of 2016, Land of Lincoln lost $7.1 million, up from the $5.3 million they lost in the first quarter of 2015. An AP analysis of bob mcdonnell thesis ten of the remaining 11 CO-OPs found that all of them lost money in 2015, but Land of Lincoln Health lost the a reply to ritzer's thesis most, at thesis, $90.8 million. A Reply To Ritzer's! Nevertheless, the CO-OP is on the hook for a $31.8 million payment for 2015 risk adjustment. In late June, state regulators ordered Land of Lincoln to text withhold payment until if and when the assurance CO-OP receives the $73 million they were supposed to get in 2015 for the 2014 risk corridors program.

This move was made in an effort to keep the CO-OP solvent, but it was unsuccessful. On July 12, regulators in Illinois announced that they were beginning the process of shutting down Land of Lincoln Health; the CO-OP will close on September 30, 2016. Text! A special enrollment period will allow the CO-OP’s 49,000 enrollees to pick a new plan. Essays Assurance! If a plan selection is made between August 2 and September 30, coverage under the bob mcdonnell new plan will take effect October 1, with no gap in coverage. If a plan selection is made between October 1 and organizational management, November 29, normal effective date rules will apply and there will be a gap in coverage. IOWA and thesis text, NEBRASKA CLOSED CoOportunity Health (Iowa and Nebraska) – EDIT, 1/5/15, and 7/30/2015 : CoOportunity Health was taken over by assurance Iowa state regulators in late December 2014. Once federal funding ran out, it became clear that the carrier didn’t have enough money to remain viable, as reserves had dropped to bob mcdonnell about $17 million by December. At the critical problem time, HHS said that the other 22 CO-OPs appeared to text still be financially viable early in 2015. Essay Religion! CoOportunity had raised their rates considerably for 2015, although they covered about 120,000 members in Iowa and Nebraska.

Most existing policy holders transitioned to other carriers by February 15, but there were still about 2,000 members as of mid-February. Text! Early in 2015, there was some hope that regulators would be able to of phd research proposal successfully rehabilitate the carrier. But by February 18, the Insurance Division announced that they would begin the process of liquidating the bob mcdonnell carrier before the end of the month, and the remaining insureds had to transition to other carriers by March 1. KENTUCKY CLOSED Kentucky Health Care Cooperative Near the end of the 2014 open enrollment period, Kentucky Health Cooperative had garnered 75 percent of the essay organizational management exchange enrollments in Kentucky . By the end of 2014, Kentucky Health Cooperative was covering 55,852 people in the state. The CO-OP had planned to expand into text, West Virginia for 2015, but backed out just a week before open enrollment over worries that their infrastructure wasn’t ready for the new influx of members. They had planned to term paper move forward with their expansion to West Virginia in 2016, but the West Virginia Insurance Commissioner’s office confirmed in early September 2015 that the Kentucky CO-OP no longer had plans to expand into West Virginia. As of June 2015, Kentucky Health Cooperative still had more than 55,000 members, despite the fact that their premiums increased by an average of 15 percent in 2015. But Kentucky Health Cooperative also had the bob mcdonnell text distinction of being the CO-OP with the most red ink in 2014, losing $50.4 million by the end of 2014 (although losses had diminished considerably in 2015; by the end of the first half of the year, losses totaled just $4 million). The losses from 2014 would have been offset by the risk corridors payment if it had been paid as owed ($77 million).

Instead, the CO-OP was going to about religion receive less than $10 million from the risk corridors program, and bob mcdonnell, that simply wasn’t enough to sustain them. Kentucky Health CO-OP announced in early October that they would cease operations at the end of 2015. LOUISIANA CLOSED Louisiana Health Cooperative Inc. – EDIT, 7/30/2015: On July 24, the Louisiana Department of Insurance announced that the CO-OP would be winding down its operations this year, and would not participate in the upcoming open enrollment for assurance 2016. The existing 17,000 enrollees can remain with the carrier for thesis the rest of 2015, and there are still enough cash reserves to cover claims for the rest of the year. MICHIGAN CLOSED Consumers Mutual Insurance of Michigan Nearly 80 percent of the CO-OP’s enrollees in 2015 were off-exchange. Michigan’s CO-OP was the thinking problem last to announce failure in 2015, doing so on November 2, the day after open enrollment began for 2016 coverage. NEVADA CLOSED Nevada Health Cooperative – In late August 2015, officials at Nevada Health CO-OP announced – amid mounting financial losses and “challenging market conditions” – that the bob mcdonnell thesis carrier would be ceasing operations by mcdonaldization a reply to ritzer's the end of the year.

