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How to Write an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. JAY SIWEK, M.D., and MARGARET L. GOURLAY, M.D., Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington D.C. DAVID C. SLAWSON, M.D., University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia. ALLEN F. Coursework Scheme? SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Jan 15;65(2):251-258.

Traditional clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Updates selectively review the medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. Nonquantitative systematic reviews comprehensively examine the medical literature, seeking to identify and synthesize all relevant information to formulate the best approach to diagnosis or treatment. Meta-analyses (quantitative systematic reviews) seek to & theses, answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of pooled research studies. As Physics Scheme? This article presents guidelines for writing an evidence-based clinical review article for American Family Physician . First, the topic should be of common interest and locke, relevance to family practice.

Include a table of the as physics mark, continuing medical education objectives of the review. Locke And Rousseau? State how the as physics mark, literature search was done and include several sources of evidence-based reviews, such as the Cochrane Collaboration, BMJ's Clinical Evidence , or the InfoRetriever Web site. Where possible, use evidence based on ethics essay clinical outcomes relating to morbidity, mortality, or quality of life, and studies of primary care populations. In articles submitted to American Family Physician , rate the level of evidence for key recommendations according to the following scale: level A (randomized controlled trial [RCT], meta-analysis); level B (other evidence); level C (consensus/expert opinion). Finally, provide a table of key summary points. American Family Physician is particularly interested in receiving clinical review articles that follow an evidence-based format. Clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from systematic reviews and as physics coursework scheme, meta-analyses in death, important ways.1 Updates selectively review the medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. As Physics Mark Scheme? An example of such a topic is, #x201c;The diagnosis and treatment of myocardial ischemia.#x201d; Systematic reviews comprehensively examine the medical literature, seeking to identify and synthesize all relevant information to formulate the best approach to diagnosis or treatment. Examples are many of the systematic reviews of the Cochrane Collaboration or BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium.

Meta-analyses are a special type of systematic review. They use quantitative methods to analyze the literature and seek to answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of pooled research studies. Research On Apple? An example is, #x201c;Do beta blockers reduce mortality following myocardial infarction?#x201d; The best clinical review articles base the discussion on existing systematic reviews and mark scheme, meta-analyses, and incorporate all relevant research findings about the dissertation & theses, management of a given disorder. Coursework? Such evidence-based updates provide readers with powerful summaries and sound clinical guidance.

In this article, we present guidelines for writing an evidence-based clinical review article, especially one designed for continuing medical education (CME) and paper on apple, incorporating CME objectives into its format. This article may be read as a companion piece to a previous article and accompanying editorial about reading and evaluating clinical review articles.1 , 2 Some articles may not be appropriate for an evidence-based format because of the nature of the topic, the slant of the article, a lack of sufficient supporting evidence, or other factors. We encourage authors to review the literature and, wherever possible, rate key points of mark evidence. This process will help emphasize the summary points of the article and strengthen its teaching value. Choose a common clinical problem and avoid topics that are rarities or unusual manifestations of disease or that have curiosity value only. Letter Of Application Teaching Assistant? Whenever possible, choose common problems for which there is new information about diagnosis or treatment. Emphasize new information that, if valid, should prompt a change in clinical practice, such as the recent evidence that spironolactone therapy improves survival in patients who have severe congestive heart failure.3 Similarly, new evidence showing that a standard treatment is scheme no longer helpful, but may be harmful, would also be important to report. Paper On Apple? For example, patching most traumatic corneal abrasions may actually cause more symptoms and delay healing compared with no patching.4.

When searching the as physics coursework, literature on your topic, please consult several sources of evidence-based reviews (Table 1) . Look for pertinent guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of the disorder being discussed. Incorporate all high-quality recommendations that are relevant to the topic. Penalty Ethics Essay? When reviewing the first draft, look for all key recommendations about diagnosis and, especially, treatment. Coursework Mark? Try to death, ensure that all recommendations are based on the highest level of evidence available. If you are not sure about the source or strength of the recommendation, return to as physics coursework mark, the literature, seeking out the basis for letter of application for graduate the recommendation. Some Sources of Evidence-Based Medicine. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the Agency for coursework mark scheme Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to for jekyll and hyde, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and Preventive Services. The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated. American College of Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC) ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in individual articles.

Commentary by mark, ACP author offers clinical recommendations. Access to of application teaching, the online version of ACPJC is coursework mark a benefit for for jekyll answers members of the ACP-ASIM, but will be open to all until at least the end of scheme 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice. Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to on hobbes locke and rousseau, CEBM within the Faculty of Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to evidence-based journals, and EBM-related teaching materials. Center for Research Support, TRIP Database. The AHRQ began the Translating Research into Practice (TRIP) initiative in as physics coursework scheme, 1990 to implement evidence-based tools and information. The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to research paper on apple, the largest collection of EBM materials on the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and individual articles. Coursework Mark Scheme? A good starting place for an EBM literature search. Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group*

Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. Lists available topics and describes the supporting body of evidence to penalty, date (e.g., number of as physics coursework mark scheme relevant randomized controlled trials published to date). Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews* Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by the Cochrane Group. Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for the development of EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management. Database of Abstracts of on apple Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)* Structured abstracts written by University of York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). As Physics Coursework Mark? Abstract summaries review articles on diagnostic or treatment interventions and discuss clinical implications. Effective Health Care*

Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for medical decision-makers. Based on systematic reviews and penalty, synthesis of research on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of health service interventions. Bimonthly publication launched in 1995 by the BMJ Publishing Group. Article summaries include commentaries by clinical experts. Subscription is mark scheme required. Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])* This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for Category 1 CME credit. Test Answers? Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for the complete POEMs database and six additional evidence-based databases. Subscription is required.

Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an as physics coursework mark, independent, nonprofit collaboration of health care organizations, including the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Web site includes the ICSI guidelines for preventive services and disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of essays on hobbes evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from government agencies and health care organizations. Describes and compares guideline statements with respect to as physics coursework scheme, objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and death penalty essay, major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for EBM reviews. More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines. University of California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)* This Web site features updated recommendations for clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of systematic evidence reviews. When these sources are used to prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to guidelines issued by the AAFP Commission of Continuing Medical Education, the content will qualify for as physics coursework mark scheme the special designation of evidence-based CME. See the letter of application for graduate teaching assistant, AAFP Web site for additional information about preparing evidence-based CME . Some Sources of Evidence-Based Medicine. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the mark, Agency for paper on apple Health Care Policy and as physics coursework mark scheme, Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and essay test for jekyll answers, Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and Preventive Services. The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated. American College of Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC)

ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in individual articles. Commentary by coursework mark, ACP author offers clinical recommendations. Access to the online version of ACPJC is a benefit for members of the ACP-ASIM, but will be open to john, all until at least the end of 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice. Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of coursework mark scheme Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to dissertation theses, CEBM within the Faculty of Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to evidence-based journals, and mark, EBM-related teaching materials. Center for death Research Support, TRIP Database. The AHRQ began the Translating Research into Practice (TRIP) initiative in 1990 to implement evidence-based tools and information. Coursework Scheme? The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to the largest collection of and rousseau EBM materials on the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and as physics coursework, individual articles.

A good starting place for an EBM literature search. Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group* Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. Lists available topics and describes the supporting body of evidence to date (e.g., number of donne collection essays relevant randomized controlled trials published to date). Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the as physics scheme, United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews* Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by the Cochrane Group. Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for the development of EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management. Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)* Structured abstracts written by University of York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). Abstract summaries review articles on diagnostic or treatment interventions and discuss clinical implications.

Effective Health Care* Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for medical decision-makers. Based on essay and hyde systematic reviews and synthesis of research on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of health service interventions. Bimonthly publication launched in 1995 by the BMJ Publishing Group. Article summaries include commentaries by clinical experts.

Subscription is required. Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])* This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for Category 1 CME credit. Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for the complete POEMs database and six additional evidence-based databases. As Physics Mark Scheme? Subscription is proquest & database required. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an independent, nonprofit collaboration of health care organizations, including the coursework mark scheme, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Web site includes the ICSI guidelines for preventive services and disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from government agencies and health care organizations.

Describes and compares guideline statements with respect to objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for EBM reviews. More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines. University of letter of application for graduate teaching assistant California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)* This Web site features updated recommendations for clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of systematic evidence reviews. When these sources are used to prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to guidelines issued by the AAFP Commission of coursework Continuing Medical Education, the essays, content will qualify for the special designation of evidence-based CME. See the AAFP Web site for additional information about coursework mark preparing evidence-based CME . In particular, try to essays and rousseau, find the answer in an authoritative compendium of evidence-based reviews, or at as physics scheme least try to essays locke and rousseau, find a meta-analysis or well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) to support it. If none appears to be available, try to cite an authoritative consensus statement or clinical guideline, such as a National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference statement or a clinical guideline published by a major medical organization. If no strong evidence exists to support the as physics mark, conventional approach to managing a given clinical situation, point this out in the text, especially for key recommendations. Keep in mind that much of traditional medical practice has not yet undergone rigorous scientific study, and on hobbes and rousseau, high-quality evidence may not exist to support conventional knowledge or practice. Patient-Oriented vs. Disease-Oriented Evidence. With regard to types of evidence, Shaughnessy and Slawson5 #x2013; 7 developed the concept of Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEM), in distinction to Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE). POEM deals with outcomes of importance to patients, such as changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of life.

DOE deals with surrogate end points, such as changes in laboratory values or other measures of response. Although the results of DOE sometimes parallel the results of POEM, they do not always correspond (Table 2) .2 When possible, use POEM-type evidence rather than DOE. When DOE is the only guidance available, indicate that key clinical recommendations lack the support of outcomes evidence. Here is an example of how the latter situation might appear in as physics coursework mark, the text: #x201c;Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing identifies prostate cancer at an early stage, it has not yet been proved that PSA screening improves patient survival.#x201d; (Note: PSA testing is an example of donne collection DOE, a surrogate marker for the true outcomes of importance#x2014;improved survival, decreased morbidity, and improved quality of life.) Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the incidence of PVCs on ECGs. Antiarrhythmic drug X is associated with an increase in mortality. POEM results are contrary to DOE implications. Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is associated with a decrease in mortality. POEM results are in concordance with DOE implications. Screening for prostate cancer.

PSA screening detects prostate cancer at scheme an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the important POEM is currently unknown. DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from for jekyll and hyde, review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the incidence of PVCs on ECGs. Antiarrhythmic drug X is coursework scheme associated with an penalty, increase in coursework, mortality. POEM results are contrary to DOE implications.

Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is associated with a decrease in mortality. POEM results are in concordance with DOE implications. Screening for prostate cancer. PSA screening detects prostate cancer at essays on hobbes and rousseau an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the important POEM is currently unknown. DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from review articles: a guide for readers and writers. As Physics Coursework Mark? Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Evaluate the strength and validity of the literature that supports the discussion (see the essays, following section, Levels of Evidence). Look for meta-analyses, high-quality, randomized clinical trials with important outcomes (POEM), or well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trials, clinical cohort studies, or case-controlled studies with consistent findings.

In some cases, high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies are appropriate (e.g., the evidence supporting the efficacy of Papanicolaou smear screening). Coursework Mark? Avoid anecdotal reports or repeating the hearsay of essay test and hyde answers conventional wisdom, which may not stand up to the scrutiny of as physics scientific study (e.g., prescribing prolonged bed rest for low back pain). Look for studies that describe patient populations that are likely to be seen in primary care rather than subspecialty referral populations. Teaching? Shaughnessy and as physics coursework mark, Slawson's guide for writers of clinical review articles includes a section on information and validity traps to paper, avoid.2. Readers need to know the strength of the evidence supporting the coursework scheme, key clinical recommendations on diagnosis and treatment. Many different rating systems of varying complexity and clinical relevance are described in the medical literature.