The CO-OP had about a third of the bob mcdonnell text individual enrollments in essay management the Nevada exchange for 2015, but they had to switch to another carrier for 2016. Bob Mcdonnell Text! NEW JERSEY CLOSED Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey (Freelancer’s CO-OP) – The CO-OP ended 2014 with 4,254 members. By July 2015, the CO-OP’s enrollment had exceeded 60,000 people, thanks to new plan designs and essays on quality, lower premiums. Thesis! Rate increases for management 2016 ranged from 9 percent to 18 percent. For 2017, Health Republic of text NJ proposed an average rate increase of just 8.5 percent, but ultimately the carrier was placed in rehabilitation in mid-September, and had to stop offering new plans at problem, that point. Thesis! State regulators initially said that it was possible the CO-OP could return to the market in 2018, but that ultimately was not the in apa format case, and text, an order of liquidation was filed in February 2017). All existing Health Republic plans in essay about New Jersey terminated on December 31, 2016. NEW YORK CLOSED Health Republic Insurance of New York – The CO-OP enrolled 19 percent of the people who purchased plans through NY State of Health (the state-run exchange) during the 2014 open enrollment period. Their membership had grown to 112,000 by April 2014, and 155,000 by the end of 2014 – far surpassing their initial 2014 goal of 30,000 members. Bob Mcdonnell! In 2015, they again garnered 19 percent of NY State of Health’s private plan enrollees, and had total enrollment of about 200,000 people by thinking the time regulators announced in September 2015 that the CO-OP would be closing. There were 16 carriers offering plans through NY State of Health, and thesis text, only one had slightly higher market share than the CO-OP.

But Health Republic of NY lost $35 million in 2014, and $52.7 million in the first half of 2015; their high enrollment was not a financial panacea – they enrolled far more people than expected, but that ultimately translated into losses that far exceeded projections. Format! On September 25, state and federal regulators, along with NY’s state-run exchange, announced that they had ordered Health Republic to stop issuing new policies and prepare to terminate existing individual plans at the end of 2015. It was subsequently determined that the bob mcdonnell CO-OP was simply losing too much money to continue as a viable insurer, and coverage was terminated on November 30. OHIO InHealth Mutual CLOSED InHealth Mutual enrolled just 11 percent of their target membership for 2014. But that was partly because the carrier got licensed too late in 2013 to be sold on Healthcare.gov. So instead, InHealth Mutual mainly sold off-exchange small group plans in about religion 2014. Thesis! But for the 2015 open enrollment period, InHealth Mutual was available through the exchange, and enrollment had more than doubled to 16,000 by mid-January. However, during the first six months of critical thinking 2015, InHealth reported $9.1 million in bob mcdonnell text net losses. On Quality! Ultimately, state regulators announced in text late May 2016 that the CO-OP would be liquidated, and that the current 21,800 enrollees would have a 60 day special enrollment period during which they would be able to switch to problem a different carrier. Enrollees who remained with InHealth Mutual had coverage through the end of 2016, but it was through the state guaranty fund, which means it had a cap of $500,000 and would subject the bob mcdonnell enrollees to the ACA’s penalty for not having minimum essential coverage.

OREGON CLOSED Health Republic Insurance of essay management Oregon Health Republic’s failure was blamed in large part on the risk corridor shortfall, as was the case with many of the bob mcdonnell thesis CO-OPs that failed in late 2015. In February 2016, Health Republic of Oregon announced that they were suing the federal government over the risk corridor shortfall. Their hope is to make the suit a class action case so that other insurers who were shorted by the risk corridor program can join in the lawsuit. Mcdonaldization A Reply! OREGON CLOSED Oregon’s Health CO-OP Oregon Health CO-OP is officially called “Community Care of Oregon”. Bob Mcdonnell Text! It had just 1,582 members at the end of essays on quality assurance 2014.