Recently, the third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) emphasized the importance of rating not only the study type (RCT, cohort study, case-control study, etc.), but also the study quality as measured by essays on hobbes locke and rousseau, internal validity and the quality of the entire body of evidence on a topic.8. While it is important to appreciate these evolving concepts, we find that a simplified grading system is more useful in AFP . Mark Scheme? We have adopted the research on apple, following convention, using an ABC rating scale. As Physics Coursework? Criteria for paper high-quality studies are discussed in several sources.8 , 9 See the as physics mark scheme, AFP Web site (www.aafp.org/afp/authors) for additional information about levels of evidence and see the accompanying editorial in this issue discussing the potential pitfalls and john critical essays, limitations of any rating system. Level A (randomized controlled trial/meta-analysis): High-quality randomized controlled trial (RCT) that considers all important outcomes.

High-quality meta-analysis (quantitative systematic review) using comprehensive search strategies. Level B (other evidence): A well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trial. A nonquantitative systematic review with appropriate search strategies and well-substantiated conclusions. Includes lower quality RCTs, clinical cohort studies, and case-controlled studies with non-biased selection of coursework study participants and consistent findings. Other evidence, such as high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies, or well-designed epidemiologic studies with compelling findings, is also included. Level C (consensus/expert opinion): Consensus viewpoint or expert opinion. Each rating is applied to a single reference in essays and rousseau, the article, not to the entire body of evidence that exists on a topic. Each label should include the letter rating (A, B, C), followed by the specific type of study for that reference.

For example, following a level B rating, include one of these descriptors: (1) nonrandomized clinical trial; (2) nonquantitative systematic review; (3) lower quality RCT; (4) clinical cohort study; (5) case-controlled study; (6) historical uncontrolled study; (7) epidemiologic study. Here are some examples of the as physics scheme, way evidence ratings should appear in the text: #x201c;To improve morbidity and death, mortality, most patients in congestive heart failure should be treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Coursework Mark? [Evidence level A, RCT]#x201d; #x201c;The USPSTF recommends that clinicians routinely screen asymptomatic pregnant women 25 years and younger for chlamydial infection. [Evidence level B, non-randomized clinical trial]#x201d; #x201c;The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for proquest dissertation theses database diabetes every three years in all patients at high risk of the disease, including all adults 45 years and older. As Physics Coursework Mark? [Evidence level C, expert opinion]#x201d; When scientifically strong evidence does not exist to support a given clinical recommendation, you can point this out in the following way: #x201c;Physical therapy is traditionally prescribed for for jekyll answers the treatment of adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), although there are no randomized outcomes studies of coursework this approach.#x201d; The introduction should define the topic and locke and rousseau, purpose of the review and describe its relevance to as physics mark, family practice. The traditional way of doing this is to discuss the epidemiology of the condition, stating how many people have it at one point in penalty ethics, time (prevalence) or what percentage of the population is as physics coursework mark scheme expected to develop it over a given period of time (incidence).

A more engaging way of doing this is to indicate how often a typical family physician is likely to encounter this problem during a week, month, year, or career. Emphasize the key CME objectives of the review and summarize them in penalty ethics essay, a separate table entitled #x201c;CME Objectives.#x201d; The methods section should briefly indicate how the literature search was conducted and as physics mark scheme, what major sources of evidence were used. Essays? Ideally, indicate what predetermined criteria were used to include or exclude studies (e.g., studies had to be independently rated as being high quality by an established evaluation process, such as the as physics coursework mark scheme, Cochrane Collaboration). Of Application Assistant? Be comprehensive in as physics mark, trying to identify all major relevant research. Critically evaluate the death ethics, quality of as physics mark scheme research reviewed. Avoid selective referencing of only information that supports your conclusions.

If there is controversy on a topic, address the john critical, full scope of the controversy. The discussion can then follow the typical format of a clinical review article. It should touch on one or more of the following subtopics: etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation (signs and symptoms), diagnostic evaluation (history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and diagnostic imaging), differential diagnosis, treatment (goals, medical/surgical therapy, laboratory testing, patient education, and as physics mark, follow-up), prognosis, prevention, and future directions. The review will be comprehensive and balanced if it acknowledges controversies, unresolved questions, recent developments, other viewpoints, and any apparent conflicts of penalty ethics essay interest or instances of bias that might affect the strength of the evidence presented. Emphasize an evidence-supported approach or, where little evidence exists, a consensus viewpoint. In the absence of a consensus viewpoint, you may describe generally accepted practices or discuss one or more reasoned approaches, but acknowledge that solid support for these recommendations is lacking. In some cases, cost-effectiveness analyses may be important in as physics, deciding how to implement health care services, especially preventive services.10 When relevant, mention high-quality cost-effectiveness analyses to essay and hyde answers, help clarify the costs and health benefits associated with alternative interventions to achieve a given health outcome. As Physics Coursework? Highlight key points about diagnosis and treatment in the discussion and include a summary table of the key take-home points.

These points are not necessarily the same as the essay for jekyll, key recommendations, whose level of evidence is rated, although some of as physics coursework mark scheme them will be. Use tables, figures, and illustrations to highlight key points, and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to diagnosis or treatment when possible. Rate the evidence for key statements, especially treatment recommendations. We expect that most articles will have at most two to four key statements; some will have none. Rate only those statements that have corresponding references and base the rating on essay test and hyde answers the quality and level of evidence presented in the supporting citations. Use primary sources (original research, RCTs, meta-analyses, and coursework mark, systematic reviews) as the basis for determining the level of evidence. On Hobbes And Rousseau? In other words, the as physics mark scheme, supporting citation should be a primary research source of the information, not a secondary source (such as a nonsystematic review article or a textbook) that simply cites the original source. Systematic reviews that analyze multiple RCTs are good sources for determining ratings of evidence. The references should include the most current and important sources of support for key statements (i.e., studies referred to, new information, controversial material, specific quantitative data, and research, information that would not usually be found in most general reference textbooks).

Generally, these references will be key evidence-based recommendations, meta-analyses, or landmark articles. Although some journals publish exhaustive lists of reference citations, AFP prefers to include a succinct list of key references. (We will make more extensive reference lists available on our Web site or provide links to your personal reference list.) You may use the following checklist to ensure the completeness of as physics coursework scheme your evidence-based review article; use the source list of reviews to identify important sources of evidence-based medicine materials. Checklist for an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. The topic is common in family practice, especially topics in which there is new, important information about diagnosis or treatment. The introduction defines the topic and the purpose of the dissertation, review, and describes its relevance to family practice.

A table of CME objectives for the review is coursework included. The review states how you did your literature search and indicates what sources you checked to ensure a comprehensive assessment of relevant studies (e.g., MEDLINE, the Cochrane Collaboration Database, the Center for Research Support, TRIP Database). Several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic are evaluated (Table 1) . Where possible, POEM (dealing with changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of death ethics life) rather than DOE (dealing with mechanistic explanations or surrogate end points, such as changes in laboratory tests) is used to support key clinical recommendations (Table 2) . Studies of as physics scheme patients likely to be representative of those in primary care practices, rather than subspecialty referral centers, are emphasized. Studies that are not only statistically significant but also clinically significant are emphasized; e.g., interventions with meaningful changes in absolute risk reduction and low numbers needed to treat. (Seehttp://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116.)11. The level of evidence for key clinical recommendations is on apple labeled using the following rating scale: level A (RCT/meta-analysis), level B (other evidence), and level C (consensus/expert opinion). Acknowledge controversies, recent developments, other viewpoints, and any apparent conflicts of scheme interest or instances of bias that might affect the strength of the evidence presented. Highlight key points about diagnosis and of application, treatment in the discussion and mark scheme, include a summary table of key take-home points. Use tables, figures, and on apple, illustrations to highlight key points and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to as physics coursework mark, diagnosis or treatment when possible. Emphasize evidence-based guidelines and primary research studies, rather than other review articles, unless they are systematic reviews. The essential elements of this checklist are summarized in Table 3 . Essential Steps in Writing an john critical, Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. Choose a common, important topic in family practice.

Provide a table with a list of continuing medical education (CME) objectives for the review. State how the literature search and reference selection were done. Use several sources of evidence-based reviews on as physics scheme the topic. Rate the assistant, level of evidence for key recommendations in the text. Provide a table of key summary points (not necessarily the same as key recommendations that are rated). Essential Steps in Writing an as physics, Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. Choose a common, important topic in test and hyde, family practice. Provide a table with a list of continuing medical education (CME) objectives for the review. State how the literature search and reference selection were done.

Use several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic. Rate the as physics mark scheme, level of evidence for key recommendations in the text. Provide a table of key summary points (not necessarily the same as key recommendations that are rated). Read the full article. Get immediate access, anytime, anywhere. Choose a single article, issue, or full-access subscription. Essay Test For Jekyll? Earn up to 6 CME credits per issue. Already a member or subscriber? Log in.

Get Full Access. Includes: Immediate, unlimited access to all AFP content More than 130 CME credits per year Access to as physics coursework mark scheme, the AFP app Print delivery option. Access This Issue. Includes: Immediate access to this issue CME credits in this issue. Access This Article. JAY SIWEK, M.D., is professor and letter of application teaching assistant, chair of the Department of Family Medicine at Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, D.C. He is also editor of coursework scheme American Family Physician.

A graduate of Georgetown University School of Medicine, Dr. Siwek completed his family practice residency at letter teaching Middlesex Hospital in Middletown, Conn. . MARGARET L. GOURLAY, M.D., is currently the as physics, American Family Physician Medical Editing Fellow at Georgetown University Medical Center. A graduate of Rush Medical College, Chicago, she completed a residency in family medicine at the University of California, San Diego, Medical Center. DAVID C. SLAWSON, M.D., is the database, B. Lewis Barnett, Jr. Coursework Mark? professor of family medicine at essay and hyde answers the University of Virginia Health System in Charlottesville, Va. He is director and coursework scheme, founder of the Center for Information Mastery and serves as section editor for The Journal of Family Practice POEMs.

Dr. Slawson is and hyde answers a graduate of the University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Mich., and he completed postdoctoral training in family medicine at the University of Virginia. ALLEN F. SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., is director of research and associate director of the Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pa. He completed his doctorate and mark, fellowship training at the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. Address correspondence to Jay Siwek, M.D., Department of Family Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 215 Kober-Cogan Hall, 3750 Reservoir Rd. NW, Washington DC 20007 (e-mail:afp@family.georgetown.edu). Reprints are not available from the authors . The authors thank Ted Ganiats, M.D. for donne collection essays a helpful review and conceptual contributions to the manuscript . The authors indicate that they do not have any conflicts of interest. Scheme? Sources of funding: none reported . 1. Siwek J. Reading and evaluating clinical review articles. Am Fam Physician . John Donne Collection Critical Essays? 1997;55:2064,2069#x2013;70,2072. . 2. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from as physics coursework scheme, review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Am Fam Physician . 1997;55:2155#x2013;60.

3. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, Cody R, Castaigne A, Perez A, et al. for the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators. The effect of on hobbes locke spironolactone on as physics coursework mark scheme morbidity and letter of application teaching, mortality in mark, patients with severe heart failure. N Engl J Med . Dissertation & Theses? 1999;341:709#x2013;17. 4. Flynn CA, D'Amico F, Smith G. Should we patch corneal abrasions? A meta-analysis. J Fam Pract . 1998;47:264#x2013;70. 5. Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF, Bennett JH. Becoming a medical information master: feeling good about not knowing everything.

J Fam Pract . 1994;38:505#x2013;13. 6. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC, Bennett JH. Becoming an information master: a guidebook to the medical information jungle. J Fam Pract . 1994;39:489#x2013;99. 7. Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF. Becoming an information master: using POEMs to change practice with confidence.

Patient-oriented evidence that matters. J Fam Pract . 2000;49:63#x2013;7. 8. As Physics Coursework Mark? Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, Lohr KN, Mulrow CD, Teutsch SM, et al. Methods Work Group, Third U.S. John Donne Collection? Preventive Services Task Force. Current methods of the U.S.

Preventive Services Task Force. A review of the process. Am J Prev Med . 2001;20(3 suppl):21#x2013;35. 9. Coursework Scheme? CATbank topics: levels of essay evidence and grades of recommendations. As Physics Mark Scheme? Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/. 10. Essay For Jekyll And Hyde? Saha S, Hoerger TJ, Pignone MP, Teutsch SM, Helfand M, Mandelblatt JS. for the Cost Work Group of the as physics mark, Third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Critical? The art and scheme, science of incorporating cost effectiveness into evidence-based recommendations for clinical preventive services.

Am J Prev Med . 2001;20(3 suppl):36#x2013;43. 11. Evidence-based medicine glossary. Research Paper? Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116. Copyright © 2002 by the American Academy of Family Physicians. This content is owned by the AAFP.

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What is an as physics coursework mark scheme, alcoholic? How to treat alcoholism. Alcoholism is a term for long-term addiction to essays, alcohol. According to the National Institute of Health (NIH), in 2015, 15.1 million American adults (6.2 percent of the population) had an alcohol use problem. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), globally,3.3 million deaths every year result from harmful use of as physics coursework alcohol. Alcoholics Anonymous U.K., do not have a formal definition for donne collection critical, alcoholism, but say it may be described as a physical compulsion, together with a mental obsession. Coursework Mark? They say that, apart from having an enormous craving for alcohol, an alcoholic often gives in to the craving at proquest the worst possible times.

The alcoholic knows neither when nor how to stop drinking. Definition - an alcoholic is a person, while alcoholism is the illness. An alcoholic suffers from as physics mark, alcoholism. Alcoholism is a long-term (chronic) disease. It should also be acknowledged that there is donne essays, a growing trend away from using the term alcoholic as it is perceived to be a negative label. Instead, you may hear the person referred to as a person who suffers from alcohol use disorder. Alcoholics are obsessed with alcohol and mark, cannot control how much they consume, even if it is causing serious problems at home, work, and financially. Alcohol abuse generally refers to people who do not display the characteristics of of application for graduate teaching assistant alcoholism, but still have a problem with it - they are not as dependent on alcohol as an alcoholic is; they have not yet completely lost their control over coursework scheme its consumption. Moderate alcohol consumption will not generally cause any psychological or physical harm. However, for death ethics essay, some individuals, social drinking eventually leads to heavier and heavier alcohol consumption, which does cause serious health and psychological problems.

Typically, the last person to be aware that they have a serious drinking problem is the person with alcohol use disorder - they are often in as physics coursework scheme, denial. Some signs and paper on apple, symptoms include : Drinking alone. Coursework Scheme? Drinking in essay, secret. Not being able to limit how much alcohol is consumed. Blacking out - not being able to remember chunks of as physics scheme time. Penalty? Having rituals and being irritated/annoyed when these rituals are disturbed or commented on. This could be drinks before/during/after meals, or after work. As Physics Coursework Mark Scheme? Dropping hobbies and paper, activities the person used to enjoy; losing interest in them.

Feeling an urge to drink. Feeling irritable when drinking times approach. This feeling is more intense if the alcohol is not available, or there appears to be a chance it may not be available. Having stashes of alcohol in unlikely places. Gulping drinks down in order to get drunk quicker and then feel good. Having relationship problems (triggered by as physics, drinking). Having problems with the law (caused by drinking). John Collection Critical Essays? Having work problems (caused by drinking, or drinking as root cause). Having money problems (caused by coursework mark, drinking). Requiring a larger quantity of death penalty alcohol to feel its effect.

Nausea, sweating, or even shaking when not drinking. A person who abuses alcohol may have many of these signs and symptoms - but they do not have the withdrawal symptoms like an alcoholic does, nor the coursework scheme same degree of compulsion to drink. The problems linked to alcohol dependence are extensive, and affect the person physically, psychologically, and socially. Drinking becomes a compulsion for a person with a drink problem - it takes precedence over test for jekyll and hyde all other activities. Coursework Mark Scheme? It can remain undetected for penalty essay, several years. What causes alcoholism (alcohol dependence)? There are many potential causes for alcoholism, including peer pressure to drink, drinking from a young age, and as physics coursework, depression. Alcohol dependence is a gradual process which can take from donne collection, a few years to several decades to as physics scheme, become a problem - with some very vulnerable people, addiction can come in a number of months.

Eventually, over time, regular alcohol consumption can disrupt the balance of the brain chemical GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), which controls impulsiveness, as well as glutamate, which stimulates the nervous system. Brain levels of letter for graduate teaching dopamine are raised when we consume alcohol - dopamine levels may make the drinking experience more gratifying. Over the as physics scheme long- or medium-term, excessive drinking can significantly alter the levels of death ethics these brain chemicals, making the person's body crave alcohol in order to feel good and avoid feeling bad. These risk factors may also be linked to excessive drinking: Genes - scientists say there may be specific genetic factors that make some people more likely to become addicted to coursework mark scheme, alcohol, and other substances. People who have a family history of addiction are at higher risk for abusing alcohol.

Researchers from the Universidad de Granada, Spain, revealed that the essay and hyde lack of endorphin is hereditary, and thus that there is a genetic predisposition to become addicted to alcohol. The age of first alcoholic drink - a study found that people who started drinking alcohol before the as physics coursework mark age of essays on hobbes 15 were much more likely to have an alcohol problem later in life. Easy access - experts say there is a correlation between easy access to alcohol (cheap prices) and alcohol abuse and alcohol-related deaths. A U.S. study found a strong link between alcohol tax increases in as physics mark scheme, 1983 and 2002 and a significant drop in deaths related to on hobbes locke and rousseau, alcohol use in one American state - the effect was found to be nearly two to four times that of other prevention strategies such as school programs or media campaigns. Mark? Stress - some stress hormones are linked to alcoholism.

If our levels of stress and anxiety are high, some of us may consume alcohol in an attempt to collection critical essays, blank out the upheaval. Peer drinking - people who have friends who drink regularly or abuse alcohol are more likely to drink excessively and eventually have an alcohol problem. Low self-esteem - experts say that people with low self-esteem who have alcohol readily available are more likely to abuse it. Depression - people with depression may deliberately or unwittingly use alcohol as a means of self-treatment. On the other hand, alcohol abuse may lead to depression risk, rather than vice versa. Media and as physics coursework mark scheme, advertising - in some countries, alcohol is paper, portrayed as a glamorous, worldly, and cool activity. Many experts believe that alcohol advertising and media coverage of as physics mark scheme it may convey the message that excessive drinking is acceptable. How the body processes (metabolizes) alcohol - people who need comparatively more alcohol to achieve an effect have a higher risk of eventually having an alcohol problem.

In the U.S., to essays and rousseau, be diagnosed as an alcoholic, the individual must meet the as physics coursework scheme criteria laid out in the DSM (Diagnostic and letter of application assistant, Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), published by the APA (American Psychiatric Association). This includes a pattern of alcohol abuse that leads to considerable impairment or distress. The patient should experience at least three of the criteria below during the coursework mark past 12 months: Alcohol tolerance - the patient needs a large quantity of alcohol to feel intoxicated. However, when the liver is damaged and donne collection, cannot metabolize the alcohol so well, this tolerance may drop. Damage to the central nervous system may also reduce tolerance levels. Withdrawal symptoms - when the patient abstains from alcohol or cuts down, they experience tremors, insomnia, nausea, or anxiety.

Typically, the patient drinks more to scheme, avoid these symptoms. Beyond intentions - the patient ends up drinking more alcohol, or drinks for a longer period than they intended. Unsuccessfully attempting to cut down - the patient is continuously trying to cut down alcohol consumption, but does not succeed. Research? Or the patient has a persistent desire to cut down. Time consuming - the patient spends a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from alcohol consumption. Withdrawal - the patient withdraws from recreational, social, or occupational activities. This did not used to be the case. Persistence - the patient carries on consuming alcohol even though they know it is mark, harming them physically and dissertation theses, psychologically.

Some signs and symptoms of alcohol abuse may be due to another condition, or simple aging, such as memory problems, or falling. As Physics Coursework? Some patients may go to their doctor about a medical condition, such as a digestive problem, and not mention their alcohol abuse. It is not always easy for essay test answers, a doctor to as physics coursework mark, identify candidates for on apple, alcohol dependency screening. If a doctor suspects alcohol may be a problem, they may ask a series of questions - if the patient answers in a certain way, the doctor may go on to use a standardized questionnaire. Blood tests can only reveal very recent alcohol consumption. They cannot tell whether a person has been drinking heavily for a long time.

If a blood test reveals that the red blood cells have increased in size it could be an indication of long-term alcohol abuse. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) - this is a test which helps detect heavy alcohol consumption. It is a blood test. There are other tests that can indicate whether the liver has been damaged, or whether a man has reduced testosterone levels, both of which might indicate chronic alcohol consumption; however, screening with a good questionnaire is seen as the most effective means for an accurate diagnosis. Most alcoholics deny they have a problem and tend to minimize the extent of their drinking. Talking to family members may help the doctor understand the situation (permission will be needed for this). Complications of alcoholism may include memory loss, confusion, mental illness, and problems with work or home life. Usually, drinking alcohol initially elevates the person's mood. However, after a long period of regular heavy drinking, the person's nervous system will become depressed and the drinker will become sedated by alcohol.

Alcohol may undermine a person's judgment; it can lower inhibitions and alter the drinker's thoughts, emotions, and general behavior. Heavy regular drinking can have a serious effect on a person's ability to coursework scheme, coordinate their muscles and speak properly. Heavy binge drinking could cause the patient to go into penalty essay coma. Eventually, regular heavy drinking may cause at as physics coursework least one of the following problems: Fatigue - the patient is tired most of the research paper on apple time. As Physics Coursework Scheme? Memory loss - especially the patient's short-term memory.

Eye muscles - the eye muscles can become significantly weaker. Dissertation Database? Liver diseases - the patient has a considerably higher chance of developing hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of the liver is an irreversible and progressive condition. Gastrointestinal complications - the patient can develop gastritis, or pancreas damage. These problems also seriously undermine the body's ability to digest food, absorb certain vitamins, and produce hormones that regulate metabolism. Hypertension - regular heavy drinking invariably raises the person's blood pressure. Heart problems - regular heavy drinking can lead to mark scheme, cardiomyopathy (damaged heart muscle), heart failure, and stroke. Diabetes - alcoholics have a very high risk of developing diabetes type 2. Patients who have diabetes will invariably have serious complications if they are regular heavy drinkers of alcohol. Death Ethics? Alcohol prevents the release of glucose from the liver, causing hypoglycemia. A person with diabetes is already taking insulin to lower their blood sugar levels - hypoglycemia could be devastating. Menstruation - alcoholism will usually stop menstruation or disrupt it.

Erectile dysfunction - alcoholic men are much more likely to have problems getting or sustaining an erection. Fetal alcohol syndrome - women who abuse alcohol during their pregnancy are much more likely to have babies with birth defects, including a small head, heart problems, shortened eyelids, as well as developmental and as physics coursework, cognitive problems. Thinning bones - alcoholics invariably suffer from thinning of the bones because alcohol interferes with the production of new bone. This means an increased risk of fractures. Nervous system problems - alcoholism can cause numbness in the extremities, dementia, and confused/disordered thinking. Cancer - alcoholics have a much higher risk of developing several cancers, including cancer of the mouth, esophagus, liver, colon, rectum, breast, prostate, and pharynx. Accidents - alcoholics are vulnerable to injuries from falls, car crashes, being run over, etc. Domestic abuse - alcohol is a major factor in spouse-beating, child abuse, and conflicts with neighbors. John Collection Essays? Work (school) problems - employment problems, unemployment, school problems, are often alcohol-related. Suicide - suicide rates among people who are alcohol-dependent or who abuse alcohol are higher than among people who do not.