By January 2015, their membership had grown to 10,000 people, and by April 2015, they said they were on track to hit 20,000 by the end of the thesis text year, and had “healthy financial reserves.” But they were expecting to receive $5 million via the 2015 risk adjustment program, and ended up owing $900,000 instead. Samples Of Phd Research! That pushed the CO-OP into insolvent territory, and the state announced on July 8 that they were placing the CO-OP in receivership. All Oregon Health CO-OP plans terminated on July 31, 2016. The CO-OP had 20,600 members—11,800 in the individual market, and 8,800 in the small group market. Individuals had a special enrollment period beginning July 11 to enroll in a new plan, with coverage effective August 1. To get an August 1 effective date, members had to pick a new plan by July 31.

Small groups worked with brokers or carriers to secure a new plan with an August 1 effective date. The state also worked out an arrangement to ensure that CO-OP members get credit for bob mcdonnell thesis their out-of-pocket spending during the first seven months of 2019, even after transferring to a new carrier starting in critical problem August. SOUTH CAROLINA CLOSED Consumer’s Choice Health Insurance Company Consumers Choice had the same CEO as neighboring Tennessee’s Community Health Alliance Mutual Insurance Company, which also closed at bob mcdonnell thesis, the end of 2015. Consumer’s Choice had 67,000 members in 2015. TENNESSEE CLOSED Community Health Alliance Mutual Insurance Company (Tennessee) – Community Health Alliance had just 2,287 members at the end of of phd proposal 2014 – out of a projected 25,000 – and experienced a loss of $22 million in 2014. But they lowered their premiums for 2015 and experienced a surge in enrollment (35,761 members as of May 2015). Enrollment grew so quickly during the 2015 open enrollment period that Community Health Alliance suspended enrollment in their plans as of January 15, noting that they had already met their enrollment goal for the year. They proposed a 32.6 percent rate increase for 2016, although regulators ultimately increased it to 44.7 percent in order to thesis text preserve the CO-OP’s viability.

The CO-OP had planned to resume selling coverage during the 2016 open enrollment period, but regulators announced in mid-October 2015 that the carrier would instead be closing at the end of the year, and all members would need to transition to another carrier for 2016. UTAH CLOSED Arches Mutual Insurance Company Arches insured roughly a quarter of samples research Utah’s exchange enrollees in bob mcdonnell 2015. The CO-OP’s on-exchange enrollment was about essay about, 32,000 people, all of bob mcdonnell thesis text whom had to find alternate plans for 2016. In July 2015, HHS released financial and enrollment data for mcdonaldization a reply the 23 CO-OPs, as of December 2014. The outlook based on the report was not particularly great: all but one of the CO-OPs operated at a loss in bob mcdonnell text 2014, and 13 of the CO-OPs fell far short of their enrollment goals for 2014. The audit called into question the CO-OPs’ ability to repay the loans that they received from the federal government under Obamacare. The risk corridor shortfall has been directly implicated in the failure of about religion CO-OPs in text Kentucky, Tennessee, Colorado, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, Arizona, and Michigan. There is no way around the organizational fact that such a significant financial blow is bob mcdonnell thesis text hard to overcome, particularly for carriers that were new to the market in 2014. Eight CO-OPs failed in the weeks following the risk corridor shortfall announcement.

Those eight CO-OPs were in serious financial jeopardy as a result of the paper risk corridor shortfall and other factors, and state Insurance Commissioners made the difficult decision to shut them down prior to the start of open enrollment, or shortly thereafter. It’s much less complicated to thesis text wind down operations in an orderly fashion in the last couple months of a year than it is to have a carrier become financially insolvent mid-year. That, coupled with the late announcement regarding the risk corridors shortfall, explains the rash of CO-OP failures announced in late 2015 (It should be noted that it’s not just CO-OPs feeling the pain from the risk corridor shortfall; in Wisconsin, Anthem exited the exchange market in three counties and scaled back operations in 34 other counties, partially as a result of the risk corridor shortfall. And in Wyoming, WINhealth has exited the individual market because of the risk corridor shortfall; in essays on quality Alaska and thesis, Oregon, Moda nearly exited the market, due in essays large part to the risk corridor shortfall.) But with 12 out of 23 CO-OPs going under in 2015, it wasn’t surprising that the mood in thesis text late 2015 was relatively pessimistic regarding the proposal CO-OP model. In his press release about the demise of Arches Health Plan, Utah Insurance Commissioner Todd E. Kiser noted that “ It is regrettable that the co-op model has not worked across the country .” That didn’t bode well for the remaining 11 CO-OPs, and ultimately only four of them intend to offer coverage for 2018.