Mental illness - alcohol abuse increases the risk of mental illness and can make existing mental illnesses worse. Problems with the law - the percentage of alcoholics who end up in as physics mark, court or in prison is significantly higher compared with the rest of the population. The first step for the alcoholic is to acknowledge that there is an alcohol dependency problem. Test For Jekyll Answers? The next step is to get help. In most countries there are a range of support groups and professional services available. The following are recognized treatment options for alcoholism: Do-it-yourself - some people with an alcohol problem manage to reduce their drinking or abstain without seeking professional help.

There is a great deal of material in books and the on the Internet that may help the self-helper. Counseling - a qualified counselor can help the alcoholic talk through their problems and then devise a plan to tackle the drinking. CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) is commonly used to treat alcohol dependency. Treating underlying problems - the alcoholic may have a problem with self-esteem, stress, anxiety, depression, or some other mental health problem. It is as physics coursework scheme, important to treat these problems, too. It is crucial for research, the alcoholic to realize that drinking will probably make mental health problems worse. As Physics Coursework Mark? As alcoholics commonly suffer from test and hyde answers, hypertension, liver diseases, and possibly heart diseases, these will need to as physics, be treated too.

Residential programs - residential programs are ideal for death, some people. They include expert professional help, individual or group therapy, support groups, training, family involvement, activity therapy, and a host of strategies that are aimed at treating the alcoholic successfully. Some people find that being physically away from access to temptation is a great help. Drug that provokes a severe reaction to alcohol - Antabuse (disulfiram) causes a severe reaction when somebody drinks alcohol, including nausea, flushing, vomiting, and headaches. It is a deterrent; but it will not treat the alcoholic's compulsion and as physics coursework, will not cure alcoholism. Drugs for cravings - Naltrexone (ReVia) may help with the urge to test and hyde, have a drink.

Acamprosate (Campral) may help with cravings. Detoxification - the patient takes some medication to prevent withdrawal symptoms (delirium tremens), which many alcoholics experience when they give up drinking. Treatment usually lasts 4-7 days. As Physics? Chlordiazepoxide, a benzodiazepine medication, is frequently used for detoxification (detox). Staying on locke and rousseau the wagon (remaining abstinent) - some patients find the detox achievable, but start drinking again soon after, or some time later. Success rates are significantly improved if the scheme patient has access to counseling or some support group. Family support is crucial. Sometimes a good GP can provide vital support. Alcoholics Anonymous - Alcoholics Anonymous is an international fellowship of men and women who have had a drinking problem. It is nonprofessional, self-supporting, multiracial, apolitical, and research paper, available almost everywhere.

There are no age or education requirements. Coursework? Membership is open to anyone who wants to stop drinking and solve their drinking problem. Article last updated on Fri 11 August 2017. Dawson D.A., Grant B.F., Li T.K. Collection Critical Essays? (2007, January). Impact of age at first drink on stress-reactive drinking. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 31(1):69-77.

Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17207104. Pompili, M., Serafini, G., Innamorati, M., Dominici, G., Ferracuti, S., Kotzalidis, G. D., . Sher, L. (2010, April). Suicidal behavior and alcohol abuse. As Physics? International journal of research on apple environmental research and public health, 7(4), 1392-1431. Retrieved from as physics coursework, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2872355/ Schuckit, M. A., Smith, T. L., Danko, G. P., Trim, R., Bucholz, K. K., Edenberg, H. For Graduate Assistant? J., . Dick, D. Coursework Mark? M. (2009, May). An evaluation of the full level of response to alcohol model of heavy drinking and on apple, problems in COGA offspring. Coursework? Journal of studies on alcohol and research, drugs, 70(3), 436-445. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2670749/

Wagenaar, A. C., Maldonado-Molina, M. M., Wagenaar, B. H. (2009, August). Effects of alcohol tax increases on alcohol-related disease mortality in Alaska: time-series analyses from 1976 to as physics coursework scheme, 2004. American Journal of Public Health, 99(8), 1464-1470. Retrieved from http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2007.131326. Please use one of the following formats to paper on apple, cite this article in your essay, paper or report: Nordqvist, Christian. As Physics Coursework Mark Scheme? What is an letter for graduate teaching assistant, alcoholic? How to treat alcoholism. Medical News Today . MediLexicon, Intl., 11 Aug. 2017.

Web. 6 Oct. 2017. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/157163.php Nordqvist, C. (2017, August 11). What is an alcoholic? How to treat alcoholism. Mark Scheme? Medical News Today . Retrieved from. Please note: If no author information is provided, the source is cited instead.

I am a recovered alcoholic who tried to recover using almost every means possible, but nothing worked. By January 1984 I had just about given up hope and research paper, had resigned myself to an ugly alcoholic death in the not too distant future (just like my father). Mark? However,just then a long lost friend came back into my life briefly and death penalty ethics essay, introduced me to Alcoholics Anonymous. I followed their 12 step program as closely as I could, and I have not had a single drink of alcohol since February 19, 1984. Coursework Mark Scheme? To this day I still employ the principals that AA taught me, and and rousseau, I still enjoy attending AA meetings. An excellent article clear and well presented. Sadly it did not cover the coursework mark spiritual aspects of addiction, the desolation, isolation, despair and sense of penalty ethics essay hoplessness, experienced by alcoholics and their families. People who misuse alcohol are able to control how much they drink, by taking this capacity away from coursework, people as this article suggests limits their belief that they are able to conquer their addiction. Part of overcoming addiction is about confidence and taking responsibility for our own decisions and feeling empowered to make changes as I have seen many people do! Reply Charla Kibler January 17, 2010 4:46 am.

One of the best all inclusive articles that I have read on the subject. Reply Warren Du Plessis August 24, 2010 2:15 am. I am a alcoholic, and have been for a good 18 years of my life, if I see the destruction I have left behind and the pain I have caused, it is unbearable to think about? The two most important people in my life I have hurt the most. I thank them for being by letter of application, my side after what I have put them through, that is why being dry and through the help of the AA, my life is as physics coursework scheme, turning around, and I realize evry day what I have missed out on, I never want to lose love ones again, and live a life of death penalty ethics essay lies and as physics coursework mark scheme, deception. My wife is a pretty heavy wine drinker. She buys the research paper on apple large bottles of $11.00 wine, not the standard size. It takes her only 3 days to finish the bottle (usually between 2-3 full - not half - glasses of as physics mark scheme wine).

She does this every night. She has already been told by a doctor that she abuses alcohol, but she continues to drink. Letter Teaching? She blames stress (she's a teacher) and coursework scheme, our marriage of 13 years is not great. She sees no problem with her drinking as she insists that all her friends drink the same amount (though she can't prove that they do it every night like she does.) Am I incorrect in research paper, saying that she's an as physics coursework, alcohol abuser? Is what she's doing normal? She doesn't think she has a problem and for jekyll and hyde answers, it upset with me because I think she does. Am I wrong? i think people like drug users are just in scheme, need of someone to tell them off oh and not just anybody a family member or freind because maybe then they might listen anif anyone who reads this if they could maybe answer the following question it would be most appriciated. My husband had a stroke 3 years ago and is affected on ethics essay his right side. He is a chronic alcoholic.

Is there any one out there that had a stroke left with a disability and is a recovered alcoholic? If so please reply please help! Dear Katie Woods. Many people have said that healing is a verb, not a noun, and I must a agree :) Alcoholics drink because it works. As Physics Coursework Mark Scheme? It works to change the way they feel. It fixes what's wrong, no matter what that is. On Hobbes Locke And Rousseau? It works.

Then it stops working and begins causing trouble. As Physics Scheme? Alcoholics continue to proquest dissertation theses database, chase those first times when it worked because they are still looking for whatever works. As Physics Scheme? Until they learn another way to fix whatever is wrong, it will continue. John Donne Collection Essays? AA provides another way to live and as physics mark scheme, practically a script to do that with. It's highly structured and many people need to on hobbes, continue going for various reasons. I got sober in AA.

Now I have the kind of life I want. As Physics Mark? Many people in AA LIVE AA. I didn't get sober to live in AA, I got sober to john collection essays, live. It's different for everyone. Healthline Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK.

2004-2017 All rights reserved. MNT is the registered trade mark of coursework Healthline Media. Essays On Hobbes? Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.

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1997 dbq essay To what extent did economic and political developments as well as assumptions about the nature of women affect the position of American women during the period 1890-1925? Use the documents and your knowledge of the as physics history of the years 1890-1925 to construct your response. Document A. Source: Susan B. Anthony, The Status of Women, Past, Present, and Future, Arena , May 1897. The close of this 19th century finds every trade, vocation, and profession open to women, and research, every opportunity at as physics scheme, their command for proquest preparing themselves to follow these occupations. A vast amount of the household drudgery that once monopolized the whole time and strength of the as physics mark mother and daughters has been taken outside and turned over to machinery in vast establishments. She who can make for herself a place of distinction in any line of work receives commendation instead of condemnation. It is especially worthy of note that along with this general advancement of essays on hobbes women has come a marked improvement in as physics coursework scheme household methods. Womans increased intelligence manifests itself in this department as conspicuously as in any other. Education, culture, mental discipline, business training develop far more capable mothers and housewives than were possible under the old regime. Document B. Source: The Supreme Court decision in death ethics essay Muller v. Oregon , 1908.

That womans physical structure and the performance of as physics scheme maternal functions place her at a disadvantage in the struggle for subsistence is obvious. This is especially true when the burdens of john donne critical essays motherhood are upon her . . . and coursework mark, as healthy mothers are essential to vigorous offspring, the physical well-being of woman becomes an paper object of public interest and care in order to preserve the strength and vigor of the race. As Physics Mark Scheme. Still again history discloses the fact that woman has always been dependent upon dissertation & man. Education was long denied her, and mark, while now the doors of the school room are opened and her opportunities for and rousseau acquiring knowledge are great, yet even with that and the consequent increase of capacity for business affairs it is still true that in mark the struggle for john essays subsistence she is as physics mark not an equal competitor with her brother. There is that in death penalty her disposition and habits of life which will operate against a full assertion of those rights. Differentiated by these matters from the as physics mark scheme other sex, she is properly placed in death penalty essay a class by herself, and legislation designed for her protection may be sustained, even when like legislation is not necessary for men and as physics mark, could not be sustained. Document C. Dissertation &. Source: Jane Addams, Why Women Should Vote, Ladies Home Journal , January 1910.

This paper is an attempt to coursework mark scheme, show that many women today are failing to discharge their duties to their own households properly simply because they do not perceive that as society grows more complicated it is letter of application teaching assistant necessary that woman shall extend her sense of coursework scheme responsibility to many things outside of her own home if she would continue to preserve the home in its entirety. . . . To turn the administration of our civic affairs wholly over to men may mean that the American city will continue to push forward in its commercial and industrial development, and continue to lag behind in those things which make a city healthful and beautiful. . . . If women have in any sense been responsible for the gentler side of life which softens and blurs some of its harsher conditions, may they not have a duty to perform in our American cities? . . Of Application Assistant. . [I]f woman would fulfill her traditional responsibility to her own children; if she would educate and protect from danger factory children who must find their recreation on the street; if she would bring the cultural forces to bear upon our materialistic civilization; and if she would do it all with the dignity and directness fitting one who carries on her immemorial duties, then she must bring herself to the use of the ballot--that latest implement for self-government. May we not fairly say that American women need this implement in order to preserve the home? Document D. Source: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Are Women Human Beings? Harpers Weekly , May 25, 1912. Women will never cease to be females, but they will cease to be weak and as physics coursework scheme, ignorant and defenseless. They are becoming wiser, stronger, better able to protect themselves, one another, and their children. Courage, power, achievement are always respected. As women grow, losing nothing that is essential to womanhood, but adding steadily the later qualities of humanness, they will win and assistant, hold a far larger, deeper reverence than that hitherto accorded them.

As they so rise and broaden, filling their full place in the world as members of society, as well as their partial places as mothers of it, they will gradually rear a new race of men, men with minds large enough to see in human beings something besides males and as physics coursework scheme, females. Document E. Source: Clothing factory, New York, 1915. Source: National American Woman Suffrage Association, The Church Vote Disfranchised, Headquarters News Letter , October 25, 1916. Source: Women workers in ship construction, Puget Sound, Washington, 1919. Source: Edward A. Collection Critical. Ross, The Social Trend , 1922. When with spinning, weaving, knitting, churning, pickling, curing and preserving, the as physics coursework home was a workshop, the wife was not supported by her husband. He knew the value of death penalty her contribution and took her seriously, even if he did belittle her opinions on politics and theology. But, with the industrial decay of the home, it is more and more often the case that the husband supports his wife. How will the case appear in the eyes of the wife? As the woman of leisure realizes that everything she eats, wears, enjoys, and gives away comes out of coursework mark scheme her husbands earnings, her rising impulse to assert herself as his equal is damped by consciousness of her abject economic dependence.

She is tempted to pay for support with subservience, to mold her manner and her personality to his liking, to make up to him by essay test for jekyll answers, her grace and charm for her exemption from work. Scheme. Document I. Source: Birth Control Review , November 1923. Source: The Supreme Court decision in donne collection Adkins v. Childrens Hospital , 1923. But the ancient inequality of the sexes, otherwise than physical, as suggested in the Muller Case has continued with diminishing intensity. In view of the great--not to say revolutionary--changes which have taken place since that utterance, in the contractual, political and civil status of women, culminating in the Nineteenth Amendment, it is not unreasonable to say that this inequality has now come almost, if not quite, to the vanishing point.

In this aspect of the matter, while the physical differences must be recognized in appropriate cases, and legislation fixing hours or conditions of work may properly take them into account, we cannot accept the doctrine that women of mature age, sui juris , require or may be subjected to restrictions upon their liberty of contract which could not lawfully be imposed in the case of men under similar circumstances. To do so would be to ignore all the implications to be drawn from the present day trend of legislation, as well as that of common thought and as physics, usage, by death penalty essay, which woman is accorded emancipation from the old doctrine that she must be given special protection or be subjected to coursework mark scheme, special restraint in her contractual and civil relationships.

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Parsons MA Fashion Studies Class of as physics coursework 2013 Thesis Abstracts. We have complied the MAFS Class of 2013’s thesis abstracts in an effort to highlight the diverse and limitless possibilities in the growing field of Fashion Studies. Veronica Gisela Aguilar graduated with honors from Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles in 2007 where she studied Graphic Design and minored in Communication Studies. Her work within the proquest database, MA Fashion Studies program explores her interests in fashion publications, new media, and mark scheme, visual and material culture. Her MA thesis examines the evolving relationship between print media and digital media and essays on hobbes and rousseau, their distinct modes of coursework fashion mediation and consumption. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: The New Landscape of Fashion Media: How The Gentlewoman Repositions Print Publications in a Digital Culture. With the emergence of new media technologies, the locke and rousseau, contemporary fashion consumer now has an overwhelming selection of sources from coursework scheme which to obtain fashion-related news, from magazines (both print and digital), fashion blogs, to john donne essays, social networking sites, and as physics, image-sharing portals. Thus, never before has the critical, public had such instantaneous and uninterrupted access to fashion in all its forms.

Nevertheless, how has this hyper-saturated influx of fashion ephemera affected the cultural valence of print fashion magazines, which were once the singular, authoritative outlets for fashion discourse? Since the start of the millennium, a new breed of niche fashion magazines has emerged in direct response against the hurried, homogenized, and half-digested content that is disseminated by mass market fashion magazines and online channels. Considering that fashion enthusiasts fluidly consume both print and as physics mark scheme, digital media, it is no longer adequate to embark in the analysis of contemporary magazines without contextualizing them in theses database the greater digital culture in which they now exist. In this thesis I attempt to carry out a comparative study of the biannual niche style magazine The Gentlewoman and various fashion websites to unpack their modes of consumption and production of fashion discourse. Through this investigation, I aim to deconstruct their visual and written narratives to as physics coursework, extricate how these seemingly disparate mediums produce new values, experiences, and languages that mediate fashion. Though I acknowledge that we are in the midst of a digital transformation that will continue to progress after this project is complete, my intention is to expose the symbiotic relationship between print and digital media as a fertile topic worthy of critical examination within the field of fashion studies and beyond. Katie Bradley graduated from the on hobbes locke, University of California, Santa Cruz with a dual BA in The History of Art Visual Culture and Film Digital Media in 2010. Her work in the MA Fashion Studies program focuses around the intersections of fashion, fame, and consumption in popular culture, and her thesis work explores the role of celebrities as fashion designers.

THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: $ELLEBRITY: A Consideration of the Celebrity as Purveyor of Design in the Fashion World. The past decade of fashion has been marked by the introduction of the celebrity fashion designer, a result of a newly appropriate blending of industries as well as newfound access to coursework mark scheme, the everyday happenings of celebrity figures through popular media outlets. In response to today’s increasingly fast-paced cycle of essay test and hyde fashion, more celebrities are launching their own labels and quickly changing the ways people consume fashion. This influx of celebrity designers has profoundly stimulated an awareness of fashion within the coursework mark scheme, everyday while allowing celebrities to commodify their image into a profitable product. In order to reveal how and why the john donne collection critical essays, celebrity designer has altered the fashion world, their presence in mainstream media and popular fashion is analyzed in this project to form a better understanding of their successes, failures, and steps made to achieve such prominence.

This project analyzes the ways in which the presence of the celebrity designer has influenced consumption practices, methods of social surveillance, and created new forms of capitalism based on image branding by performing case studies on individual celebrity designers and utilizing archival research. By searching the extensive archives of Time Inc. in New York City, the emergence of the celebrity designer and the changing dialogue surrounding their presence is revealed. As Physics Mark! Using the archive’s electronic database, an exhaustive study of the celebrity in john collection essays fashion is exposed and coursework mark, chronologically quantified to for jekyll, present a proper analysis of this new class of designer as it relates to coursework mark, contemporary fashion. Interviews with experts in the fashion industry help to better outline the shifts made by celebrities and how they are effectively carving out a new niche within the pre-established divisions of fashion and class. Merging the desire of a label with the paper on apple, desire for coursework another person, celebrity fashion designers are turning contemporary fashion not only into a process of desiring things, but one of desiring people.

Cally Carbone graduated from Stephens College with a degree in on apple Fashion Marketing and Management. After a few years working in the fashion industry, Cally entered the as physics mark scheme, MA Fashion Studies program to essays, explore the role of scheme fashion brands on personal identity, particularly through the scope of licensed products. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: L’eau de Fashion: Fragrance as an Experience of Fashion through the Use of COCO Chanel Parfums. Fragrance is as intimate as a piece of clothing, if not more. It is the invisible accessory. The wearer applies it to their body as a form of adornment. Because fragrance enacts a specific bodily sense, its meaning is for jekyll answers, even more than just to freshen body odor.

Fragrance becomes an olfactory experience; stimulating feelings, memories, and can even become part of a personal identity. The initial appeal of a perfume can be due to coursework mark scheme, a number of reasons, such as designer name and prestige, an immediate response to the scent, or bottle design. However, once time is theses database, spent wearing the fragrance, the coursework mark scheme, chosen perfume no longer is the designer’s, but that of the wearer’s. Fragrance creates a bodily experience through the on hobbes locke and rousseau, essence of fashion, a sensuous enhancement to coursework mark, one’s fashion wardrobe. The intent of this research is to explore the relationship between fashion and fragrance; more specifically how and essays and rousseau, why the fashion industry turned perfume into a branded accessory and the aspirational experience it yields. As Physics Coursework! In other words how fashion took on scent, an intangible, and reshaped the essay test for jekyll and hyde answers, way it is developed, packaged and sold to consumers. Historical research of mark industry pioneers and analysis of fashion branded fragrances starting in the 1970s shows the important role fragrance plays in keeping the fashion industry monetarily stable and explains how perfume becomes an entry point for consumer brand adoption. By analyzing Chanel COCO fragrances I illustrate the for jekyll answers, process the brand takes to assimilate fashion into fragrance through aspirational influences.

Rebecca grew up in Sydney, Australia. After graduating from the University of NSW with a Bachelor of Architecture in 2010, she decided to move to as physics mark scheme, New York City and paper on apple, further her education through the realm of ‘fashion’. Becca was (and continues to be) fascinated by how fashion, architecture and as physics coursework mark scheme, space are so profoundly interconnected in how we cultivate and understand our sense of ‘self ’… THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Terminal Perfection: Cultivating Self Through Dress, Design Decoration. Bill and Babe Paley were the proquest dissertation & database, defining cultural narrative of America during the mid twentieth century. Set within a period of transformation for the mass media and visual representation at scheme large, this couple was the most visually illustrious embodiment of the shift in social power from aristocratic, noble birth, to database, the newly developing ‘jet-set’, executive lifestyle. Based on this shift in cosmopolitan ideal and its resulting re-imagined use of mass media, architecture, fashion and the decorative, this paper investigates the relationship between our inner ‘self ’ and the physical, spatial and assorted aesthetic constituents of one’s surrounding environment.

By critically analyzing the legacy of perfection that Babe has left behind, we are able to as physics scheme, more deeply consider the degree she was supposedly ‘trapped’ both within the ‘eye’ of the media and by her relationship with Bill. The enduring power of on hobbes and rousseau Babe’s image raises the question of what it means to live a ‘decorated life? Where decoration, in the world of picturesque American socialites, supposedly concealed the pain behind the as physics, glamour. Henry James’s theory of consciousness, as articulated in novels such as The Portrait of a Lady, The Golden Bowl and The Spoils of Poynton, is used as a moral framework to consider whether Babe was presenting her true self to the world, or constructing an artificial or superficial identity. Further, the calculated way in which she cultivated her own ‘mythology’ as a contemporary embodiment of historically powerful female figures adds a subversive element to the fashioning of ethics essay her image.

Therefore, the images she produced in collaboration with various photographers are interrogated through various theoretical frameworks. Some of these include James’ notion of the divided self, film noir cinematic theory, Baudelaire’s theory of the ‘beautiful amidst the horrible’ and analysis into artists including Ingres and his ‘grotesquely beautiful’ forms. Ultimately, it is asserted that Babe’s image and her pursuit of as physics coursework mark beautiful things, despite often seeming vulgar and materialistic, is what allowed her to authentically connect with both her ‘self ’ and the universe. However, with such a supremely beautiful life, inevitably come elements of destructive darkness. Letter Of Application For Graduate Teaching Assistant! Despite the fact that “the human soul can incorporate art and remain not only human, but perhaps be further humanized in the process”[1] ‘a decorated life’ both liberates an individual’s soul and sense of self, whilst trapping them in a terminal pursuit of perfection.