All 11 of the remaining CO-OPs suffered losses in 2015, amounting to a total of bob mcdonnell about $400 million (Evergreen lost the term least, at $10.8 million; Land of Lincoln lost the most, at thesis, $90.8 million). The bulk of the losses were in the fourth quarter, indicating that consumers are trying to get as much value as possible from their coverage before the thinking problem end of the plan year. So although a few of the remaining CO-OPs are in bob mcdonnell the black so far in 2016, their profits are very modest, and it’s unclear how the critical thinking problem rest of the text year might go. The fact that lawmakers decided at the end of 2014 to retroactively require the risk corridors program to thinking be budget-neutral was a significant blow to bob mcdonnell thesis the CO-OPs. The CO-OPs – along with the rest of the carriers – had set their premiums for 2014 (and by that time, for essays 2015 as well) with the bob mcdonnell thesis text expectation that risk corridors payments would mitigate losses if they experienced higher-than-expected claims. Clearly, that has not panned out, and mcdonaldization thesis, it certainly put the CO-OPs in bob mcdonnell thesis a tough spot. To clarify, HHS said in 2013 that the risk corridor program would NOT be budget-neutral, and that federal funds would be used to organizational management make up any short-falls; carriers set their rates for 2014 based on that. But then in 2014, HHS announced in 2014 that they had made several adjustments to the risk corridor program, and that they projected “that these changes, in bob mcdonnell combination with the changes to the reinsurance program finalized in essay religion this rule, will result in net payments that are budget neutral in 2014. We intend to bob mcdonnell thesis text implement this program in a budget neutral manner, and paper format, may make future adjustments, either upward or downward to thesis this program (for example, as discussed below, we may modify the mcdonaldization to ritzer's ceiling on allowable administrative costs) to bob mcdonnell thesis text the extent necessary to achieve this goal.” But this was after rates for 2014 were long-since locked in, and enrollment nearly complete. At the critical end of 2014, congress passed the Cromnibus Bill, requiring risk corridors to be budget neutral, with no wiggle room for HHS.

We do have to keep in mind, however, that CMS knew from the get-go that some CO-OPs would fail. They expected at least a third of them to fail in the first 15 years, and that was long before the bob mcdonnell thesis risk corridors program was retroactively changed to be budget neutral. What are CO-OPs and how are they different? Consumer Operated and Oriented Plans (CO-OPs) were created under a provision of the Affordable Care Act. CO-OP plans were proposed by Senator Kent Conrad (D-ND) when the original public plan option was jettisoned during the health care reform debate. Lawmakers added the paper CO-OP provision to bob mcdonnell thesis text the Affordable Care Act to placate Democrats who had pushed for about religion a government-run, Medicare-for-all type of health insurance program.

At the time, progressives who preferred a public option derided CO-OPs as a poor alternative because they can’t utilize the efficiencies of scale that would come with Medicare For All, nor do they have the bob mcdonnell thesis text market clout that a single payer system would have when negotiating reimbursement rates with providers. But supporters noted that because CO-OPs are neither government agencies nor commercial insurers, they can put patients first, without having to focus on investors or Congressional politics. Instead of thesis paying shareholders, CO-OP profits are reinvested in thesis text the plan to lower premiums or improve benefits (in 2014, only one CO-OP, Maine Community Health Options, had revenue that exceeded claims and administrative expenses – but the reinvestment of profits is the plan for all CO-OPs, once they become profitable). And customers’ health insurance needs and concerns become a top priority because the CO-OP’s customers/members elect their own board of directors. And a majority of essays these directors must themselves be members of the CO-OP. CO-OPs are private, nonprofit, state-licensed health insurance carriers. Their plans can be sold both inside and outside the health insurance exchanges, depending on the state, and can offer individual, small group, and large group plans. But they’re are limited to having no more than a third of their policies in bob mcdonnell thesis text the large group market (a more lucrative market than individual or small group). Lawmakers had originally planned to provide $10 billion in grants to get the CO-OPs up and running in organizational management every state. But insurance industry lobbyists and fiscal conservatives in Congress succeeded in reducing the total to $6 billion, and bob mcdonnell, turning it into loans – with relatively short repayment schedules – instead of grants (and CO-OPs are not permitted to use federal loan money for marketing purposes). Then, during budget negotiations in 2011, those loans were cut by another $2.2 billion.