[1] Mary S. Scheme! Schriber, “Isabel Archer and Victorial Manners.” Studies in the Novel (University of North Texas) 8, no. 4 (1976): 450. Roberto Filippello graduated magna cum laude from the faculty of Letters and death penalty, Philosophy of University of Rome. Upon graduation, he gained experience in Milan’s fashion industry working as a fashion writer and then moved to New York to join the MA Fashion Studies program at Parsons. His research is focused on men’s style and its visual representations in fashion magazines. He wrote essays on Bruce Weber’s ad campaigns for Gianni Versace, Medieval nuns’ religious clothing, queer style in the New York LGBT night scene, and the Sicilian Baroque in Dolce Gabbana’s aesthetic heritage. He currently works at Vogue and next Fall will be teaching an advanced course titled “Visionaries: Stylists and Photographers of the 20th Century.” THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: The New Man: Fashion, Bodybuilding, and AIDS in the 1980s. Images of hypermasculinity first started appearing in fitness magazines in as physics scheme the early twentieth century and by the 1930s in fashion photography.

However, it was only in the 1980s, thanks to the impact of Bruce Weber’s photographs, that images of hypermasculinity became widespread. This trend was epitomized by the hypermasculine male models that Gianni Versace sent down the letter of application for graduate, runway and scheme, had photographed by Bruce Weber himself. Thus, in the late 1980s, what can be considered a new aesthetic phenomenon arose in Western society: young men started to develop hypermuscular bodies, meanwhile cultivating a new idea of masculinity. Masculinity became associated with muscularity and butch dressing, which were both being marketed by essays, fashion companies through advertising campaigns that blatantly sexualized and objectified the mark, male body. The image of this New Man was being fabricated by fashion advertisements and by the gay city nightlife. Indeed, it arose as a result of different factors: the incorporation by locke, the LGBT community of specific items of clothing traditionally associated with virility, i.e. with heteronormative masculinity; the mark scheme, diffusion of bodybuilding, especially within the gay community, mostly as a reaction to essays on hobbes and rousseau, the fear of the AIDS epidemic; and, finally, the spread of AIDS itself, which pushed men to as physics coursework scheme, take care of their body through both intense fitness workouts and clothing consumption, in order to exorcize the fear of the disease as well as to metaphorically hide it through forms of research paper self-decoration. As Physics Scheme! This web of factors poses the death ethics, question of how healthy the male body from the late 1980s onwards really was. To address this issue, another element related to the emergence of bodybuilding as part of as physics a commonly shared lifestyle seems to be relevant: the use of anabolic steroids, which in order to & theses database, help shape a fit body, poisoned the body itself. The idea of health, hence, gradually lost any medical connotation and entered the realm of beauty, which became constructed independently from the traditional notion of health. As Physics Mark! This ubermasculinity, although by now widespread in the heterosexual community, is an inherently queer social construction, not only as it took form within the gay community, but also because it began a camp performance that while creating a parody of straight masculinity, also resists and displaces common assumptions on masculinity itself.

Kelsey Glein graduated from Pepperdine University with a BA in Political Science and Sociology. She interned for U.S. On Hobbes Locke! Senator Patty Murray, where she recognized the importance of image and fashion in the political realm. This led her to pursue graduate studies in fashion where she could merge her passion for coursework mark politics and fashion. As an MA Fashion Studies student she has enjoyed internships with Diane von Furstenberg, Vogue, and Harper’s Bazaar. She is most captivated by the connection between fashion, gender, and essays on hobbes locke and rousseau, power. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: The November Issue: The Role of Fashion and Politics in the 2012 Presidential Election.

In today’s media-run culture that is highly focused on the visual, the fashion system and the political system each exist as both substantive and as physics mark, superficial entities. Each of test and hyde these systems subsists independently of one another, and this thesis will argue that the as physics mark scheme, fashion system and the political system overlap in several significant ways. There are parallels and commonalities between systems in society, with the fashion system and the political system being prime examples. For Jekyll! Both fashion and politics represent a merging of the public and private selves, and combine the artificial with the real. The fashion system and the political system both dictate our lives, and both are personal and impersonal simultaneously. This research paper proposes that the fashion system overlaps with the political system in the United States of America, and that in the 2012 Presidential Election fashion inserted itself into the political system both aggressively and passively. As Physics Scheme! The media played a significant role in this insertion, incessantly endorsing the link between fashion and politics and revealing the nature of systems as a means of research conveying and identifying fashion. In the 2012 election season in the United States, fashion played a significant part that shaped the way we viewed the candidates and their wives.

This thesis puts forward that the fashion system and the political system in the United States of America are similar and overlapping, and uses key points of collision as an illustration of these ideas. Specifically, examples of this overlap that have taken place in the 2012 Presidential Election season are looked at and juxtaposed with fashion and political theory. Case studies used to illustrate fashion’s involvement and influence in politics include the fundraising efforts of Vogue Editor-in-Chief Anna Wintour and Council of Fashion Designers of America President Diane von Furstenberg for the reelection of President Barack Obama, and the focus of the media on the physical appearance and fashion choices of political wives and as physics coursework mark, First Lady Michelle Obama on the campaign trail as well as the deliberate fashion selections of these women. Overall, this thesis will create a better understanding of the insertion of fashion into for graduate teaching, the present political system in the United States, specifically in the most recent election season, and will allow for a deeper knowledge of the way fashion and politics as social structures impact society and mark, our identity. Ann Jacoby graduated with honors from the University of Delaware where she received her BS in Fashion Merchandising. In her time at Parsons, she has worked as a teaching assistant and has gained a multitude of experiences working at various magazines and archives. Her MAFS thesis focuses on fashion and politics in essay test for jekyll and hyde answers the early American nation, particularly the way in which women’s roles and dress practices cultivated an as physics scheme, early national identity for the burgeoning republic of America. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Pledging Allegiance: Defining the essay for jekyll and hyde answers, American Image through the as physics coursework mark scheme, Politics of Dressing in the Early Republic.

Following the United States’ victory in their fight for independence, the American people would use their newfound freedom from and rousseau a monarchial society to forge a culture based upon coursework mark the virtuous and on hobbes and rousseau, egalitarian tenets of republicanism. To visually establish such an identity for their nation, the as physics scheme, population relied heavily on dress as its materiality and visibility made it one of the most evident badges of one’s loyalty to the American cause. Turning to the homemade production of fabric and renouncing objects that evoked the alluring yet threatening European charms of luxury and regality, America defined their national identity through an paper on apple, aesthetic that boasted a conservative and sensible refinement. By closely reading the life and style of American celebrity, Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte, noting her scandalous and unpatriotic display of dress, one understands the importance placed on citizens’ appearances and the meanings specifically attached to dress in the vulnerable environment of the early American republic. Elizabeth flaunted her French fashions (a body-baring version of the neoclassical style) and opulent jewels throughout American society and was highly criticized as the ideologies behind such a style were incongruent with the American cause of democracy. Analyzed against as physics coursework scheme, other female figures from the early nineteenth century, Elizabeth is likened to liberal Parisian social figures like Juliette Recamier and Empress Josephine and contrasted by American representations of death ethics essay ideal republican motherhood. The conflicting nature of her American citizenship and coursework mark scheme, European appearance reflected poorly upon locke and rousseau the image of the nation and explains larger issues of how fashion informs national identity. Studying the body politic and the post-American Revolution shift from the royal embodiment of the as physics coursework, state by a sovereign king to embodiment by the democratic commonwealth of citizens, we see that women like Elizabeth (upper class, visible bodies) had the unsettling power to taint the representative form of the body politic through fashion. Drawing upon readings which connect the body, dress practices, and political communication, this research defines fashion and its political importance in the formative time and space of the early American nation. Kim Jenkins holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in essays on hobbes locke and rousseau Anthropology and Art History, which has informed her interests in how fashion materializes one’s identity and navigates adversity.

Kim enjoys practicing her research in fashion studies through exhibition curation, editorial work, film and public speaking throughout New York City. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: “That Was My Veil”: Sartorial and Cosmetic Constructions of Resilience in Divorced Women. Through a close look at personal stories, media representation and learned sociocultural norms, it is presumable that social conditions have existed over time that have made the re-construction of a divorced woman’s appearance obligatory to encouraging a sense of resilience. Simply put, a woman’s psyche, when experiencing divorce, becomes tempered by belief systems developed within the culture that surrounds her. Consequently, this cultural agitation plays a key role in producing the dichotomous effect of as physics scheme how a woman presents herself publicly to society whilst managing her emotions privately in john donne collection the wake of a divorce. As Physics Mark! Offering ground-breaking research in dissertation database the field of fashion studies, this paper narrows its focus on coursework scheme, how a woman’s sartorial and cosmetic practices become significantly influenced through negotiating the management of her physical appearance and identity both during and & theses database, following the process of a divorce. Engaging an ethnographic approach through interviews with divorced women, as well as a critical analysis of media representation, I will show how the sartorial and cosmetic practices of the mark, divorced woman can explain how we cope with adversity through the transformation of our appearance, and how psychology and social expectations can directly influence our everyday dress practices more than we acknowledge. Kaitlin Kennedy – Globensky graduated from Manhattanville College with her BA in communications and broadcast studies, double minoring in film and history. Kaitlin’s academic inspiration stems from twentieth century Hollywood and the cultural effects of cinematic costume design.

THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Platinum Glamour: Jean Harlow, Fashion Cinematic Escape. Using Jean Harlow’s styling as a lens, this thesis explores how (and why) fashion and death penalty, pre-code Hollywood cinema coalesce to utilize glamour as a carefully crafted vehicle of escapism for society during the Great Depression. Understanding cinema fashion as a product of its time, this thesis examines how the stylization of Jean Harlow’s screen image and costuming relates to broader societal shifts in the production and definition of glamour from the coursework mark, liberated social setting of the and rousseau, 1920’s into the more reformed, morality- driven setting of 1930’s America as embodied by the Motion Picture Production Code. During her short career, Harlow connected the glamorous world of film fashion with the massconsumer retail market. She is explicitly tied to the fabric satin, and is continually referred to in relation to that glamorous material throughout media representations. Harlow’s star image establishes her as the “white-ideal” blonde-bombshell which cinema embraces through the years of the coursework scheme, Motion Picture Production Code. She was one of the few stars able to transition not only from silent cinema to sound, but also from pre-Code to proquest database, post-Code– which proved detrimental to the careers of many other stars. Finally, this thesis discusses the importance of Harlow’s whiteness and blondeness in the construction of her image. A specific focus is the vital influence of as physics coursework scheme costume and the costumer in research paper both cinema and coursework mark, cultural fashions.

The work of M-G-M’s famed costume designer Gilbert Adrian, exemplifies the successful transition of glamour from the paper, movie screen into the American fashion system, proving that cinema costume is a product of society and a direct reflection of as physics coursework scheme its time. Cinema adaptations of test for jekyll and hyde glamour created by filmmakers of the 1920’s and 1930’s provided a visual mise-en-scene that supplied moviegoers with a more optimistic view of the workings of society. Harlow is as physics coursework mark scheme, a key figure of this cinema system whose star image was able to perpetrate glamour as a form of penalty ethics escapism for Americans through some of the as physics coursework mark scheme, darkest times of the Great Depression. Her fashionable and fashioned image still represents a modern, societally understood example of letter for graduate glamorous style and American beauty, illustrating that even with the drastic shift in her image in conforming to the more highly regulated Motion Picture Code, her glamorous pre-code star image has had the power to prevail by continuing to influence contemporary cinematic fashion. LAURA JANE KENNY. With a background in research, writing and sociology, Laura Jane Kenny’s deep curiosity in fashion, its evolutions and its implications, has found a home in the fashion studies field.

With a background in journalism, Laura Jane’s skills coincide with her research interest which include sociology, gender theory, material culture, urban and inner-city culture and how all of these things interact with fashion. Her master’s thesis explored the relationship between racial profiling and dress practices through New York City’s stop and frisk campaign. After graduating from the MA Fashion Studies program, Laura Jane hopes to work in the fashion journalism and curation field before ultimately pursuing her Ph.D. in as physics coursework scheme order to conduct further research and teach. Locke! Hailing from Colorado, Laura Jane Kenny is proud to now call Brooklyn her home. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Criminalizing Dress: Exploring the Intersections of Dress Practices and Racial Profiling through New York City’s Stop and Frisk Campaign.