And in mcdonaldization a reply to ritzer's thesis 2012, during the text fiscal cliff negotiations, CO-OP funding was reduced even further – and applications from 40 prospective CO-OPs were rejected. To be approved to samples research proposal establish a CO-OP, applicants underwent background checks that included public records searches at the local, state, and national level as well as searches of federal debarment databases. Loan recipients are subject to strict monitoring, audits, and bob mcdonnell thesis, reporting requirements for the length of the loan repayment period plus 10 years. Ultimately, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) awarded about $2.4 billion in loans to in apa 23 CO-OPs across the country (there were 24 CO-OPs, but Vermont Health CO-OP never became operational. CMS retracted their loan in September 2013 – before the exchanges opened for the first open enrollment – because there were doubts that the program could be viable with Vermont’s impending switch to single-payer healthcare in 2017; ironically, Vermont pulled the plug on their single payer vision in late 2014). Focus on cost savings and bob mcdonnell text, reinvested profits. How do CO-OPs increase cost efficiencies?

CMS has laid out guidelines for CO-OPs to use “private purchasing councils” through which CO-OP carriers can use collective purchasing power to obtain lower costs on a variety of items and services, including claims administration, accounting, health IT, or reinsurance. Essays On Quality! But private purchasing councils are allowed to use their collective purchasing power to negotiate rates or network arrangements with providers and thesis, health care facilities, as antitrust issues could otherwise arise. But the Kaiser Family Foundation notes that CO-OPs can emphasize Patient Centered Medical Home models to keep costs down. (the PCMH model allows physicians to use health information technology and care managers to provide a full spectrum of care that’s coordinated among each patient’s various providers. On Quality Assurance! The goal is to keep patients healthy – and out of the thesis text hospital – by thinking using best practices and evidence based medicine. If PCMH doctors are successful, they qualify for bonuses). CO-OPs generally emphasize preventive care in an effort to text keep their members healthy. A challenge for CO-OPs has been developing their provider networks.

At least 15 CO-OPs are renting networks from other insurers, which adds to their administrative expenses. In Maine, Community Health Options (the one profitable CO-OP in 2014) built its own provider network from the ground up, a move that CEO Kevin Lewis notes as one of the reasons CHO has been successful. CO-OPs also have the option to hire doctors directly, rather than contract with them through provider networks (the upside for the doctors is that the CO-OP then handles the administrative details, and the doctor can focus on healthcare instead). Will the few remaining CO-OPs survive? It’s too soon to tell. Term Paper In Apa! In many states, the CO-OPs started out in a David and bob mcdonnell text, Goliath situation, competing with carriers that have dominated the health insurance landscape for years. There are some promising signs from some CO-OPs that may ultimately survive long-term. And even among the CO-OPs that struggled early on, long-term sustainability is possible. Premiums that carriers – including CO-OPs – set for 2014 and 2015 were little more than educated guesses from actuaries, since there was very little in the way of actual claims data on which to rely (there was no data at all when the 2014 rates were being set, and thinking problem, only a couple months of early data available when 2015 rates were being set).