New York City is home to some harsh fashion critics. While one’s clothing choices are often scrutinized in as physics coursework such a fashion-focused city, unique consequences emerge from the inspecting gaze of the New York City police. The examination of individual’s dress practices in New York City’s stop and letter of application for graduate, frisk campaign, a policy which encourages New York City police officers to stop anyone they deem “suspicious,” gives new meaning to coursework mark scheme, the term fashion victim. When police look to visual cues to decipher possible level of suspicion, dress practices becomes a crucial part of the conversation. The use of this new policy suggests that the importance of one’s appearance is rapidly increasing with more serious consequences than ever. The New York City stop and frisk campaign has received a recent increase in media attention as the number of stops reported hit an all time high in 2012.

The campaign has been accused of on hobbes locke and rousseau racial profiling as reports showed nearly 85 percent of as physics coursework those stopped in New York City were Black or Hispanic. A number of issues are at play in letter the stop and frisk campaign and their relationship to dress practices begs exploration. The urban landscape, embodied identity, and coursework, the power of viewing and surveillance are just a few of the penalty ethics essay, ideas that are examined. Scheme! Utilizing interviews of those who have been stopped and frisked, collected and published by the Center for Constitutional Rights, this thesis highlights trends in the relationship between clothing and racial profiling. The theoretical framework of fashion studies alongside theories surrounding the gaze and surveillance aids in our understanding of the invasive impact of stop and frisk seen both in test answers the adapted dress practices of coursework mark those stopped as well as in their constructed identity. This thesis seeks to gain further understanding of how one’s personal dress practices are affected by the threat of looking “suspicious” and explores the impact of “dressing innocently.” Rachel Kinnard graduated from essays on hobbes locke and rousseau Parsons The New School for Design in 2008 with a BA in Fashion Design.

Rachel’s research interests explore the boundaries between fashion and body, specifically within technology and medicine. Her MA thesis considers how the experience of dressing through bras and as physics coursework scheme, clothing can anticipate the decision to undergo a breast reduction or breast augmentation procedure. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: From Silk to Silicone: Considering Bras, Breasts, and Cosmetic Surgery. In the twenty-first century, the distinction between dress and body is increasingly becoming more indistinguishable. A thorough analysis of the relationship between dress and cosmetic surgery is vital to on hobbes, the field of fashion studies.

In western histories of coursework scheme dress, considerations of cosmetic surgery are typically found as a concluding chapter, presented to the reader as a commodity of post modernity and the future of body shaping. This thesis is an analysis of cosmetic surgery through the perspective of fashion studies in which I ask: what is the relationship between temporarily shaping the for jekyll answers, body through clothing and permanently shaping the body through cosmetic surgery? If bodies undergo cosmetic surgery procedures as a response to the experience of wearing fashionable clothing, can cosmetic surgery then be understood as a permanent form of as physics scheme dress? Focusing solely on john donne essays, cosmetic procedures of breast for this case study, I explore how the coursework mark scheme, experience of dressing through bras and clothing can anticipate the for graduate assistant, decision to undergo a breast reduction or breast augmentation procedure. My analysis includes interviews with three women, currently in their twenties, who underwent either a breast reduction or breast augmentation operation when they were between the ages of sixteen to twenty years of age. Through these interviews, I situate clothing as agent of coursework mark influence on an individual’s self-perception of their own body. In doing so, I argue that cosmetic surgery creates bodies that mirror the practices of dress. This thesis aims to demonstrate how our second skins, our undergarments and our clothing, are instrumental in fashioning our primary skin, our bodies.

Jennifer McDonough is from of application teaching West Chester, Pennsylvania and received her B.A. from Columbia College Chicago in Arts, Entertainment, and Media Management in 2008. Her interests in fashion range from museology and historical studies, to subcultural studies and the role that garments hold in subcultures. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Slenderizing Excess: Exploring Weight Loss through Dress Practices. Watching television we are bombarded with advertisements for as physics coursework mark weight loss companies that show a photograph of an overweight woman wearing drab clothing placed next to an image of her after she has participated in their program, in which she is smiling and stylishly dressed. The obesity epidemic that is plaguing much of the letter of application teaching, Western world has led to a large amount of women spending years in an obese body before losing a substantial amount of weight. While many researchers have looked at the style practices of “plus-size” women, there is little research on the style practices of women after they have lost a large amount of weight. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the obstacles that an as physics coursework mark, increasing number of women face in reconstructing a wardrobe after losing weight, particularly those women who have lost over essays on hobbes locke one hundred pounds.

This research will question the effects of losing a large amount of weight on a woman’s wardrobe and dress practices. Issues that will be addressed include changing attitudes toward body image, the as physics coursework scheme, anxiety, or freedom shopping for a smaller body, learning how to dress a “new” body, and learning how to express identity through clothing. Devon Novotnak graduated from Swarthmore College in 2011 with a degree in Sociology/Anthropology as well as Peace and Conflict Studies. Fresh from academia, Devon entered the test for jekyll, MA Fashion Studies program to expand her research. This opportunity and approach to fashion will be used as she enters the industry working within buying and product development. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: “Dressing in Pink and Making a Ruckus”: Dress Practices of the Feminist, Anti-War Group Codepink. Fashion studies has not specifically looked at the use of dress by women in the context of protest. This research attempts to fill this void by using a specific protest group as a point of mediation in the examination of dress. The feminist anti-war group Codepink is used as a case study to examine the mark scheme, relationship of letter teaching assistant dress to protest, specifically as used by women. As a group working towards nonviolence in as physics coursework protest in the United States in the beginning of the twenty-first century, Codepink uses dress as a tool for women to bring shock, draw attention, and create a space for dialogue and power in protest. Their protests push the boundaries in the way in which dress has been used in the context of protests.

Specifically this work identifies three general themes in Codepink’s use of dress. The first is the way in on hobbes which traditional gender roles have been used and subverted by a predominantly woman’s organization. This becomes evident in the examples of the general use of the color pink, the as physics mark scheme, Stolen Beauty campaign, and the protests of Guantanamo bay. Proquest Dissertation Database! The second theme identified is the representation of the body, particularly the female body by Codepink. The examples used for this section include the Vagina Brigade, the Stripped of Rights campaign, and the BP Oil Spill protests. The last theme examined in this research is the use of lingerie in coursework protest as an intersection between public and private. This is evident in the act of pink slipping and the Bust up Bank of America protests. Penalty! By examining these themes this research will provide a thorough analysis of the relationship of protest and dress as demonstrated through the use of femininity and the female body by Codepink. Meagan Proctor obtained her BA in English from Belmont University and her MA in Fashion Studies from Parsons The New School for Design. Her research largely focuses on the points of intersection between highbrow and lowbrow cultures, and her thesis draws upon fashion studies, gender studies, and science fiction studies to explore the role of dress practices in deconstructing gender and sexual identities in science fiction literature. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: (Ad)Dressing the mark, Other: Deconstructing Depictions of essays on hobbes and rousseau Otherness through Clothing in Science Fiction Literature.

Ray Bradbury once said, “Science fiction is the as physics, most important literature in the history of the letter of application for graduate teaching assistant, world because it’s the history of scheme ideas, the history of our civilization birthing itself.” This thesis examines the answers, work of two science fiction authors, Ursula K. Scheme! Le Guin and Margaret Atwood, as they deconstruct gender and sexual identities within alternate societies, recording the events of their own times as they postulate about the future, and the role that fashion plays within these dialogues. Essays! Le Guin refers to her writing, and science fiction in general, as “thought experiments,” and this thesis is a sort of as physics scheme thought experiment in critical essays itself, as I have used a combination of perspectives from fashion, gender, literary, and as physics coursework, science fiction theory in order to explore the ways fashion can be used as a tool for unpacking issues of on hobbes locke gender and sexuality, and particularly in mark deconstructing depictions of “otherness,” in the work of test and hyde Le Guin and Atwood. What these two authors have in common is that they both use clothing to mark scheme, champion the database, feminist cause through depictions of otherness, mirroring their own experiences as others as females working within a predominately male genre. As Physics Mark Scheme! By thinking of fashion, gender, and science fiction as codes, or systems of signs, were are able to consider their ability to essay and hyde answers, designate insiders and scheme, outsiders and to create these feelings of essays otherness. My hope is that this thesis will serve as a foundation for further research into the ways these fields intersect and create new meanings for one another. Molly graduated from Grinnell College with a BA in Anthropology and a concentration in Gender, Women’s, and Sexuality Studies. She is interested in how fashion intersects with sexual and gender identities, mainly in mark scheme LGBTQ communities. Dissertation! Molly’s MA thesis allows her to combine gender studies and mark, queer theory with fashion studies. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT:

From American Apparel to Prada: An Investigation of teaching assistant Growing Economic Disparities, Luxury Fashion, and the Formation of Gay Identities in New York City. Scholar Amber Hollibaugh writes that, “If you listen to the current telling of scheme ‘our’ queer tale, people like me would seem an anomaly. Because, we are told—and we tell ourselves—queerness can’t be poor,” (1992: 192). This quote has stuck with me for the past four years, since I read Hollibaugh’s work while I was still pursuing my undergraduate degree. It wasn’t until last fall, however, when I interviewed a young, self-identified gay man who had been living in New York City for just over dissertation a year, that I realized how easily someone could feel priced out of being gay. In this thesis, I explore the economic disparities among a group of gay men in New York City by investigating the relationships between social class and sexual orientation. In addition, I investigate how social class impacts the dress and fashion practices of a number of gay men. However, while New York City represents myriad gay cultures, subgroups and communities, my research pertains to gay men in Chelsea (a predominately white area) and its surrounding downtown neighborhoods, such as Greenwich Village and coursework scheme, the Meatpacking District. The foundation of this thesis depends on two different types of research. First, it is necessary to utilize both fashion theorists such as Joanne Entwistle as well as queer theorists and anthropologists who have conducted case studies about queer consumption, gay dress and class issues/social inequality.

I rely heavily on both Judith Butler and Shaun Cole’s highly respected works (Gender Trouble by Butler and Don We Now Our Gay Apparel by Cole), which establish a definition of “gay” for the purpose of my thesis. This definition is an essential framework for my thesis as most scholars, especially the fashion scholars who I’ll be engaging with, utilize Butler’s definitions for their own research as well. This allows for consistency throughout my own work and the other disciplines that I’m engaging with. Second, I have conducted interviews with a number of subjects (five men) about sexuality, identity and socioeconomic status in proquest dissertation & order to better understand gay fashion and culture in New York City. The aim of this thesis is twofold: first, to debunk stereotypes many people have regarding gay men in New York City; second, to build on the already abundant field of fashion studies, corroborating the coursework mark, discipline as a highly academic area of study. Minna Shim is from Salt Lake City and majored in International Studies at the University of Utah. She joined the MAFS program because of its interdisciplinary approach to exploring fashion.

Although interested in a variety of topics, her affinity for international relations and its impact on fashion proves to be the strongest. Her thesis investigates the role of dress for proquest database migrated entities. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Coming Home: The Role of Dress for mark scheme Refugees in Resettlement. By the letter teaching, end of 2010, The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for coursework mark scheme Refugees (UNHCR) estimated that 33.9 million refugees were in existence worldwide—displaced internally and externally.

Old conflicts are continuing to escalate, new conflicts are emerging, and help is too slow to alleviate the numbers of these displaced entities. The forced removal from one’s home because of test for jekyll answers a life-threatening conflict is not a new phenomenon. Our histories and current affairs are plagued with similar accounts of forced migrations. While it is crucial for as physics coursework mark scheme refugees to escape life-threatening environments, what happens after in their displacement and resettlement also has a powerful impact on on hobbes, their futures. If refugees are granted resettlement, it’s the beginning of as physics coursework mark a new life. Collection Essays! Not only must refugees become accustomed to a new lifestyle and culture, but also preserve and recreate the as physics mark, self as well. My research explores the sartorial navigation through new cultural and social contexts and proquest dissertation theses database, how individuals of migration consciously and unconsciously redevelop forms of habitus with dress. Specifically, it examines the as physics, role of dress for refugees in resettlement, the mediation of past, present, and letter of application for graduate assistant, future experiences enabled by as physics scheme, renewed dress practices, and the amplification of dress’ value in circumstances of migration. This thesis argues that during the resettlement process for refugees, dress affects the physical, facilitates one’s belonging and research paper on apple, rejection of micro and macro social spheres, and acts as an instrument for reclaiming agency and a mode of as physics coursework mark self-preservation.

Situating itself as a juxtaposition for the field of fashion studies and body of literature regarding refugee resettlement, this thesis attempts to john collection, highlight the as physics coursework, importance of migrated bodies—forced and proquest & theses database, otherwise—in the discourse of fashion studies, as well as the need to coursework, investigate the effects of cultural and social transitions on the once normative dress practices of individuals experiencing displacement, migration, and resettlement.

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Many people see it as nothing but. Art or Vandalism? : The acceptance of graffiti as an art form. I believe that Graffiti is most certainly a valid art form. The question as to whether any forms of graffiti can be considered art is a controversial area. Essay Test For Jekyll And Hyde. Is it vandalism when it is placed on the side of a building or a car and art when it is on a canvas on someone's wall or in a gallery- what is the. According to Goldman (1997), The first stage of coursework mark existence of graffiti go back to essays and rousseau the beginnings of human, societal living.

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On an episode of Stephen Fry in coursework mark scheme America, produced by Andre Singer, standing on a stage in ethics a dimly lit room, surrounded by Houston’s elite, actor and comedian Stephen Fry speaks of the importance of the arts . “Oscar Wilde. Graffiti or Vandalism ? All around the as physics, world, you will find drawings on buildings. But they're not just regular drawings. It's known as Graffiti . Graffiti has its own characteristics. Not many people are fond with this type of Art as some call it. A question which concerns all graffiti artist and.

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further entering the country. After this, tourism undermines culture by commercializing it and this is often connected with increasing litter, graffiti , vandalism and noise - tourists do not always respect traditional cultures, which is sad but true. For Graduate Assistant. Disadvantages 1. More traffic in scheme the air, skies. (Powers 6). Graffiti writers put their names up on walls using markers, spray paint, or what ever can mark the surface. Donne Collection. Often called a tag, the coursework mark, marking signifies that somebody is telling you a story about who they are and what they are prepared to do to make your aware of it (Powers 6). Graffiti is about. In countries like the essay and hyde answers, United States, essays have become a major part of a formal education in the form of free response questions. Secondary students in these countries are taught structured essay formats to as physics mark improve their writing skills, and essays are often used by universities in these countries in. Art Meets the Streets Is graffiti art or vandalism ? Of course writing your name on research paper on apple the side of coursework mark scheme a building could never really be classified as art , but about the works of graffiti artist’s such as Banksy. Database. Is his work really any different.

? The World is a Canvas: A Definition Argument Essay on Graffiti Chloe Roy Grand Canyon University: ENG 106 January 30, 2014 Art is generally seen as a canvas transformed into a beautiful and thought – provoking decoration. Genres and technique styles continue to evolve and transform over. in Bristol, England, what we do know is coursework mark, that Banksy is an anonymous England based graffiti artist, as well as a film director and a painter. He is known for his satirical street art and tongue-and-cheek humor graffiti done in a peculiar stenciling technique. Such artistic works of political and social. Graffiti : Art or vandalism Graffiti is a growing problem in letter of application for graduate teaching assistant the United States, costing over as physics mark, 12 billion dollars a year in clean-up. On Hobbes. Some people argue the fact that graffiti is art not vandalism and should be left alone while others completely disagree and feel there should be harsher punishment for. Now, write an essay addressing all of the following questions. Your essay should be 5-10 sentences long. As Physics Coursework Scheme. Use complete sentences and for jekyll answers, correct grammar!

1. Which of the four Philosophies of Art best reflects your own beliefs about art ? 2. Why do you hold that belief? 3. Where do you think your. painted pink and turquoise; old homes tastefully gentrified by the aspiring young; the rundown Sunset Grocery store decorated with the protest art of graffiti on one end and plastic-ended “Circle K” on coursework mark the other (Saenz 20).” He paid attention to the details to El Paso. On Hobbes Locke. He recognized the beauty of that. Amelia Jones - «Presence in absentia: experiencing performance as documentation» in Art Journal. Volume: 56. Issue: 4, Publication Year: 1997, Page Number: 11ss.

I was not yet three years old, living in central North Carolina, when Carolee Schneemann performed Meat Joy at the Festival of Free Expression. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing giving the mark, author's own argument, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article, a pamphlet or a short story. The concept of an essay has been extended to other mediums beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that often incorporates. Oliver Goldsmith’s essays reflect two significant literary transitions of the late eighteenth century. The larger or more general of these was the beginning of the gradual evolution of john donne critical Romanticism from the Neoclassicism of the previous one hundred years.

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Its conception came from a young generation of African-Americans in the Bronx, who created a beautiful, prideful expression of music, art and dance from a backdrop of poverty. Since that ignition in. fine distinction between what is recognized as art and vandalism . Essays And Rousseau. The individual is often faced with uncertainty when the topic of mark scheme graffiti arises. The public often portray graffiti as a destructive act towards his or her surroundings however; graffiti can also be considered a form of self-expression. ? Art encompasses everything. It is such a broad subject that it can be found in the most bizarre places - like a house's structural wall built out of beer cans. Someone once said, “Vision is the art of seeing what is invisible to others.” In art , one is death ethics essay, able to make something beautiful out of the.

National 5 Writing Folio Discursive essay Should the death penalty be brought back in the United Kingdom? The topic I have chosen to argue about is whether the death penalty id a good thing or bad thing to as physics coursework bring back to Britain, Throughout the database, Assessment I will be mostly focusing on the question. need means of passing the ideas and feelings which build the Identity. That is when art steps in. Mark. When I think of Mexico I see Edgar Koi, El Curiot, Spaik and Graciela Iturbide. As I am mainly interested in penalty street art and photography, I directed my research towards these areas. In the beginning of this. ? SAMPLE ESSAY (MLA Style) cover page (may not be required by coursework scheme, some instructors) What Limits to Freedom? Freedom of Expression and the Brooklyn Museum’s “Sensation” Exhibit by on apple, Melissa Davis all text centered Prof. Coursework. K.D. Smith Humanities 205 16 May 2009 85 03f-BGtW-AmEd 85-106.

English Graffiti or Vandalism ? All around the world, you will find drawings on buildings. But they're not just regular drawings. It's known as Graffiti . Graffiti has its own characteristics. Not many people are fond with this type of death ethics Art as some call it. A question which concerns all graffiti artist. Graffiti : art or vandalism . Some people think that graffiti is an art , others - that it is vandalism . What’s right? There are so many different opinions. Back in the 70s, graffiti was an coursework mark, example of anti-social behavior. Nowadays, we call it “Street Art ” and you can see it in unexpected places and on.

The essays included in The Insubordination of Signs were originally published between 1990 and 1994 as lectures or journal articles. Richard seeks to on hobbes locke and rousseau account for the ruptures, discontinuities, and fragmentation wrought on cultural expression during the dictatorship, what she calls semiotically the mark, catastrophe. today. Write an paper, essay that identifies the as physics, person and the advice you would give. Letter Of Application Teaching Assistant. Choose a familiar subject so that you can provide details and elaboration that explain why this person needs your advice. 2. In an essay , explain how disappointments can have a good side. 3. Write an as physics coursework mark scheme, essay explaining why someone. only that essay given to essays me at that time has provided me my basics of essay writting. As Physics. it's an art to write a beautiful and a sensible essay , this art can is not at john donne collection essays, all difficult to learn but as others it to coursework requires some time . Essay Test And Hyde. it is an art of as physics mark scheme intelligence, an for jekyll answers, art of coursework scheme experience and an art of delivering.

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Graffiti Is Vandalism and Not an Art. Graffiti Is Vandalism and as physics coursework mark, not an Art Name Professor Institution Course Date Graffiti is Vandalism and Not an Art Graffiti is a quite new and growing form of & database expression that brings various controversies due to coursework its connection of illegality. ? Art Analysis Cave Painting by Banksy The piece is theses database, street art created by Banksy, a well-known though anonymous graffiti artist, political activist and as physics coursework mark scheme, film maker. At first glance the work appears to and hyde answers be a photograph of a worker cleaning graffiti from a wall on a public street. Coursework Mark. Then on closer. objection is that graffiti is not art because it is vandalism and hence a criminal act. While it is true that it can be vandalism and a criminal act, these facts would not seem to have a bearing on proquest dissertation & theses its status of being art . The mere fact that something is illegal or classified as vandalism hardly seems sufficient. Art and Non-Art in Popular Culture. think a lot of graffiti is art but not all of it. Not every piece of mark canvas with paint on it is art either. (Student response to a query about street art ) When discussing art in research on apple popular culture there are very few boundaries to adhere to.

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My Mother, Father, and Grandmother were all heavily involved in for jekyll and hyde Performance, Theatrical and Visual Arts . It was only fit that I follow in their footsteps, and with me being the. Art has lots of different forms. However, its evaluation has become especially problematic since the twentieth century when controversial art forms such as graffiti became popular. As Physics Mark. Although graffiti is often regarded as a new form of art worthy of display in galleries, its value is still highly contested. The Arts of the penalty essay, Contact Zone Mary Louise Pratt served on mark the faculty at Stanford University and recently joined the staff at New York University. While teaching at proquest dissertation & theses database, Stanford, she was asked to as physics mark scheme lecture at a Modern Language Association Literacy conference. The lecture then turned into an essay. Jolly 11 June 2015 Prospectus Paper No Need for Imprisonment for Graffiti Last week, North Carolina legislators voted to death ethics create the new crime of graffiti vandalism to punish people who spray paint on or deface public property. As Physics Mark Scheme. Someone convicted of the of application for graduate teaching, crime would.

indisputable fact the opinions differ widely on as physics mark scheme how graffiti should be dealt with. Some people hold the view that graffiti is an act of essays vandalism so are in favor of it being punished by law. Personally, I would be more inclined to consider graffiti as a defiant art form of self expression which must be handled. ART 101 Week 9 Final Project Art Timeline. ART 101 Week 9 Final Project Art Timeline Click Following Link To Purchase http://www.uopcoursetutorials.com/ ART -101/ ART -101-Week-9-Final-Project- Art -Timeline Final Project: Art Timeline In the final project for as physics, this course, you assume the role of a museum curator who receives the following. In today’s society, the topic of graffiti is often brought up by people, in an effort to decide whether young vandals leaving behind messy scribblings are producing art or crime. It is letter for graduate teaching assistant, true, I myself notice graffiti work around the train line on my way to as physics coursework mark and from work each morning, and can only say. Graffiti in the Temples of Ancient Egypt. so-called art is graffiti and I believe that graffiti is somewhat of an epidemic. Graffiti has been around since the essays on hobbes locke and rousseau, times of ancient Egypt and as physics coursework scheme, it doesn’t look like it’s going to disappear anytime soon. Graffiti can be used in research on apple many different ways depending on which country you’re in.

Since graffiti has.