Once the CO-OPs had more than a year of claims history in the books, they were able to be more accurate in pricing their policies for 2016, and that will again be the case for 2017. CO-OP supporters had hoped that the new carriers would disrupt existing markets, driving down premiums and shaking up the market share among commercial insurers. Although CO-OPs struggled financially in bob mcdonnell thesis their first year, average premiums market-wide were lower in both 2014 and 2015 in states that have CO-OPs than in states without CO-OPs. A GAO report found that average CO-OP premiums in 2014 and 2015 in most states tended to be lower than the average premiums across all carriers in those states. And enrollment in about CO-OPs increased at a much faster pace than overall enrollment growth (across all carriers) from 2014 to 2015. CMS acknowledged from the start that not all of the CO-OPs would be likely to bob mcdonnell text succeed – just as a crop of new for-profit health insurance carriers wouldn’t all be expected to succeed. But over the next few years, the remaining CO-OPs will have an opportunity to refine their business models, reinvest any profits they make, and grow their enrollment – especially as grandmothered plans cease to exist by the end of essays on quality 2018, increasing the number of people who need to purchase ACA-compliant plans. The retention of grandmothered plans has benefited health plans that were already in place prior to thesis 2014, since enrollees on grandmothered plans had to go through underwriting to obtain their coverage; on the other hand, new insurers like CO-OPs have had to contend with a population that’s less healthy than expected, partly because people with grandmothered plans have not yet all transitioned to organizational ACA-compliant plans. In short, it’s too soon to bob mcdonnell thesis know how the CO-OPs will fare. With only four remaining as we head into the open enrollment period for 2018 coverage, the odds certainly haven’t seemed to be in their favor. But some of them may experience long-term success and become integral parts of the health insurance landscape.

In July 2015, Louisiana Health Cooperative announced that it would cease operations as of the end of 2015. LHC was the second CO-OP to fail; CoOpportunity, which served Nebraska and Iowa, received liquidation orders from state regulators in February. At the essay organizational end of August, the Nevada Health CO-OP announced they would also close at the end of 2015. And in September, New York officials announced that Health Republic of New York, the nation’s largest CO-OP, would begin winding down operations immediately, and that individual Health Republic of NY policies would terminate at the end of 2015. On October 1, 2015 the federal government notified health insurance carriers across the bob mcdonnell country that risk corridors payments from essay management 2014 would only amount to 12.6 percent of the bob mcdonnell text total owed to the carriers.

The program is budget neutral as a result of the critical thinking problem 2015 benefit and payment parameters released by HHS in March 2014. And the bob mcdonnell thesis “Cromnibus bill” that was passed at mcdonaldization, the end of 2014 eliminated the possibility of the risk corridors program being anything but budget neutral, despite the fact that HHS had said they would adjust the program as necessary going forward. But very few carriers had lower-than-expected claims in 2014. Bob Mcdonnell! So the payments into the risk corridors program were far less than the amount owed to carriers – and critical thinking, the result is that the carriers essentially get an IOU for bob mcdonnell thesis a total of $2.5 billion that may or may not be recouped with 2015 and 2016 risk corridors funding (risk corridors still have to term in apa format be budget neutral in 2015 and 2016, so if there’s a shortfall again, carriers would fall even further into the red). Many health insurance carriers – particularly smaller, newer companies – are facing financial difficulties as a result of the risk corridors shortfall. CO-OPs are particularly vulnerable because they’re all start-ups and bob mcdonnell thesis, tend to be relatively small. All of the CO-OPs that have announced closures since October 1 have attributed their failure to the risk corridor payment shortfall. On October 9, Kentucky Health CO-OP announced that their risk corridors shortfall was simply too significant to overcome. (The CO-OP was supposed to receive $77 million, but was only going to get $9.7 million as a result of the shortfall.) The CO-OP will not offer plans for 2016, and their 2015 policies will terminate at the end of the year. This means about critical, 51,000 people in bob mcdonnell thesis Kentucky will have to shop for new coverage for 2016, as they will not be able to keep their Kentucky Health CO-OP plans.

And then on October 14, Tennessee regulators announced that Community Health Alliance would also close at the end of the paper year. CHA stopped enrolling new members in January 2015, but it had planned to sell policies during the 2016 open enrollment period, albeit with a 44.7 percent rate increase. Ultimately, the risk of the thesis text CO-OP’s failure in 2016 was too great, and it will wind down operations by the end of the year instead. Two days later, on October 16, Colorado Health OP was decertified from the essays on quality exchange by the Colorado Division of Insurance, resulting in the CO-OP’s demise; Colorado Health OP’s 80,000 individual members will all need to transition to new carriers for 2016. Almost immediately after that, Oregon’s Health Republic Insurance, also a CO-OP, announced that it would not offer 2016 plans, and would wind down its operations by the end of bob mcdonnell thesis text 2015. Health Republic currently has 15,000 members. On October 22, The South Carolina Department of critical thinking Insurance announced that Consumers Choice would voluntarily wind down its operations by year-end, and would not sell plans for 2016. Consumers Choice was run by bob mcdonnell text the same CEO – Jerry Burgess – as Community Health Alliance in Tennessee. 67,000 Consumers Choice members will need to switch to a new carrier for 2016. The South Carolina Department of Insurance has put together a series of FAQs for impacted plan members. On October 27, the Utah Insurance Department announced that they are placing Arches Health Plan in receivership, and the carrier will wind down operations by the end of the year.

Arches Health Plan garnered roughly a quarter of Utah’s exchange market share in 2015, but those enrollees will need to switch to a new carrier for 2016. On October 30, just two days before the start of the 2016 open enrollment period, the Arizona Department of Insurance announced that Meritus would cease selling and renewing coverage, and existing plans would terminate at the end of 2015. Healthcare.gov removed Meritus plans from the exchange website, and current enrollees – who comprise roughly a third of the private plan enrollees in the Arizona exchange – will need to obtain new coverage for 2016. Meritus was unique in that they allowed people to enroll off exchange year-round up until late-summer 2015. To Ritzer's Thesis! They were also among very few CO-OPs that had requested a rate increase of less than ten percent for 2016. Open enrollment began on November 1, and coverage was still available at that point from the remaining 12 CO-OPs. Text! But on November 2, it became clear that Consumers Mutual of Michigan was in financial trouble. The carrier announced that they would not offer plans in the exchange in 2016, although at that point, there was still a possibility that they would continue to essay offer plans outside the exchange. But on November 4, they announced that they would wind down their operations by the end of the year, and all 28,000 members would need to text find new coverage for 2016. In May 2016, state regulators in Ohio announced that InHealth Mutual would shut down and in apa format, that members would have a 60 day special enrollment period to select a new plan. In July 2016, state regulators in Connecticut announced that HealthyCT would shut down at the end of 2016 (employer groups were able to keep their coverage through the renewal date in bob mcdonnell thesis text 2017, as long as the plan’s renewal date in 2016 was July or earlier).

In July 2016, state regulators in Oregon announced that Oregon Health CO-OP would shut down at the end of essays assurance July 2016. In July 2016, state regulators in thesis Illinois announced that they were beginning the process of taking over Land of Lincoln Health and winding down the CO-OP’s operations. A special enrollment period was created for the CO-OP’s 49,000 enrollees. In September 2016, state regulators in New Jersey placed Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey into rehabilitation, and the CO-OP ceased selling new plans. Essay Management! Health Republic’s existing plans terminated at bob mcdonnell thesis, the end of 2016. In June 2017, Minuteman Health announced that they would no longer offer coverage as a CO-OP after the samples end of bob mcdonnell thesis text 2017. At that point, they intended to transition to essays on quality assurance a for-profit insurance company (Minuteman Insurance Company). However, they were unable to raise enough capital by bob mcdonnell thesis text the August 2017 deadline for securing a license for 2018, and will thus not re-open as a for-profit insurer.

Minuteman Health is in on quality receivership, and enrollees will need to obtain new coverage during open enrollment in bob mcdonnell text the fall of 2017. In July 2017, Maryland regulators issued an research administrative order blocking Evergreen Health from selling or renewing any plans (they only had group plans in force at that point, having terminated individual market plans at bob mcdonnell text, the end of 2016). The order notes that it’s expected that the process will culminate in receivership. Louise Norris has been writing about term in apa format, health insurance and healthcare reform Read more. RT @LouiseNorris: 1. Bob Mcdonnell Thesis! Avg rate increase in essay about Nevada 31.6%, but for the only bob mcdonnell text, returning carrier in essay about the exchange, it's 36.8% https://t.co/AYXmXMK… After subsidy, Minnesota health exchange insurance rates largely stable or dropping for text 2018 | from @kpottermn… https://t.co/DabHX4CtIk. RT @LouiseNorris: If initiative is approved, they have until April to essay organizational get enough signatures to get it on the ballot. Spread the text word! https… Copyright ©1994-2017, healthinsurance.org llc, 5353 Wayzata Boulevard, Suite 300, St. Louis Park, MN 55416. For quote requests or help in purchasing insurance, call toll-free 1-855-367-0132. or use our quote form.

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